Andrea Demirović known as Andrea, is a Montenegrin singer and a student of the Cetinje Music Academy - Music Pedagogy. Her breakthrough came at the Sunčane Skale festival in 2002, she had considerable successes at regional festivals, including the Serbo-Montenegrin and Montenegrin national finals for selecting the Eurovision Song Contest entry. Her first album, titled "Andrea", was released under the City Records label, her follow-up album is due for release in 2009, the first single from the new album is "The Queen of the Night", a cover of Mirela's Misión Eurovisión 2007 song. In 2015, she took part in Odbrojavanje za Beč, the Serbian national final for the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 but did not win; the same year, she announced the Montenegrin votes at the contest. On 23 January 2009 it was revealed that Andrea would represent Montenegro at the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 in Moscow, Russia, she was the first female singer to represent the nation at the contest and performed the song Just Get Out of My Life.
It was the opening song in the first semi-final on 12 May, however it failed to win a place in the final. Https://web.archive.org/web/20090206121826/http://www.limark.net/html/index.php?categoryid=3&langid=1 Video for The Queen of the Night Video for Oblak od Ljubavi Video for Nisi ti Kriv
Eurovision Song Contest 2004
The Eurovision Song Contest 2004 was the 49th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Istanbul, following Sertab Erener's win at the 2003 contest in Riga, Latvia with the song "Everyway That I Can" – marking the country's first victory in the contest; the national broadcaster Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, staged the event at the Abdi İpekçi Arena on 12 and 15 May 2004. Ukrainian singer Ruslana won the contest with "Wild Dances", it is notable. This was the third year in a row in which the contest was won by a woman, performing a song composed at least by herself. To accommodate the increasing number of countries who wished to participate, a semi-final was introduced; the countries which did not qualify for the final are calculate like participating countries, as well semi-finals are a part of the competition. For the second consecutive year, no returning acts were present – only the sixth time in the history of the contest that this happened and it was the first time this had happened in two consecutive years.
The contest was held in Istanbul following Turkey's victory in the 2003 contest in Riga, Latvia with Sertab Erener's "Everyway That I Can". The Mydonose Showland was chosen by TRT to host the event, but was changed to the Abdi İpekçi Arena as the contest approached due to its bigger capacity. Korhan Abay and Meltem Cumbul were presenters of the show. In the semi-final and the final, Meltem Cumbul warmed up the audience with a sing-a-long of Eurovision classic "Nel blu dipinto di blu" by Domenico Modugno. Sertab Erener returned to the stage in the final to perform "Everyway That I Can", the 2003 winning song, one of her new songs called "Leave". Sertab interviewed contestants in the green room; the Turkish dance ensemble Fire of Anatolia performed as the interval act. An official CD was released and, for the first time, the entire contest was released on DVD which included the Semi-final and the Grand Final; the contest's new official generic logo was used for the first time this year, with the heart-shaped flag in the centre due to be changed for future contests.
The slogan for Istanbul's contest was "Under The Same Sky", which communicated the importance of a united Europe and Turkish integration. This year was notable as it was the first year that Turkey voted for Cyprus and the second year in a row that Cyprus voted for Turkey. In a move that angered some Cypriots, when the country presented its votes no map of the island was shown; this was due to Turkey's recognition of the northern half of the island as an independent republic. It is Turkey pulled out of showing the map because it would have only highlighted the southern portion of the island, thus angered the international community; this was the first year that the scores were only re-read by the hosts in one language. Before 2004 every point was repeated in French and English, but due to 36 countries voting, more in years to come, in 2004 to save time the hosts only re-read each score in one language; this was in the opposite of the original country representative spoke in. This year was the first time in which a non-winning entry scored over 200 points.
Prior to this contest, only Rock'n' Roll Kids and Love Shine a Light, the winners in 1994 and 1997 had passed this mark. In this contest, all songs in the top 3 got over 200 points; this year's Eurovision contest was the first to be a two-day event, with one qualifying round held on a Wednesday and the grand final held on the following Saturday. Under this new format, byes into the final were given to the'Big 4'. Andorra, Albania and Serbia and Montenegro participated in the Contest for the first time, with Monaco returning after a 25-year absence. Luxembourg were due to return after an absence of 11 years, but pulled out after money issues arose between RTL and the EBU. All participating countries had the right to vote in both the grand final; this was the first year. However France and Russia did not broadcast the semi-final and therefore did not give votes for it like the other thirty-three countries. In Belgium, the French-language RTBF did not broadcast the semi-final, but the Dutch-language VRT did.
Just before the Slovenian entry was about to be performed, the Turkish broadcaster accidentally took a commercial break which meant the Slovenian song was not heard by Turkish viewers and Turkey gave no votes for the song. There were technical problems when in a short hiatus halfway through the songs, the hosts tried to contact various parties in Europe, they tried contacting Germany and Turkey, but in the end were only able to get a response from Germany. During the Romanian postcard introduction, the information for the Romanian entry appeared on the screen, but was taken away. A final minor hiccup occurred when, on her way to present the winner the trophy, Sertab Erener got her shoe stuck in a speaker grill by the side of the stage and had to be freed by stagehands; however this did not delay proceedings, other than the above the show ran smoothly. An hour after the semi-final had been aired, the Eur
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Eurovision Song Contest
The Eurovision Song Contest simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. At least 50 countries are eligible to compete as of 2018, since 2015, Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term career boost for artists, but results in long-term success. Exceptions include ABBA, Bucks Fizz, Celine Dion, all of whom launched successful careers. Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes, it is one of the most watched non-sporting events, with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally.
It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, New Zealand, China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website. Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2016, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, with 758 points; as a war-torn Europe was rebuilding itself in the 1950s, the European Broadcasting Union —based in Switzerland—set up an ad hoc committee to search for ways of bringing together the countries of the EBU around a "light entertainment programme". At a committee meeting held in Monaco in January 1955 with Marcel Bezençon of the Swiss television as chairman, the committee conceived the idea of an international song contest where countries would participate in one television programme to be transmitted across all countries of the union; the competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy and was seen as a technological experiment in live television.
In those days it was a ambitious project to join many countries together in a wide-area international network. Satellite television did not exist and the Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network; the concept known as "Eurovision Grand Prix", was approved by the EBU General Assembly in a meeting held in Rome on 19 October 1955, it was decided that the first contest would take place in spring 1956 in Lugano, Switzerland. The name "Eurovision" was first used in relation to the EBU's network by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951; the first contest was held in the town of Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14; this was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957, all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by Switzerland; the programme was first known as the "Eurovision Grand Prix". This "Grand Prix" name was adopted by Germany, Denmark and the Francophone countries, with the French designation being Le Grand-Prix Eurovision de la Chanson Européenne.
The "Grand Prix" was dropped in 1973 and replaced with Concours in French and in 2001 with the English name in German, but not in Danish or Norwegian. The Eurovision network is used to carry many news and sports programmes internationally, among other specialised events organised by the EBU. However, in the minds of the public, the name "Eurovision" is most associated with the Song Contest; the format of the contest has changed over the years, though the basic tenets have always been thus: participant countries submit original songs, performed live on a television programme broadcast across the Eurovision Network by the EBU to all countries. A "country" as a participant is represented by one television broadcaster from that country: but not always, that country's national public broadcasting organisation; the programme is hosted by one of the participant countries, the programme is broadcast from the auditorium in the host city. During this programme, after all the songs have been performed, the countries proceed to cast votes for the other countries' songs: nations are not allowed to vote for their own song.
At the end of the programme, the song with the most points is declared as the winner. The winner receives the prestige of having won—although it is usual for a trophy to be awarded to the winning songwriters, the winning country is formally invited to host the event the following year; the programme is invariably opened by one or more presenters. Between the songs and the announcement of the voting, an interval act is performed; these acts can be any form of entertainment. Interval entertainment has included such acts as the Wombles and the first international performance of Riverdance; as national broadcasters join and leave the Eurovision feed transmitted by the EBU, the EBU/Eurovision network logo ident is displayed. The accompanying theme music is the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Te Deum; the same logo was used for both
Željko Joksimović credited as Zeljko Joksimovic, is a Serbian vocalist, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and producer. He plays 12 different musical instruments including accordion, piano and drums. Joksimović is multi-lingual, being fluent in Greek, Russian and French as well as his native Serbian, he has a career as a solo pop artist and at the same time he is a prolific composer for other singers. He can be called a master of The Balkan Ballads for having written five of the most famous: "Lane moje", "Lejla", "Oro", "Nije ljubav stvar" and "Adio", he composes music for films, television series and theater shows. He represented Serbia and Montenegro in the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Lane moje", placing second, he represented Serbia once more in the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 in Baku and finished third. He was a judge on the first series of X Factor Adria. Željko Joksimović grew up in the city of Valjevo. Joksimović's family originates from the Vasojevići clan Željko's first international success came at the age of 12, when he won the title of First Accordion of Europe at the prestigious music festival in Paris.
He graduated music at the University of Belgrade and launched his professional music career in 1997. In 1998 he won a contest at the Pjesma Mediterana festival with the song "Pesma Sirena", which led to opportunities to perform at more prestigious festivals in Belarus; the Serbian musician won the "Grand-Prix" award at two festivals in that country. Mohamed harkache sic label owned by a private Serbian calld oussama and ibrahim television station RTV Pink; the young singer was promoted as a folk and pop artist. His first studio album, titled Amajlija, included "Pesma Sirena" along with seven other tracks, his first big success was with the single "7 godina", written by himself and Leontina Vukomanović. The song went to No. 1 on the Serbian pop music charts, became popular in other former Yugoslav countries. In 2000, Joksimović released his second studio album Rintam named after a song on the album. Other tracks on the album included "Vreteno", "Balada", "Gadura" and the duet with Haris Džinović "Šta će meni više od toga".
Three music videos were produced for songs on this album. 111 was released in 2002, soaring to No.1 on the pop charts of Serbia and other countries of the region. Some of the song included are "Varnice", "Zaboravljaš" and "Karavan". In 2003, Joksimović wrote the song "Čija si" for Macedonian music singer Toše Proeski which led him to win Beovizija. Serbia and Montenegro, sending an entrant for the first time to 2004 Eurovision Song Contest, decided on their representative through Evropesma 2004, a music festival and contest in Serbia and Montenegro. Joksimović won the contest with "Lane Moje", composed by Željko himself, along with lyricist Leontina Vukomanović. In the semi-final, Joksimović placed first. However, in the final he placed second behind Ukrainian singer Ruslana, but received the "Marcel Bezencon Press Award". "Lane Moje" was the best selling single in Montenegro. After the success in the Contest, the same year, Joksimović founded MINACORD PRODUCTION. Since he works and composes in his own studio.
In middle time he composed and released the single "Ledja o Ledja" which gained a large popularity over the countries where Željko performs. In 2005, he once again composed a song for Serbia and Montenegro's national pre-selection for Eurovision called Beovizija. Željko composed the ballad "Jutro", performed by Jelena Tomašević. In October 2005, he performed a duet with Austrian singer Tamee Harrison; the song was titled I Live my Life For You", a success throughout Europe. Around this time, Željko wrote his first film score. In cooperation with Cobra production he composed music for the movie Ivkova slava; the same year he released his fourth studio album "IV" or "Ima nešto u tom što me nećeš". In this album he changed the music style, typical about him; the songs in the album are Pop ballads with some ethnic Serbian folk elements. The CD sold over 800,000 copies over former Yugoslavia. In 2006, he composed the Eurovision Song Contest 2006 song Lejla for Bosnia and Herzegovina, performed by Hari Mata Hari.
The song finished in third place. He won the prestigious Best Composer Award, assigned to Željko by all composers who participated in that festival. In 2007, he released his second greatest hits compilation called Platinum Collection which included two new singles "Devojka" and "Nije do mene", he composed the music for the TV series "Ranjeni orao" and "Ono nase sto nekad bejase". The same year, in front of 18,000 people Joksimović made a concert where he sang all of his hits in the Belgrade Arena released in the DVD titled "Koncert Beogradska Arena". In early 2008, Željko Joksimović composed a song, performed by Jelena Tomašević in the Serbian national final for the Eurovision song selection, Beovizija 2008, called "Oro"; the song is a folk ballad with traditional folk Serbian elements. Because the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 has been won by Serbia, the contest that year came in the country. On 24 March 2008 it was announced by the 2008 Eurovision organisers RTS that together with Jovana Janković he would host the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 in Belgrade, giving him two roles in the contest.
Tomašević's song finished on the 6th place over 25 countries in the final. The song came six with 160 points. OGAE Greece awarded the song and Jelena Tomasevic as the best song in Eurovision 2008. After a year of a music pause he released his fifth studio album named L
Beovizija is a music festival established in 2003. Since 2007 it was the national selection for Serbia's representative at the Eurovision Song Contest. Beovizija was organised and broadcast live each year by RTS1, on RTRS in Bosnia and Herzegovina, internationally on Eurovision.tv and RTS SAT as of 2008. It was held during February at Belgrade's Sava Centar; the competition started in 2004 and was annually one of the most watched entertainment events in Serbia. In December 2009, RTS announced that it is changing the way it will select its Eurovision competitor and has thus cancelled Beovizija. However, on January 19, 2018, RTS confirmed the return of Beovizija as a national selection for the Serbian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018. Serbia and Montenegro were due to enter the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time in 2003 since an 11-year expulsion; the expulsion was brought about the break out of wars in the former Yugoslavia under which Serbia and Montenegro participated for the last time in 1992.
The EBU stated that too many countries wanted to enter in that year and so some would be forced to withdraw. Serbia and Montenegro was one of them; as a result and Montenegro entered the following year instead. The festival was supposed to commence in 2004 and was to be the country's selection for Eurovision however Radio Television of Montenegro expressed the wish for a united festival in determining the country's contender at the European event, it was decided that Beovizija would be Serbia's semi final while Montevizija would be Montenegro's semi final. The best from the two would compete in a united final show contest under the name Evropesma; the first Beovizija was held a year before Serbia and Montenegro entered Eurovision and was more of an awards night for the Serbian music industry. In 2003 and 2004 28 songs competed while 25 were allowed to compete in 2005 and 2006; the voting system has always been 50% jury and 50% televoting while 12,10,8,7...2,1 are awarded to songs. However the number of jury members has changed.
From 2004 - 2006 there were 8 jury members while from 2007 there have been only 3 members of the jury for both the semi-final and final night. In 2006 Serbia and Montenegro peacefully split after a referendum. Serbia became an independent country and thus Beovizija became the national selection for the Eurovision Song Contest; the country was to debut for the first time independently in 2007. Marija Šerifović - Serbia's representative won Eurovision that year. Beovizija was held over two nights in February; the semi-final consisted of 20 songs. The public's and jury's vote was combined to determine the 10 best songs; the winner of Beovizija was determined. The Serbian music industry awards were handed out on the final night of Beovizija. In 2008 the semi-final were to be held on February 2008 while the final a day later. However, due to the declaration of independence on behalf of Kosovo, the festival was delayed until March 9 when the semi-final took place and the finals which took place on March 10.
In December 2009, RTS announced that it is changing the way it will select its Eurovision competitor and has thus cancelled Beovizija. On January 19, 2018 RTS confirmed the return of Beovizija as a national selection event for the Serbian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018; the basic format of the contest since 2004 was that there were twenty singers. Each sing their song once. There is a ten-minute interval where the viewers are encouraged to SMS and phone in the name of their favourite song; the public vote is incorporated in the special jury's vote. The singer with the most votes wins the contest. In 2007 the format of the show changed. Beovizija was held over two nights. On the first night there were twenty singers hoping to go into the final of Beovizija held two days later. Ten singers that had the biggest public vote pass to the finals. At the finals of Beovizija they once again sing their song. There is a ten-minute interval where the viewers are encouraged to SMS and phone in the name of their favourite song.
During the interval, Serbian industry music awards are handed out. The public vote is incorporated in the special jury's vote; the singer with the most votes wins the contest and represents Serbia in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 the singers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia that were selected to represent their countries at that year's Eurovision appeared on stage at Beovizija to sing their songs. All performers received a warm welcome from the audience. RTS website OGAE Serbia website Eurovision website
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately