Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace. The region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace was established in the 1987 administrative reform, capital of the region is Komotini, which by population is the fourth largest city, following Alexandroupoli and Xanthi. Unlike the former prefectures, the regional units however have limited administrative powers. Along with Central Macedonia, the region is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia, the political post of the Regional governor was created in the course of the Kallikratis reform and can be considered the successor of the former prefects. Current governor is the former Prefect of Xanthi, Giorgos Pavlidis, the region is home to Greeces main Muslim minority, made up mainly of Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks, whose presence dates to the Ottoman period.
Unlike the Muslims of Greek Macedonia and elsewhere in northern Greece, they were exempted from the Greek-Turkish population exchange following the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne
Soufli is a town in the Evros regional unit, notable for the silk industry that flourished there in the 19th century. The town stands on the slope of the twin hill of Prophet Elias. The town center is only 500m from the Evros River, Soufli is the seat of the municipality of Soufli. Archaeological finds and tombs discovered in the area confirm that a settlement stood on the site during the Hellenistic period, the first recorded mention of Soufli date to ca. 1667, when the Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi reported that it was a large village free from taxation and he refers to it by its Turkish name Sofulu, an appellation that probably derives from a nearby dervish monastery. Another version, attributes the origins of the name to a Byzantine landowner called Souflis, beginning in the 19th century, Soufli became an administrative center of a rich province of almost 60,000 inhabitants, extending on both sides of the Evros valley. As one of the few centers in the region, Soufli became an important trading center.
From the records of the Greek Consulate in Adrianople state that in 1858 there was a teaching school in Soufli for which the community put up 6,500 piastres to pay for teachers. Between 1870 and 1880, Soufli developed significantly, the construction of the railway and of the railway station contributed to its economic development. At the same time, the discovery of a method to fight against the diseases of cocoons by Louis Pasteur contributed to the fast development of sericulture, in 1877, the number of the inhabitants of Soufli is estimated to be around 4,680. By 1900, the population had risen to 10,000 inhabitants, together with its importance as a trading center, Soufli was recognized as an important craft center. The citys cartwrights who provided the region of Thrace with ox-carts. The second most important industry in Soufli, next to sericulture, was viniculture, wine production in Soufli during the 19th century was just under 2,000, 000L. However, the development of sericulture and the diffusion of the cultivation of mulberry trees that followed, resulted in the reduction of the devoted to vines.
But sericulture, although popular, was not the only occupation and it was considered to be more of a side-line and seasonal occupation. It had entered every house in Soufli, and during the two months of May and June it occupied farmers and craftsmen and provided significant income, known as the Town of Silk, Soufli is famous for its wine and cooked meats. Together with economic development there came socio-cultural flourishing and the level of the inhabitants was raised. Before the middle of the 19th century, the two churches of Saint George and Saint Athanassios were already built and are standing as real jewels of the town
Didymóteicho is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece. It is the seat of the municipality of the same name. The town sits on a plain and located south east of Svilengrad, south of Edirne and Orestiada, west of Uzunköprü, about 20 km north of Soufli and about 90 km north of Alexandroupoli. The municipality of Didymóteicho has an area of 565.4 km². Didymoteicho is just 2 kilometers away from the Greek-Turkish border, and as a result it is home to many Greek military units, hundreds of thousands of Greek men had to either receive military training or spend part of their military service here. The city was known in Katharevousa as Διδυμότειχον, Didymóteichon, from δίδυμος, dídymos, twin and τεῖχος, teîchos. Other relevant names of Didymoteicho include Dimotika and Dimetoka, forests dominate the banks and parts of the plain. Much of the area is used for farming, the main produce is cattle and vegetables and some flowers. Near the area lies the great forest of Dadia, Didymoteicho is located around 12 km from Turkey and the western banks of the Evros.
It is the easternmost municipality on the mainland of Greece, in the west, much of the land is mountainous and forested, while farmlands are located in the central and the northern part. It is on the railway line Thessaloniki–Istanbul and the Greek road 51.372 km2, the province of Didymoteicho was one of the provinces of the Evros Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Didymoteicho and the municipal unit Orfeas, the area around the town was inhabited in Neolithic times. It was an important Thracian and Hellenistic town, sacked by the Romans in 204 BC, the city would be one of the most important towns in Thrace, having its own assembly, and an episcopal see. The ruins of the ancient city are now known as the Kale, a solid gold bust of Emperor Septimius Severus found on the site of Plotinopolis in 1965 is now in the museum at Komotini. According to F. A. Giannopoulos, Didymoteicho was probably built in the 6th century by Justinian I to replace Plotinopolis and it seems that already in the 7th century, Plotinopolis had been abandoned in favour of the new site.
The fortress was captured by Krum of Bulgaria in 813, but in 879 it was a bishopric whose incumbent, Nikephoros, a century later, it served as a place of exile for the general and rebel Bardas Skleros, who unsuccessfully tried to oust Byzantine Emperor Basil II. Didymoteicho briefly became the seat of a lordship within the Latin Empire after the Fourth Crusade. In the early 13th century, the town was fought over by Latin crusaders, members of the Angelos family, finally the Empire of Nicaea returned Didymoteicho to Byzantine Greek control by capturing it around 1243 during the reign of John III Doukas Vatatzes
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Samothrace is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea. It is a municipality within the Evros regional unit of Thrace, the island is 17 km long and is 178 km2 in size and has a population of 2,859. Its main industries are fishing and tourism, resources on the island include granite and basalt. Samothrace is one of the most rugged Greek islands, with Mt. Saos and its tip Fengari rising to 1,611 m. Samothrace was not a state of any significance in ancient Greece, since it has no natural harbour and most of the island is too mountainous for cultivation. It was, the home of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, among those who visited this shrine to be initiated into the island cult were Lysander of Sparta, Philip II of Macedon and Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, father-in-law of Julius Caesar. The ancient city, the ruins of which are called Palaeopoli, was situated on the north coast, demetrios of Skepsis mention the Samothracian Mysteries. The traditional account from antiquity is that Samothrace was first inhabited by Pelasgians and Carians, at the end of the 8th century BC the island was colonised by Greeks from Samos, from which the name Samos of Thrace, that became Samothrace, Strabo denies this.
The archaeological evidence suggests that Greek settlement was in the sixth century BC, the Persians occupied Samothrace in 508 BC, it passed under Athenian control, and was a member of the Delian League in the 5th century BC. It was subjugated by Philip II, and from till 168 BC it was under Macedonian suzerainty, with the battle of Pydna Samothrace became independent, a condition that ended when Vespasian absorbed the island in the Roman Empire in AD70. Apart from the sanctuary, decisive role in the great development of Samothrace played her two ports from which passed the sea road Troas - Macedonia. Furthermore, an important role played as well her possessions in Perea, st. Theophanes died in Samothrace in 818. The Byzantines ruled until 1204, when Venetians took their place, only to be dislodged by a Genoan family in 1355, the island came under Greek rule in 1913 following the Balkan War. It was occupied by Bulgaria during the Second World War, from 1941 to 1944, the modern port town of Kamariotissa is on the north-west coast and provides ferry access to and from points in northern Greece such as Alexandroupoli and Kavala.
There is no airport on the island. Other sites of interest on the island include the ruins of Genoese forts, the picturesque Chora and Paliapoli and it was discovered in pieces on the island in 1863 by the French archaeologist Charles Champoiseau, and is now—headless—in the Louvre in Paris. It had the territory as the present municipality. List of settlements in the Evros regional unit Samothrace temple complex Winged Victory of Samothrace Samothrace travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Samothrace webpage
Alexandroupoli is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It is an important port and commercial center of northeastern Greece, Alexandroupoli is one of the newest cities in Greece, as it was only a fishing village until the late 19th century. However, the city is located at the site of ancient Sale. Alexandroupoli benefits from its position at the centre of land and sea routes connecting Greece with Turkey, the modern city was founded in the middle of the 19th century by fishermen from the villages of Makri and Maroneia and it became known as Dedeağaç. According to the legend, the name was based on a wise old Turkish man or dede who spent much of his time in the shade of a tree and was eventually buried beside it. In 1920, the King of Greece, Alexander I, visited the city, the request was duly approved by the central Greek government, and Alexandroupoli has been the citys name ever since. Alexandroupoli is about 14.5 km west of the delta of the river Evros,40 km from the border with Turkey,346 km from Thessaloniki on the newly constructed Egnatia highway, and 750 km from Athens.
At the 2001 census, the city had a population of 48,885. Besides Alexandroúpolis, its other largest settlements are the villages of Mákri, Ávas, Sykorráchi, Aisými, the settlements history goes back to the 19th century, when the area was part of the Ottoman Empire. The work was part of an effort to modernise the Empire, the settlement soon grew into a fishing village known as Dedeağaç. In 1873 it was made the town of a Kaza, to which it gave its name. In 1884 it was raised in rank from a Kaza to a Sanjak. In 1889 the Greek archbishopric of Aenus was transferred to Dedeağaç, in the late 19th and early 20th century, Dedeağaç was part of the Adrianople Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Dedeağaç was captured by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the officers in charge saw that reconstruction incorporated wide streets running parallel to each other, allowing the quick advance of troops, and avoided cul-de-sacs. This was very unlike the narrow alleys, cobbled streets, the city returned to Ottoman control by the end of the war, but the brief Russian presence had a lasting effect on the design of Alexandroúpolis streets.
The building of a station in Dedeağaç led to the development of the village into a town. The town became the seat of a Pasha as the capital of a sanjak, Ottoman control of the town would last until the Balkan Wars. On 8 November 1912, Dedeağaç and its station was captured by Bulgarian forces with the assistance of the Hellenic Navy and Greece were allies during the First Balkan War, but opponents in the Second Balkan War
Prefectures of Greece
They are now defunct, and have been approximately replaced by regional units. They are called departments in ISO 3166-2, GR and by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, the prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. The prefects were appointed by the government. In addition, there were three super-prefectures controlling two or more prefectures, with the Kallikratis reform, which entered into force on 1 January 2011, the prefectures were abolished. Many, especially in the mainland, were retained in the form of units within the empowered regions. The current Prefectural Self-Governments were formed in 1994 and replaced the previous prefectures, whose councils, prefectures are governed by a Prefectural Council made up of 21 to 37 members, led by the Prefect and presided by a Council President. Other organs of the prefectures are, The Prefectural Committee, consisted of the Prefect or an assistant appointed by him and 4 to 6 members, the Provincial Council and The Eparchos.
Prefectural councillors are elected via public election every four years, three-fifths of all seats go to the combination winning a majority and two-fifths of the seats go to remaining parties based on a proportional system. Prefect becomes the president of the victorious electoral combination, electoral is a combination which attains more than 42% in the first round of the prefectural elections. Nonetheless, the affairs of state administration belonging to the prefects before 1994 are now exerted by the Presidents of the Regions, the current Prefectural Self-Governments have kept the local affairs of prefectureal level not belonging to the state administration. With certain laws specific affairs of certain ministries were transferred to the Prefectural Self-Governments, unlike the rest mentioned above, the prefecture never broke up into two prefectures, thus being the only one left with a composite appellation. Messenia originally included the half of what is now Elis. Laconia originally included the half of what is now Messinia.
Euboea originally included the Sporades, which now belong to Magnesia, the territory of Phthiotis Prefecture did not originally include the Domokos Province, which was part of Thessaly. Arcadia Prefecture and the Cyclades Prefecture are the only prefectures to have their borders unchanged since independence, the capital of Argolis Prefecture, Nafplion was the first capital of the modern Greek state, before the move of the capital to Athens by King Otto. is Nomarchy
The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Its highest peak, Golyam Perelik, is the seventh highest Bulgarian mountain, the mountain range gives its name to the terrestrial ecoregion Rodope montane mixed forests that belongs in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome and the Palearctic ecozone. The region is notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms. A significant part of Bulgarias hydropower resources is located in the areas of the range. There are a number of hydro-cascades and dams used for electricity production, irrigation, in Greece there are the HPPs of Thisavros and Platanovrysi. The name of the Rhodope mountains has a Thracian provenance, rhod-ope is interpreted as the first name of a river, meaning rusty/reddish river, where Rhod- has the same Indo-European root as the Bulgarian руда, ръжда, риж, Latin rufus and German rot. In Greek mythology, Queen Rhodope of Thrace offended the gods, the wife of King Haemus of Thrace, the mountains are associated with the mythic figure of Orpheus.
In geomorphological terms, the Rhodopes are part of the Rilo-Rhodope massif, the Rhodopes are spread over 14,735 square kilometers, of which 12,233 square kilometers are on Bulgarian territory. They have the greatest extent of any mountain range in Bulgaria. The mountains are about 240 kilometers long and about 100 to 120 kilometres wide, to the north the mountain slopes descend steeply towards the Upper Thracian Plain. To the west, the Rhodopes reach the Avram saddle, Yundola, to the south and east they extend over the border with Greece. The Rhodopes are a system of ridges and deep river valleys. Fifteen reserves have established in the region, some of which are under UNESCO protection. The location of the Rhodopes in the part of the Balkan Peninsula determines the climate in the region to a great extent. It is influenced both by the air coming from the north and by the warmer breeze from the Mediterranean. The average annual temperature in the Eastern Rhodopes is 13 °C, the precipitation is in December.
In the Western Rhodopes, the temperature varies from 5 to 9 °C, the mild climate, combined with some other factors, works in favour of the development of recreation and tourist activities. The Pamporovo resort, where the microclimate permits a heavy snow cover to be preserved for a time, is an excellent example