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Evolution: A Theory in Crisis

Evolution: A Theory in Crisis is a 1985 book by Michael Denton, in which the author argues that the scientific theory of evolution by natural selection is a "theory in crisis". Reviews by scientists say that the book distorts and misrepresents evolutionary theory and contains numerous errors; the Discovery Institute lists A Theory in Crisis as one of the "Peer-Reviewed & Peer-Edited Scientific Publications Supporting the Theory of Intelligent Design", though the work does not mention intelligent design. A Theory in Crisis predates the 1987 United States Supreme Court decision in Edwards v. Aguillard, a catalyst for the foundation of the intelligent design movement in the early 1990s. Biochemist, Douglas Theobald, claims that Denton's book Nature's Destiny contradicts some of the points of A Theory in Crisis. Reviews by parties within the scientific community were vehemently negative, with several attacking flaws in Denton's arguments. Biologist and philosopher Michael Ghiselin described A Theory in Crisis as "a book by an author, incompetent, dishonest, or both — and it may be hard to decide, the case" and that his "arguments turn out to be flagrant instances of the fallacy of irrelevant conclusion."Biologist Walter P. Coombs writing in Library Journal said that Denton "details legitimate questions, some as old as Darwin's theory, some as new as molecular biology, but he distorts or misrepresents other'problems'" and that "much of the book reads like creationist prattle, but there are some interesting points."

Mark I. Vuletic, in an essay posted to the Archive, presented a detailed argument that Denton's attempts to make an adequate challenge to evolutionary biology fail, contending that Denton neither managed to undermine the evidence for evolution, nor demonstrated that macroevolutionary mechanisms are inherently implausible. Philip Spieth, Professor of Genetics at University of California, reviewed the book saying his conclusions are "erroneous" and wrote the book "could not pass the most sympathetic peer review" because "evolutionary theory is misrepresented and distorted. Creationists including John W. Oller, Jr of the Institute for Creation Research, Answers in Genesis positively reviewed Denton's book. Intelligent design proponents Phillip E. Johnson and Michael J. Behe say that they rejected evolution after reading the book. Christian apologist and intelligent design advocate Thomas E. Woodward stated "Christians who are interested in the struggle of science to come to terms with the origin of the biosphere in all its variety should read this book and ponder its argumentation."

Molecular equidistance is a term, first used by Michael Denton in Evolution: A Theory in Crisis to criticise the theory of evolution. The variation in the amino acid sequence of proteins such as cytochrome C can be analyzed to provide a phylogenetic tree that matches trees provided by other taxonomic evidence. What Denton pointed out was that if the percentage difference in cytochrome C amino acid sequences was compared from one organism to other organisms, the changes could be uniform. For example, the difference between the amino acid sequence for the cytochrome C of a carp and those of a frog, chicken and horse is a constant 13% to 14%; the difference between the cytochrome C of a bacterium and yeast, moth, tuna and horse only ranges from 64% to 69%. Denton suggested that these data undermined the notion that fish were ancestral to frogs, which were ancestral to reptiles, which were ancestral to birds and mammals. If they were wouldn't the difference in cytochrome C structures be different from carp to frog, to reptile, to mammal?

How could the cytochrome c amino acid sequences for such a wide range of species all be "equidistant" from the sequence for bacteria? Molecular biologists pointed out the fallacy in Denton's argument. Just as there is no such thing as a "living fossil", all modern species are cousins, so too, the amino acid sequences for all living species have been evolving since the time of their divergence from a common ancestor. A modern carp is not an ancestor to a frog; the variations in eukaryotic cytochrome c structure with respect to bacteria are all due to mutations taking place since divergence from the common ancestor of these different organisms. It thus is not surprising that they show a similar level of divergence and equidistance of this type was predicted and confirmed by researchers as early as 1963. Denton did understand this reply, but claimed that it was implausible to assume that such a molecular clock could keep such constant time over different lineages; those familiar with molecular clocks did not agree, since calibration with fossil records shows the cytochrome clock to be reliable, found his suggestion that molecular equidistance was instead evidence of some sort of evolutionary "direction" to be a more implausible assumption than the one to which he was objecting.

Critics found it difficult to accept a "directed" mechanism for changes in cytochrome C that were neutral, producing different proteins whose action was the same. Denton's conclusions have been called "erroneous" and "spurious" and marine biologist Wesley R

Midwives Alliance of North America

In 1982, The Midwives Alliance of North America was established as a professional organization for midwives. Its stated goal is to unify and strengthen the profession of midwifery, thereby improving the quality of health care for women and communities; the organization states that its goals are: To expand communication and support among North American midwives To form an identifiable and cohesive organization representing the profession of midwifery on a regional and international basis. To promote guidelines for the education of midwives and to assist in the development of midwifery education programs To promote research in the field of midwifery as a quality health care option To promote and support a woman's right to choose her care provider and place of birth To promote public education and midwifery advocacy MANA membership includes midwives and student midwives, other healthcare providers, families. Over one-third of MANA's member midwives are certified professional midwives, the remainder are certified nurse midwives, certified midwives, state-licensed midwives, traditional midwives, student/apprentice midwives.

MANA's Division of Research maintains a registry of midwife-assisted births in the US and Canada, that can be made available for use in research upon request. Published research has provided descriptive evidence on practice and safety of recorded home births, but contribution to the data set is voluntary and direct comparisons to hospital births remain difficult. Childbirth Doula Midwife Midwives Alliance of North America North American Registry of Midwives American College of Nurse-Midwives Archival records of the Midwives' Alliance of North America, 1973-1999, at Smith College

1993–94 Newcastle United F.C. season

During the 1993-94 season, Newcastle United participated in the FA Premier League for this first time. After four years in the First Division, Kevin Keegan's side were promoted to the Premiership as champions; the return of Peter Beardsley created a prolific striker partnership with the young Andy Cole, the pair scoring 55 goals between them in the Premiership. The club achieved a third-place finish in the league and UEFA Cup qualification - the club's first foray into Europe since the 1970s. Londoner Robert Lee, left footed midfielder Scott Sellers along with local youngsters Lee Clark and Steve Howey emerged as Premier League stars under Keegan's guidance; the team was nicknamed "The Entertainers" by the media, an indication of the style of play that Keegan instilled on the team. Cole collected the PFA Young Player of the Year award, having scored a club record of 41 goals in all competitions. Beardsley found the net 24 times in all competitions, meaning that the strike partnership of Cole and Beardsley had produced a total of 65 goals - the majority of the goals the team scored all season.

Post-season signings included World Cup stars Marc Hottiger and Philippe Albert, Derby striker Paul Kitson. A 7-1 win over Swindon Town matched Blackburn's record for the highest Premier League victory, set the previous season. Total spending: £7.83m Total income: £4.14m Win Draw Loss FootballSquads - Newcastle United - 1993/94 Newcastle United Football Club - Fixtures 1993-94 Transfers - Senior / Reserve Arrivals & Departures The Great career - Profile Newcastle United 1993-1994 - Player Index - Season Details - 1993-94 - toon1892

Great Wall of Qi

The Great Wall of Qi is the oldest existing Great Wall in China. Construction of the wall started in 441 BC by the state of Qi, to defend itself from states of Jin and Yue and on, from the Kingdom of Chu. Construction ended during the Warring States period; the wall stretches from the areas under the administration of the present-day city of Jinan to the present-day city of Qingdao across the territories of the present-day cities of Tai'an, Laiwu, Weifang and Rizhao. Its total length has been estimated at about 600 kilometers. Most of the wall is still able to be seen. Before the discovery of the Tsinghua bamboo strips, several dates have been put forward as the date for the construction of the Great Wall of Qi; the earliest possible date is during the reign of Lord Huan of Qi as mentioned in the Guanzi's "Qing zhong D" chapter. However, the "Qing zhong" chapters of the Guanzi were in all likelihood composed no earlier than the Warring States period instead of the 7th century BCE work they purport to be, thus could not be seen as a reliable historical source for the Spring and Autumn period centuries removed.

The next date is 555 BC, which comes from the Zuo zhuan describing a Jin invasion of Qi that year which involved a Qi fortification, claimed by the Shui Jing Zhu to be part of the Great Wall of Qi. The Zuo zhuan itself, never used the term "great wall" or referred to other fortifications along Qi's southern border, throwing doubts into this identification; the date 441 BC comes from the Xinian collection of the Tsinghua bamboo strips, which were discovered from a Chu tomb in Hebei or Hunan and acquired by the Tsinghua University in 2008. Xinian was determined to be composed in the state of Chu no than 370 BC, which puts it in good authority for the events it describes in its last four sections covering the period from 450 to 395 BC. Xinian writes that Qi built the Great Wall "for the first time" after Zhao Huanzi of Jin allied with the state of Yue to invade Qi; this date accords well with other records of battles happening along the wall in 404 BC, 365 BC, 350 BC from the Bamboo Annals and inscriptions on the Piaoqiang bronze bells.

Great Wall of China List of sites in Jinan Pines, Yuri. "The Earliest'Great Wall'? Long Wall of Qi Revisited". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 138: 743–762

Bigger Picture Music Group

Bigger Picture Music Group Big Picture Music Group, was an independent record label based in Nashville, Tennessee founded in 2008. It is distributed by Atlantic Records in the US, their main focus is in country music. Their artist roster included such artists as Chris Cagle, Craig Campbell, Alice Cooper, The Harters, Christian Kane, Zac Brown Band; the label closed in May 2014. Chelsea Bain Blackjack Billy Rachel Bradshaw Chris Cagle Craig Campbell The Harters Chris Janson Christian Kane Ryan Kinder Smithfield D. Vincent Williams Paul Brandt Sonia Leigh Alice Cooper Christian Kane Uncle Kracker Ronnie Milsap Zac Brown Band Official website

Abell 2142

Abell 2142, or A2142, is a huge, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the constellation Corona Borealis. It is the result of a still ongoing merger between two galaxy clusters; the combined cluster is six million light years across, contains hundreds of galaxies and enough gas to make a thousand more. It is "one of the most massive objects in the universe." The adjacent image was taken 20 August 1999 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 0.3-10.0 keV Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, covers an area of 7.5 x 7.2 arc minutes. It shows a colossal cosmic "weather system" produced by the collision of two giant clusters of galaxies. For the first time, the pressure fronts in the system have been traced in detail, show a bright, but cool 50 million degree Celsius central region embedded in large elongated cloud of 70 million degree Celsius gas, all of, roiling in a faint "atmosphere" of 100 million degree Celsius gas; the bright source in the upper left is an active galaxy in the cluster. Abell 2142 is part of the Abell catalogue of rich clusters of galaxies published by UCLA astronomer George O. Abell in 1958.

It has a heliocentric redshift of 0.0909 and a visual magnitude of 16.0. It is about 1.2 billion light years away. A2142 has attracted attention because of its potential to shed light on the dynamics of mergers between galaxies. Clusters of galaxies grow through gravitational attraction of smaller clusters. During a merger the kinetic energy of colliding objects heats the gas between subclusters, causing marked variations in gas temperature; these variations contain information on the stage and velocity of the merger. An accurate temperature map can provide a great deal of information on the nature of the underlying physical processes. Previous instruments did not have the capabilities of Chandra and XMM-Newton and were unable to map the region in detail. Chandra has been able to measure variations of temperature and pressure with high resolution. "Now we can begin to understand the physics of these mergers, which are among the most energetic events in the universe," said Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge and leader of the international team involved in the analysis of the observations.

"The pressure and density maps of the cluster show a sharp boundary that can only exist in the moving environment of a merger." A2142's observed X-ray emissions are smooth and symmetric, suggesting it is a result of a merger between two galaxy clusters viewed at least 1–2 billion years after the initial core crossing. One would expect to observe uneven X-ray emission and obvious shock fronts if the merger was at an early stage. Markevitch et al. have proposed that the central galaxy of a more massive cluster has merged with the former central galaxy of the less massive cluster. The cool central area suggests that the heating caused by previous shock fronts missed the central core, interacting instead with the surrounding gas. List of Abell clusters X-ray astronomy