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Pashayi people

Pashayi or Pashai are a Dardic ethnolinguistic group living in eastern Afghanistan. They have been isolated until recent times, their total population is estimated to be 500,000. They are one of the oldest known ethnic minorities in Afghanistan, they are concentrated in the northern parts of Laghman and Nangarhar parts of Kunar, Parwan, a bit of Panjshir. Some believe the Pashai are descendants of ancient Gāndhārī. Many Pashai consider themselves Pashtuns speaking a special language, many are bilingual in Pashto. Pashai communities can be found in the Chitral district of northwestern Pakistan. Pashayis and Nuristanis were native to Kunar and Laghman valleys near Jalalabad in the north-east Afghanistan, until they were displaced to less fertile mountainous region by successive wave of immigration by Ghilzai Pashtuns. Today, the majority of Pashai are Sunni Muslims, are referred to as Kohistani, while a minority are Nizari Ismaili Muslims; the Pashayi people practiced Buddhism and Ancient Hinduism, along with tribal religions.

Per Tabakat-i-Akbari of Nizamuddin Ahmad, Mughal Emperor Akbar had dispatched his younger brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim, a staunch adherent of the missionary-minded Naqshbandi Sufi order, against the infidels of Katwar in 1582. Hakim was a semi-independent governor of Kabul; the Sifat-nama-yi Darviš Muhammad Hān-i Ğāzī of Kadi Muhammad Salim who accompanied the expedition mentions its details. The Sifat-nama gives Muhammad Hakim the epithet of Darviš Khan Gazi. Muhammad Darvish's invasion fought its way from Laghman to Alishang, is stated to have conquered and converted 66 valleys to Islam. After conquering Tajau and Nijrau valleys in Panjshir area, the crusaders established a fort at Islamabad at confluence of Alishang and Alingar rivers, they continued the raid up to Alishang and made their last effort against the non-Muslims of Alingar, fighting up to Mangu, the modern border between Pashai and Ashkun-speaking areas. Northern Alliance commander Hazrat Ali Pashayi languages Dardic languages Media related to Pashai people at Wikimedia Commons


Glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIA2 gene. Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes; this gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate, function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4; the subunit encoded by this gene is subject to RNA editing within the second transmembrane domain, thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca. Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, has been noted for this gene, which includes the generation of flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties.

GRIA2 has been shown to interact with SPTAN1, GRIP1 and PICK1. Several ion channels and neurotransmitters receptors pre-mRNA as substrates for ADARs; this includes 5 subunits of the glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor subunits and kainate receptor subunits. Glutamate-gated ion channels are made up of four subunits per channel, with each subunit contributing to the pore loop structure; the pore loop structure is related to that found in K+ channels. The human Kv1.1 channel pre mRNA is subject to A to I RNA editing. The function of the glutamate receptors is in the mediation of fast neurotransmission to the brain; the diversity of the subunits is determined, as well as RNA splicing by RNA editing events of the individual subunits. This give rise to the high diversity of these receptors. Glur2 is a gene product of subject to RNA editing; the type of RNA editing that occurs in the pre-mRNA of GluR-2 is Adenosine-to-Inosine editing. A-to-I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA that recognize adenosines within double-stranded regions of pre-mRNAs and deaminate them to inosine.

Inosines are recognised as guanosine by the cells translational machinery. There are three members of the ADAR family ADARs 1-3, with ADAR1 and ADAR2 being the only enzymatically active members. ADAR3 is thought to have a regulatory role in the brain. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are expressed in tissues, while ADAR3 is restricted to the brain; the double-stranded regions of RNA are formed by base-pairing between residues in the close to region of the editing site, with residues in a neighboring intron, but can be an exonic sequence. The region that base pairs with the editing region is known as an Editing Complementary Sequence. ADARs bind interact directly with the dsRNA substrate via their double-stranded RNA binding domains. If an editing site occurs within a coding sequence, it can result in a codon change; this can lead to translation of a protein isoform due to a change in its primary protein structure. Therefore, editing can alter protein function. A-to-I editing occurs in a non coding RNA sequences such as introns, untranslated regions, LINEs, SINEs.

The function of A to I editing in these regions is thought to involve creation of splice sites and retention of RNAs in the nucleus amongst others. In the pre-mRNA of GluR-2 the editing site Q/R is found at amino acid position 607; this location is in the pore loop region deep within the ion channel in the proteins membrane segment 2. Editing results in a change from a glutamine codon to an Arginine codon. Editing at the R/G site, located at amino acid position 764 results in a codon change from arginine to glycine. All editing in glutamate receptors occurs in double-stranded RNAs, which form due to complementary base pairing between the region of the editing site within the exon and an ECS within an intron sequence. R/G site Editing occurs at the Q/R site at a frequency of 100% of GluR2 transcripts in the brain, it is the only known editing site to be edited at a frequency of 100%. However some striatal and cortical neurons are edited less frequently; this has been suggested as a reason for the higher level of excitotoxicity of these particular neurons.

The R/G site is developmentally regulated, being unedited in the embryonic brain with levels rising after birth. Editing results in a codon change from a glutamine codon to an arginine codon. Editing at R/G results in a codon change; the region of the editing site is known to be the region. The other ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptors have a genomically encoded have a glutamine residue, while GluR2 has an arginine. RNA editing of the GluR-2 pre-mRNA is the best-characterised example of A-to-I editing. Activated by L-Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrates central nervous systems, it acts as an agonist at NMDA, AMPA, kainate neurotransmitters. Activation results in neuronal cation entry, causing membrane depolarisation required for the process of excitatory neurotransmission; the calcium permeability of these receptor channels is required for many important events in the CNS, including long-term potentiation. Since editing occurs in nearly 100% of transcripts and is necessary for life, it is wondered why edited GluR-B is not genomically encoded instead of being derived by RNA editing.

The answer is unknown. RNA editing at the Q/R site is thought to alter

List of butterflies of Jordan

This is a list of butterflies of Jordan. About 81 species are known from Jordan. Carcharodus stauderi ambiguus Carcharodus stauderi ramses Reverdin, 1914 Gegenes nostrodamus nostrodamus Gegenes pumilio pumilio Muschampia proteides proteides Pelopidas thrax thrax Pyrgus melotis melotis Spialia doris amenophis Spialia orbifer hilaris Thymelicus lineolus lineolus Thymelicus sylvestris syriacus Anthene amarah amarah Aricia agestis agestis Azanus jesous gamra Cigaritis acamas acamas Cigaritis acamas egyptiaca Cigaritis myrmecophila myrmecophila Dumont, 1922 Deudorix livia livia Freyeria trochylus trochylus Iolana alfierii alfierii Wiltshire, 1948 Iolaus glaucus Butler, 1886 Kretania nicholli cleopatra Kretania philbyi philbyi Lampides boeticus boeticus Leptotes pirithous pirithous Luthrodes galba galba Lycaena phlaeas phlaeas Lycaena phlaeas timeus Lycaena thersamon thersamon Plebejidea loewii lockarti Plebejidea loewii uranicola Pseudophilotes abencerragus nabataeus Tarucus balkanicus balkanicus Tarucus rosaceus rosaceus Tomares nesimachus nesimachus Zizeeria karsandra karsandra Archon apollinus bellargus Papilio alexanor judaeus Staudinger, Papilio machaon syriacus Pfeiffer, 1931 Papilio saharae saharae Oberthür, 1879 Zerynthia cerisyi cerisyi Zerynthia deyrollei deyrollei Anaphaeis aurota aurota Aporia crataegi augustior Graver, 1925 Colotis chrysonome chrysonome Colotis fausta fausta Colotis phisadia palaestinensis Colotis phisadia phisadia Euchloe ausonia taurica Röber, Euchloe belemia belemia Euchloe belemia palaestinensis Röber, Euchloe charlonia charlonia Euchloe crameri aegyptiaca Verity, 1911 Pieris brassicae brassicae Pieris pseudorapae pseudorapae Verity, 1908 Pieris rapae rapae Pontia daplidice daplidice Pontia glauconome glauconome Klug, 1829 Zegris eupheme tigris Riley, 1921 Zegris eupheme uarda Hemming, 1929 Danaus chrysippus chrysippus Charaxes jasius jasius Limenitis reducta herculeana Stichel, Melitaea arduinna evanescens Staudinger, 1886 Melitaea deserticola macromaculata Belter, 1934 Melitaea fascelis fascelis Melitaea persea persea Kollar, Melitaea punica telona Fruhstorfer, 1908 Polygonia egea egea Cramer, ) Vanessa atalanta atalanta Vanessa cardui cardui Chazara anthe hanifa Hipparchia fatua fatua Hyponephele lupina intermedia Lasiommata megera transcaspica Maniola telmessia telmessia Melanargia titea titania Calberla, 1891 Pseudochazara pelopea pelopea Pseudochazara telephassa telephassa Pseudotergumia pisidice pisidice Ypthima asterope asterope

Arthur Avenue

Arthur Avenue is a street in the Belmont neighborhood of the Bronx, New York City, which serves as the center of the Bronx's "Little Italy". Although the historical and commercial center of Little Italy is Arthur Avenue itself, the area stretches across East 187th Street from Arthur Avenue to Beaumont Avenue, is lined with delis, bakeries and various Italian merchants; the Bronx's Little Italy has an Italian immigrant heritage. Arthur Avenue and Morris Park are viewed as the Bronx's primary Italian American communities. Other Italian American communities in the Bronx are the middle and upper-class neighborhoods of Schuylerville and Country Club; the avenue itself is named for former U. S. president Chester A. Arthur. Robert De Niro's directing debut. However, it was filmed in Astoria, Queens; the series Third Watch was based on Arthur Avenue with the first episode referring to the firehouse as "Camelot," based on its location at the intersection of King Street and Arthur Avenue. The 1973 film "The Seven-Ups" starring Roy Scheider was filmed on Hoffman Street.

In 2003, a scene from the HBO hit series. Leonard of James Frey's A Million Little Pieces grew up in this area. Much of the novel Underworld takes place near Arthur Avenue; the author himself, Don DeLillo, grew up there. The opening scene of the 1955 film, Marty shows Arthur Avenue; the film's main character, Marty Piletti, works at a meat market on Arthur Avenue, in the movie he considers buying it from its owner. Early scenes in the mid-1960s film, The Incident take place on 183rd Street and Third Avenue and in the Third Avenue El station; the scenes, featuring Tony Musante, involve the mugging of a pedestrian. The Belmont station filled in for one on the Jerome Avenue El line, the line that forms the film's narrative; the 1950s doo-wop music group called Dion and the Belmonts originated in this area, named after Belmont Avenue. Italian rock band Elio e le Storie Tese at the end of their song "Gargaroz" in studio album Studentessi featured a mock advertising of a food shop in Arthur Avenue, in Italian language with some strange Americanisms.

A reality TV show called Mama's Boys of the Bronx was about grown men living on and around Arthur Avenue in the Bronx with their mothers. Lady Gaga's music video for "Eh, Eh" takes place around Arthur Avenue/Little Italy. In 2016, Arthur Avenue was named one of "America's Greatest Streets" by the American Planning Association. Http:// Arthur Avenue Website Official Site

St Mary's Church, Aldridge

St. Mary's Church is the parish church of Aldridge, a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, England, it is operated by the Church of England. Records show that it was built before 1257. Other than the 14th-century tower, all the exterior walls were added or rebuilt between the years 1841–1853. A south vestry was added in 1975. Between 1991–1995, the pews and choir stalls were removed; the church has two medieval effigies, of Sir Robert de Stapleton, lord of the Manor of Great Barr and Aldridge. The church's historic records are held at Staffordshire Record Office. Aldridge's war memorial stands on the green next to the church; the current Rector is the Revd Steve Doel. A 1955 painting of the church by the Rector, the Rev Ronald William Cartmel, is in the collection of The New Art Gallery Walsall. Official website