Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is accorded the credit because his work was published first; the name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek ἀζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table called the pnictogens; the name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2.
Dinitrogen forms about 78 % of Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms in amino acids, in the nucleic acids and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate; the human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates, cyanides, contain nitrogen; the strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen, the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide, dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems.
Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters. Nitrogen compounds have a long history, ammonium chloride having been known to Herodotus, they were well known by the Middle Ages. Alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis, as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts; the mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia, celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold, the king of metals. The discovery of nitrogen is attributed to the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air.
Though he did not recognise it as an different chemical substance, he distinguished it from Joseph Black's "fixed air", or carbon dioxide. The fact that there was a component of air that does not support combustion was clear to Rutherford, although he was not aware that it was an element. Nitrogen was studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as "mephitic air" or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός, "no life". In an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished. Though Lavoisier's name was not accepted in English, since it was pointed out that all gases are mephitic, it is used in many languages and still remains in English in the common names of many nitrogen compounds, such as hydrazine and compounds of the azide ion, it led to the name "pnictogens" for the group headed by nitrogen, from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke".
The English word nitrogen entered the language from the French nitrogène, coined in 1790 by French chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal, from the French nitre and the French suffix -gène, "producing", from the Greek -γενής. Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen is the essential part of nitric acid, which in turn was produced from nitre. In earlier times, niter had been confused with Egyptian "natron" – called νίτρον in Greek – which, despite the name, contained no nitrate; the earliest military and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter, most notably in gunpowder, as fertiliser. In 1910, Lord Rayleigh discovered that an electrical discharge in nitrogen gas produced "active nitrogen", a monatomic allotrope of nitrogen; the "whirling cloud of brilliant yellow light
Frank Theodore Levine is an American actor. He is best known for his roles as Buffalo Bill in the successful film The Silence of the Lambs and as Leland Stottlemeyer in the television series Monk, his other notable roles were in American Gangster and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. Levine was born in Bellaire, the son of Charlotte Virginia and Milton Dmitri Levine, who were both doctors and members of Physicians for Social Responsibility. Levine's father was of Russian Jewish descent and his mother had Welsh and Native American ancestry, he describes himself as a "hillbilly Jew". He grew up in Illinois. In 1975, he enrolled at Marlboro College, he became a fixture in the Chicago theatre scene and joined the Remains Theatre, co-founded by Gary Cole and William Petersen. After his stage experience, Levine began to devote most of his energy during the 1980s toward finding roles in film and television. After his breakout role in The Silence of the Lambs, there was a period where he was typecast in villainous roles.
Levine was able to remedy this by playing more positive characters, such as a member of Al Pacino's police unit in Heat, astronaut Alan Shepard in the HBO mini-series From the Earth to the Moon. In the drama Georgia, he played one of his most sympathetic roles. In 2001, Levine performed as Paul Walker's police superior Sergeant Tanner in The Fast and the Furious, his résumé includes an uncredited role as the voice of the sociopathic trucker "Rusty Nail" in Joy Ride, his performance as Detective Sam Nico in the 2003 film Wonderland, based on the gruesome murders in the Hollywood Hills. From 2002 to 2009, he co-starred as Captain Leland Stottlemeyer on USA Network's detective series Monk, starring Tony Shalhoub. Levine provided the voice of the supervillain Sinestro in Superman: The Animated Series, Static Shock, Justice League, Justice League Unlimited. Levine appeared as a patriarch whose family takes a turn for the worse in the remake of The Hills Have Eyes. In 2007, he portrayed local Sheriff James Timberlake in The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford and appeared in Ridley Scott's American Gangster, alongside Denzel Washington and Russell Crowe.
In 2010, he appeared as the warden of the island prison in Shutter Island, starring Leonardo DiCaprio. In 2012, he appeared as Sheriff Bloom Towne in Deep Dark Canyon, alongside Spencer Treat Clark and Nick Eversman, who portray Sheriff Towne's sons and Skylar, respectively. In 2013, he had a major supporting role in the FX murder mystery series The Bridge as Lieutenant Hank Wade, commander of a police homicide unit in a Texas border city. In 2014 he portrayed General Underwood in the British-Finnish action film Big Game. In 2018, Levine co-starred as hunter Ken Wheatley. Ted Levine on IMDb Ted Levine at AllMovie
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. Cell division gives rise to genetically identical cells in which the number of chromosomes is maintained. In general, mitosis is preceded by the S stage of interphase and is accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm and cell membrane into two new cells containing equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other; the process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, metaphase and telophase. During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have duplicated and attach to spindle fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell; the result is two genetically identical daughter nuclei.
The rest of the cell may continue to divide by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells. Producing three or more daughter cells instead of the normal two is a mitotic error called tripolar mitosis or multipolar mitosis. Other errors during mitosis can induce apoptosis or cause mutations. Certain types of cancer can arise from such mutations. Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission. Mitosis varies between organisms. For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, whereas fungi undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division. Important exceptions include the gametes -- egg cells -- which are produced by meiosis.
Numerous descriptions of cell division were made during 18th and 19th centuries, with various degrees of accuracy. In 1835, the German botanist Hugo von Mohl, described cell division in the green alga Cladophora glomerata, stating that multiplication of cells occurs through cell division. In 1838, Schleiden affirmed that the formation of new cells in their interior was a general law for cell multiplication in plants, a view rejected in favour of Mohl model, due to contributions of Robert Remak and others. In animal cells, cell division with mitosis was discovered in frog and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875. Bütschli and Fol might have claimed the discovery of the process presently known as "mitosis". In 1873, the German zoologist Otto Bütschli published data from observations on nematodes. A few years he discovered and described mitosis based on those observations; the term "mitosis", coined by Walther Flemming in 1882, is derived from the Greek word μίτος.
There are some alternative names for the process, e.g. "karyokinesis", a term introduced by Schleicher in 1878, or "equational division", proposed by Weismann in 1887. However, the term "mitosis" is used in a broad sense by some authors to refer to karyokinesis and cytokinesis together. Presently, "equational division" is more used to refer to meiosis II, the part of meiosis most like mitosis; the primary result of mitosis and cytokinesis is the transfer of a parent cell's genome into two daughter cells. The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes—complexes of coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function; because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis. This occurs during the S phase of interphase. Chromosome duplication results in two identical sister chromatids bound together by cohesin proteins at the centromere; when mitosis begins, the chromosomes become visible.
In some eukaryotes, for example animals, the nuclear envelope, which segregates the DNA from the cytoplasm, disintegrates into small vesicles. The nucleolus, which makes ribosomes in the cell disappears. Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach to the centromeres, align the chromosomes centrally within the cell; the microtubules contract to pull the sister chromatids of each chromosome apart. Sister chromatids at this point are called daughter chromosomes; as the cell elongates, corresponding daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell and condense maximally in late anaphase. A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated daughter chromosomes, which decondense to form interphase nuclei. During mitotic progression after the anaphase onset, the cell may undergo cytokinesis. In animal cells, a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. In plant cells, a cell plate forms between the two nuclei. Cytokinesis does not always occur.
The mitotic phase is a short period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for the process of cell division. Interphase is divided into three phases: G1, S, G2. During all three parts of interphase, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are replicated only durin
DreamWorks Pictures is an American film production label of Amblin Partners. It was founded in 1994 as a film studio by Steven Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen, of which they owned 72%; the studio was distributing its own and third-party films by itself. It has produced or distributed more than ten films with box-office grosses of more than $100 million each. In December 2005, the founders agreed to sell the studio to parent of Paramount Pictures; the sale was completed in February 2006. In 2008, DreamWorks announced its intention to end its partnership with Paramount and signed a $1.5 billion deal to produce films with India's Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, re-creating DreamWorks Pictures into an independent entity. The following year, DreamWorks entered into a distribution agreement with Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, wherein Disney would distribute DreamWorks films through Touchstone Pictures; as of October 2016, DreamWorks' films are distributed by Universal Pictures.
DreamWorks operates out of offices at Universal Studios. DreamWorks' former feature animation unit, now known as DreamWorks Animation, was spun off in 2004, as of August 2016 is a subsidiary of NBCUniversal. Spielberg's company continues to use the DreamWorks trademarks under license from Universal Studios; the original company was founded following Katzenberg's resignation from the Walt Disney Company in 1994. Jeffrey Katzenberg approached Steven Spielberg and David Geffen about forming a live-action and animation film studio, which had not been done in decades due to the risk and expense, they agreed on three conditions: They would make fewer than nine movies a year, they would be free to work for other studios if they chose, they would go home in time for dinner. They founded DreamWorks SKG in October 1994, with financial backing of $33 million from each of the three partners and $500 million from Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, their new studio was based at offices in the Universal Studios lot occupied by Amblin Entertainment.
Despite access to sound stages and sets, DreamWorks preferred to film motion pictures on location. The company would film in a soundstage or set in a major studio; as of 2016, DreamWorks is still based in Universal. In December 1994, DreamWorks Television was formed after DreamWorks agreed to a $200 million seven-year TV production joint venture with the Capital Cities/ABC; the company was set up to produce series for broadcast network, cable channels and first run syndication with no first look for the ABC network, but financial incentives favored ABC. The first show, was scheduled as a mid-season replacement for ABC. Dan McDermott was named division chief executive in June 1995. DWTV's first success was Spin City on ABC; the Walt Disney Company bought Capital Cities/ABC in February 1996. In 2002, the DreamWorks joint venture agreement with ABC ended; that agreement was replaced by a development agreement with NBC with a first look clause. In 2013, DreamWorks Television merged with Amblin Television.
In 1995, traditional animation artists from Amblimation joined the new studio, which led to DreamWorks buying part of Pacific Data Images, a company specializing in visual effects, renaming PDI/DreamWorks. Both were software divisions, would merge on. For DreamWorks had the traditional animators working for their animation department, the computer animators worked on CG films. Amblimation would be shut down in 1997; the same year, DreamWorks Interactive, a computer and video game developer and joint venture between DreamWorks and Microsoft, was founded. On February 24, 2000, Electronic Arts announced the acquisition of DreamWorks Interactive and merged it with EA Pacific and Westwood Studios to form EA Los Angeles, now DICE Los Angeles. In 1996, the company's record label, DreamWorks Records, was founded, the first project of, George Michael's album Older; the first band signed to the label was eels. The record company never lived up to expectations and was sold in October 2003 to Universal Music Group, which operated the label as DreamWorks Nashville.
That label was shut down in 2005 when its flagship artist, Toby Keith, departed to form his own label. In 1997, DreamWorks Pictures released its first three feature films, The Peacemaker, a film about terrorism. In 1998, the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lawsuit against DreamWorks for trademark infringement by Dreamwerks Production Group, Inc. a company specializing in Star Trek conventions. The same year, PDI/DreamWorks produced its first full-length animated features and The Prince of Egypt, which were distributed by DreamWorks Pictures. DreamWorks Pictures continued to distribute PDI/DreamWorks productions through their distribution name until 2004. In 2000, DreamWorks was planning in building a studio backlot after buying 1,087 acres of land in the Playa Vista area in Los Angeles, it was to be complete with many office buildings and a lake. There would be new homes, schools and museums; the project was to was cancelled for financial reasons. Starting in 1999, DreamWorks won three consecutive Academy Awards for Best Picture for American Beauty, Gladiator and A
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have been depicted as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence; the earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes. Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies. Famous prototypical dragons include the mušḫuššu of ancient Mesopotamia; the popular western image of a dragon as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire is an invention of the High Middle Ages based on a conflation of earlier dragons from different traditions. In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon.
They are said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin; the word "dragon" has come to be applied to the Chinese lung, which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain. Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal companions. Dragons were identified with the Emperor of China, during Chinese imperial history, was the only one permitted to have dragons on his house, clothing, or personal articles; the word dragon entered the English language in the early 13th century from Old French dragon, which in turn comes from Latin: draconem meaning "huge serpent, dragon", from Ancient Greek δράκων, drákōn "serpent, giant seafish".
The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not mythological. The Greek word δράκων is most derived from the Greek verb δέρκομαι meaning "I see", the aorist form of, ἐδρακόμην. Dragon-like creatures appear in all cultures around the globe. Nonetheless, scholars dispute where the idea of a dragon originates from and a wide variety of theories have been proposed. In his book An Instinct for Dragons, anthropologist David E. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans, just like monkeys, have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats, birds of prey, he cites a study which found that 39 people in a hundred are afraid of snakes and notes that fear of snakes is prominent in children in areas where snakes are rare. The earliest attested dragons all bear snakelike attributes. Jones therefore concludes that the reason why dragons appear in nearly all cultures is because of humans' innate fear of snakes and other animals that were major predators of humans' primate ancestors. Dragons are said to reside in "dank caves, deep pools, wild mountain reaches, sea bottoms, haunted forests", all places which would have been fraught with danger for early human ancestors.
In her book The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs and Myth in Greek and Roman Times, Adrienne Mayor argues that some stories of dragons may have been inspired by ancient discoveries of fossils belonging to dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. She argues that the dragon lore of northern India may have been inspired by "observations of oversized, extraordinary bones in the fossilbeds of the Siwalik Hills below the Himalayas" and that ancient Greek artistic depictions of the Monster of Troy may have been influenced by fossils of Samotherium, an extinct species of giraffe whose fossils are common in the Mediterranean region. In China, a region where fossils of large prehistoric animals are common, these remains are identified as "dragon bones" and are used in Chinese traditional medicine. Mayor, however, is careful to point out that not all stories of dragons and giants are inspired by fossils and notes that Scandinavia has many stories of dragons and sea monsters, but has long "been considered barren of large fossils."
In one of her books, she states that "Many dragon images around the world were based on folk knowledge or exaggerations of living reptiles, such as Komodo dragons, Gila monsters, alligators, or, in California, alligator lizards." Ancient peoples across the Near East believed in creatures similar to what modern people call "dragons". These ancient peoples were unaware of the existence of dinosaurs or similar creatures in the distant past. References to dragons of both benevolent and malevolent characters occur throughout ancient Mesopotamian literature. In Sumerian poetry, great kings are compared to the ušumgal, a gigantic, serpentine monster. A dragon-like creature with the foreparts of a lion and the hind-legs and wings of a bird appears in Mesopotamian artwork from the Akkadian Period until the Neo-Babylonian Period; the dragon is shown with its mouth open. It may have been known as the nā’iru, which means "roaring weather beast", may ha
Ethan Suplee is an American film and television actor best known for his roles as Seth Ryan in American History X, Louie Lastik in Remember the Titans, Frankie in Boy Meets World, Randy Hickey in My Name Is Earl, Toby in The Wolf of Wall Street, Elwood in Without a Paddle, his roles in Kevin Smith films. Suplee was born in the son of Debbie and Bill Suplee, his parents were actors who met while appeared on Broadway. The first major role Suplee landed was as Willam in Mallrats, directed by Kevin Smith, alongside future My Name is Earl costar Jason Lee, he appeared in the independent Kevin Smith View-Askew produced Drawing Flies. Smith cast both Suplee and Lee again in films Chasing Amy and Dogma, they both make cameos in Clerks II. At the same time as the filming of Mallrats, Suplee had a recurring role as Frankie "The Enforcer" Stechino in Boy Meets World, from 1994 to 1998. Suplee's dramatic performances include the roles of the ruthless Nazi skinhead Seth in American History X, a man who rapes a clown in Vulgar, Ashton Kutcher's goth college roommate "Thumper" in The Butterfly Effect, football player Louie Lastik in 1970s Virginia in Remember the Titans, Johnny Depp's buddy and initial drug-dealing partner Tuna in Blow, the simpleminded Pangle in Cold Mountain.
Suplee had a cameo in the HBO TV series Entourage in the fictional movie Queens Boulevard. In 2014, he was cast in the TV Land original sitcom Jennifer Falls, which reunited him with My Name Is Earl co-star, Jamie Pressly. In 2016, Suplee started playing D in Hulu's series Chance, as well as police officer Billy "Beer Pong" Tompkins on the Netflix sitcom The Ranch. In March 2011, Suplee was featured on TMZ on TV with a recent weight loss of 200+ pounds, he was quoted as crediting cycling for his fit frame, explaining, "I ride road bikes, I ride bicycles." Suplee is good friends with Stza of Star Fucking Hipsters and he agreed to appear in their music video for the song "3000 Miles Away" from their album Never Rest in Peace. He is a Scientologist. Since 2006, he has been married to Brandy Lewis, the younger sister of actress and singer Juliette Lewis. Ethan Suplee on IMDb
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation, genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. Evolution occurs when evolutionary processes such as natural selection and genetic drift act on this variation, resulting in certain characteristics becoming more common or rare within a population, it is this process of evolution that has given rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms and molecules. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-19th century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. Evolution by natural selection was first demonstrated by the observation that more offspring are produced than can survive.
This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1) traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology and behaviour, 2) different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction and 3) traits can be passed from generation to generation. Thus, in successive generations members of a population are more to be replaced by the progenies of parents with favourable characteristics that have enabled them to survive and reproduce in their respective environments. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics, which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation. All life on Earth shares a last universal common ancestor that lived 3.5–3.8 billion years ago. The fossil record includes a progression from early biogenic graphite, to microbial mat fossils, to fossilised multicellular organisms.
Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped by repeated formations of new species, changes within species and loss of species throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Morphological and biochemical traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, can be used to reconstruct phylogenetic trees. Evolutionary biologists have continued to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses as well as constructing theories based on evidence from the field or laboratory and on data generated by the methods of mathematical and theoretical biology, their discoveries have influenced not just the development of biology but numerous other scientific and industrial fields, including agriculture and computer science. The proposal that one type of organism could descend from another type goes back to some of the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, such as Anaximander and Empedocles; such proposals survived into Roman times. The poet and philosopher Lucretius followed Empedocles in his masterwork De rerum natura.
In contrast to these materialistic views, Aristotelianism considered all natural things as actualisations of fixed natural possibilities, known as forms. This was part of a medieval teleological understanding of nature in which all things have an intended role to play in a divine cosmic order. Variations of this idea became the standard understanding of the Middle Ages and were integrated into Christian learning, but Aristotle did not demand that real types of organisms always correspond one-for-one with exact metaphysical forms and gave examples of how new types of living things could come to be. In the 17th century, the new method of modern science rejected the Aristotelian approach, it sought explanations of natural phenomena in terms of physical laws that were the same for all visible things and that did not require the existence of any fixed natural categories or divine cosmic order. However, this new approach was slow to take root in the biological sciences, the last bastion of the concept of fixed natural types.
John Ray applied one of the more general terms for fixed natural types, "species," to plant and animal types, but he identified each type of living thing as a species and proposed that each species could be defined by the features that perpetuated themselves generation after generation. The biological classification introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1735 explicitly recognised the hierarchical nature of species relationships, but still viewed species as fixed according to a divine plan. Other naturalists of this time speculated on the evolutionary change of species over time according to natural laws. In 1751, Pierre Louis Maupertuis wrote of natural modifications occurring during reproduction and accumulating over many generations to produce new species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon suggested that species could degenerate into different organisms, Erasmus Darwin proposed that all warm-blooded animals could have descended from a single microorganism; the first full-fledged evolutionary scheme was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's "transmutation" theory of 1809, which envisaged spontaneous generation continually producing simple forms of life that developed greater complexity in parallel lineages with an inherent progressive tendency, postulated that on a local level, these lineages adapted to the environment by inheriting changes caused by their use or disuse in parents.
These ideas were cond