Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
South Region (Cameroon)
The South Region is located in the southwestern and south-central portion of the Republic of Cameroon. It is bordered to the east by the East Region, to the north by the Centre Region, to the northwest by the Littoral Region, to the west by the Gulf of Guinea, to the south by the countries of Equatorial Guinea and Congo; the South occupies 47,720 km2 of territory. The major ethnic groups are the various Beti-Pahuin peoples, such as the Ewondo and Bulu; the South Region has a fair amount of industry, its main commerce consisting of logging, timber and offshore oil drilling. Commercial agriculture is important in the South, the major cash crops being cocoa and rubber. Cattle rearing and fishing are significant economic components, as well. Much of the population is made up of subsistence farmers. In 2008, the President of the Republic of Cameroon, President Paul Biya signed decrees abolishing "Provinces" and replacing them with "Regions". Hence, all of the country's ten provinces are now known as Regions.
This was to be the end of South. The soil of the South is made up of metamorphic rock gneiss. However, the land is riddled with faults around the border with the Centre Province that arc toward the border with Congo; the soil is ferrallitic except for southwestern portions near the border with Equatorial Guinea and moving north to Ebolowa, where it is mixed. Due to high amounts of leaching, the South's red earth is only marginally productive. Several river systems drain the South Region; the northernmost of these is the Nyong. The coastal Ocean division is drained by two rivers, the Lokounje to the north and the Lobé to the south; the Ntem, or Campo, rises in the east of the region and flows along or just north of the southern border to the town of Campo. All of these rivers empty into the Atlantic Ocean; the Dja and Lobo Rivers flow through the easternmost division of the region, splitting south of Bengbis and encompassing the Dja Reserve. These two rivers form part of the Congo River basin; the South Region begins at sea level on the coast.
The land climbs throughout the Kribi-Douala basin, which averages 300–600 metres in altitude, until it reaches the South Cameroon Plateau with elevations of 500 to 1000 metres above sea level. Rocky promontories on the coast and rolling, tree-covered hills inland characterize the land; the Ntem Massif near Ebolowa is the province's highest point at 1400 metres. The climate of the South Region is Guinea-type climate. Humidity is high, precipitation averages 1500–2000 mm per year in the interior and 2000–3000 mm per year in the coastal region; the coast from the north of Kribi south to Ebodjé gets as much as 4000 mm of rain per year. Temperatures are high as well, averaging 24˚ C and 26˚ C from Kribi north along the coast. In lieu of traditional seasons, the Guinea-type climate affords alternating wet periods; the year begins in a long dry season. This is followed by a light wet season from a short dry season from July to October. A heavy wet season lasts through November; the South is entirely covered in rain forest, the exception being a small tract of mangrove on the coast south of Campo.
Much of this land has been intensely exploited for logging, allowing sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor and for thick undergrowth to flourish. Today, the only untouched forest is located in a handful of nature reserves; the Dja Reserve covers 5,260 km² in the northeastern portion of the province and the south-central portion of the neighbouring East. The Campo Reserve covers 2,640 km² in the southwest on the border with Equatorial Guinea; the Mangame Gorilla Sanctuary covers 1,224 km² on the Gabon border. In these more virgin areas, the forest is composed of multiple levels. Tall trees about 40 metres high make up the highest stratum. Below these lie thinner trees with leaves clustered at their tops; the forest bed has little vegetation as little sunlight penetrates to it. The southern rain forest supports abundant wildlife, including some of Cameroon's last populations of chimpanzees and elephants. All of these are becoming rare due to poaching and deforestation. More numerous are the various monkey and bird species.
Other common animals include pangolins and other rodents, genets. Over 324,000 Cameroonians live in the South Province, the overall population density is about seven inhabitants per square km; the most populous area is the central region south of Cameroon's capital, Yaoundé, in the neighbouring Centre Province and extending south to Ebolowa, west to Kribi, east to Sangmélima. The rest of the population lives in the villages and towns built around the roads that criss-cross the terrain. In contrast, the vast tracts of jungle that have little or no road access are scarcely populated; the forest area is plagued by disease-carrying mosquitoes and blackflies that keep settlers away. Tradition settlements in the Centre are placed along roads, resulting in large numbers of houses near the road with forest beginning directly behind them; the traditional house is a rectangular structure made of mud bricks and thin, wooden or bamboo posts. Roofs were thatched raffia palm in the past, but they are more made of corrugated aluminium, iron, or tin today.
The majority of the inhabitants of the South are members of various Bantu tribes that are collectively known as the Beti-Pahuin (Béti-Pa
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019, it is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free. Wikipedia was launched on January 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, as a portmanteau of wiki and "encyclopedia". An English-language encyclopedia, versions in other languages were developed. With 5,838,942 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia comprises more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages and by February 2014 it had reached 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors per month.
In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 hard science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia and found that Wikipedia's level of accuracy approached that of Britannica, although critics suggested that it might not have fared so well in a similar study of a random sampling of all articles or one focused on social science or contentious social issues. The following year, Time magazine stated that the open-door policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the biggest and the best encyclopedia in the world, was a testament to the vision of Jimmy Wales. Wikipedia has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, for presenting a mixture of "truths, half truths, some falsehoods", for being subject to manipulation and spin in controversial topics. In 2017, Facebook announced that it would help readers detect fake news by suitable links to Wikipedia articles. YouTube announced a similar plan in 2018. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.
Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process. It was founded on March 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company, its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman. Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia; the domains wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001 and January 13, 2001 and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view" was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, web search engine indexing. Language editions were created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, its text was incorporated into Wikipedia; the English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia assembled, surpassing the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia, which had held the record for 600 years. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002; these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, to change Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.
Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of contributors, appears to have peaked around early 2007. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006. A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that merit an article—have been created and built up extensively. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend. Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. Two years in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
In the same interview, Wales claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable". A 2013 article titled; the article revealed
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent / / z /, depending on the language. Dz represents /d͡z/ in Latin alphabets, including Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Slovak. However, in Dene Suline and Cantonese Pinyin it represents /t͡s/, in Vietnamese it is a pronunciation respelling of the letter D to represent /z/; some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto, consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate, as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak". Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists, reject it. ⟨Dz⟩ is the seventh letter of the Hungarian alphabet. It is called dzé as a letter of the alphabet, where it represents the voiced alveolar affricate phoneme /dz/. Like most Hungarian consonants, the sound /dz/ can be geminated. However, the letter is only doubled in writing when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem: eddze, lopóddzon. In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g. bodza, edz, pedzIn some other ones, short, e.g. brindza, dzadzíki, dzéta, DzerzsinszkijIn several verbs ending in -dzik, it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g. csókolódzik, lopódzik, takaródzik In some verbs ⟨dz⟩ can be replaced by ⟨z⟩: csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik, in free variation.
In other verbs, there is no variation: nyáladzik. In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez "to correspond", but leveledzik "to produce leaves". Usage of this letter is similar to that of Polish and Slovak languages: though ⟨dz⟩ is a digraph composed of ⟨d⟩ and ⟨z⟩, it is considered one letter, acronyms keep the letter intact. Dz represents. However, when followed by i it is palatalized to. Dzwon rodzaj Compare dz followed by i:dziecko dziewczyna In Slovak, the digraph dz is the ninth letter of the Slovak alphabet. Example words with this phoneme include: medzi = between, among hrádza = dam, dikeThe digraph may never be divided by hyphenation: medzi → me-dzi hrádza → hrá-dzaHowever, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, must be divided by hyphenation: odzemok = type of folk dance → od-ze-mok nadzvukový = supersonic → nad-zvu-ko-výIn both cases od- and nad- are a prefix to the stems zem and zvuk. Dz is sometimes used in Vietnamese names as a pronunciation respelling of the letter D.
Several common Vietnamese given names start with the letter D, including Dũng, Dụng, Dương. Whereas D is pronounced as some sort of dental or alveolar stop in most Latin alphabets, an unadorned D in the Vietnamese alphabet represents either /z/ or /j/, while the letter Đ represents a voiced alveolar implosive or, according to Thompson, a preglottalized voiced alveolar stop. Z is not included in the Vietnamese alphabet as a letter in its own right. Many Vietnamese cultural figures spell their family names, pen names, or stage names with Dz instead of D, emphasizing the Hanoian pronunciation. Examples include the songwriter Dzoãn Mẫn, the poet Hồ Dzếnh, the television chef Nguyễn Dzoãn Cẩm Vân. Other examples include Trương Đình Dzu; some Overseas Vietnamese residing in English-speaking countries replace D with Dz in their names. A male named. Examples of this usage include Dzung Tran. DZ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block, it is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, lowercase forms.
The single-character versions are designed for compatibility with Yugoslav encodings supporting Romanization of Macedonian, where this digraph corresponds to the Cyrillic letter Ѕ. Additional variants of the Dz digraph are encoded in Unicode. Ǆ, ǅ and ǆ, a digraph used in the Croatian and Slovak alphabets as a letter in its own right, are encoded at U+01C4, U+01C5 and U+01C6 respectively. ʣ, a ligature of lowercase dz used to represent the Voiced alveolar affricate in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is encoded at U+02A3. ʥ, a ligature of lowercase dz with a curl on the z used to represent the Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate in the IPA, is encoded at U+02A5. ꭦ, a ligature of lowercase dz with retroflex hook, used in Sinological and Tibetanist transcription for a voiced retroflex affricate, is encoded at U+AB66. ʤ, a ligature of lowercase d and ezh, is encoded at U+02A4
The Beti-Pahuin are a Bantu ethnic group located in rain forest regions of Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe. Though they separate themselves into several individual clans, they all share a common origin and culture. Estimated to be well over 3 million individuals in the early 21st century, they form the largest ethnic group in central Cameroon and its capital city of Yaoundé, in Gabon and in Equatorial Guinea, their languages, from the Bantu subgroup of the Niger–Congo language family, are mutually intelligible. The Beti-Pahuin are made up of over 20 individual clans. Altogether, they inhabit a territory of forests and rolling hills that stretches from the Sanaga River in the north to Equatorial Guinea and the northern halves of Gabon to Congo to the south, from the Atlantic Ocean to the west to the Dja River in the east; the first grouping, called the Beti, consists of the Ewondo, Fang, Mbida-Mbane, Mvog-Nyenge, Eton. The Eton are further subdivided into the Eton-Beti, Eton-Beloua, Beloua-Eton.
The Ewondo, or Yaunde, are centred on Yaoundé, Cameroon's capital, named for them. They populate the eastern Mefou division and the Mfoundi and Nyong and So divisions in the Centre Province; the remainder of their territory lies in the northern portions of the Ocean division in the South Province. Their language called Ewondo, is the most spoken of the Beti languages in Cameroon, with an estimated 1,200,000 speakers in 1982, it serves as a lingua franca in Yaoundé and much of the rest of Cameroon's Centre and South Provinces. The Eton live in the Lekie division of Cameroon's Centre Province with major settlements at Sa'a and Obala, they speak the Eton language or dialect, which had 500,000 speakers in 1982. The Fang form the second group. Individual ethnic groups include the Fang proper, the Ntumu, the Mvae, the Okak. Fang territories begin at the southern edge of Cameroon south of Kribi and Mvangan in the South Province and continue south across the border, including all of Río Muni in Equatorial Guinea and south into Gabon and Congo.
The third grouping makes up about a third of all Beti-Pahuin in Cameroon. The Bulu include the Bulu proper of Sangmélima and Ebolowa, the Fong and Zaman of the Dja River valley, the Yengono and Yelinda of the Nyong River valley, the Yesum, Yebekanga and Mvele. In addition, several other peoples are being assimilated or "Pahuinised" by their Beti-Pahuin neighbours; these include the Manguissa, Bamvele, Batchanga, Yetude, and, to some extent, the Baka. A large number of Beti-Pahuin are involved in lucrative enterprises such as cocoa and coffee farming; the Beti-Pahuin peoples organise themselves according to a series of patrilineal kinships, although some of its subgroups seem to have practised matriliny in the past. As a consequence of this matrilineal past we can still nowadays see the strong link among the maternal uncle and the nephew; the family forms the backbone of this system. Several families of a common lineage live together in a village, in turn, several related villages form a clan; these clans come under the nominal rule of a chief, traditionally regarded as a religious authority.
The majority of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups live in small, roadside villages of no more than a few hundred inhabitants. These villages are linear, with houses paralleling the road and backed by forest; the typical dwelling unit is constructed of dried-mud bricks placed onto a bamboo frame and roofed with raffia-palm fronds. In recent times, metal roofing has become common, wealthier individuals may construct their homes in concrete. Beti-Pahuin territory includes a number of sizable towns and cities, most of which were begun by the Germans or French. Here, settlements are more in the European pattern, with a network of streets, various neighbourhoods, central administrative or commercial districts. Most individuals maintain an agrarian lifestyle. Manioc and maize form the staple crops with plantains and groundnuts playing a vital role. A variety of forest products, such as greens, insects and various palm products, supplements the diet. Livestock is limited to small animals that may be left to forage unattended, such as goats and chickens.
These are saved for special occasions such as funerals or New Year's Day. Instead, the main source of animal protein during the year, comes from bushmeat, that is, wild game such as pangolin and monkey brought in by jungle hunters. Fishing is central to the lives of many Beti-Pahuin in Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and Príncipe. In addition, a substantial number of Beti-Pahuin are involved in the cocoa plantations that dot the territory of Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon's south. Most of these are Bulus or Fangs, since their territory contains the largest concentration of plantations. In contrast, the Ewondos farther north find work as unskilled labour, as their environment is much more urbanised. Many Beti-Pahuin were skilled workers in wood and soapstone, they were noted for their lively masks. Most Beti-Pahuin peoples were Christianised by 1939. At that time, much of their traditional culture was abandoned, including song. After the colonial era ended, their traditional religion has enjoyed a resurgence, such as the Bwiti religion and, as has a flowering of new styles of music and dance, such as the
Centre Region (Cameroon)
The Centre Region occupies 69,000 km² of the central plains of the Republic of Cameroon. It is bordered to the north by the Adamawa Region, to the south by the South Region, to the east by the East Region, to the West by the Littoral and West Regions, it is the second largest of Cameroon's regions in land area. Major ethnic groups include the Bassa and Vute. Yaoundé, capital of Cameroon, is at the heart of the Centre, drawing people from the rest of the country to live and work there; the Centre's towns are important industrial centres for timber. Agriculture is another important economic factor with regard to the province's most important cash crop, cocoa. Outside of the capital and the plantation zones, most inhabitants are sustenance farmers. In 2008, the President of the Republic of Cameroon, President Paul Biya signed decrees abolishing "Provinces" and replacing them with "Regions". Hence, all of the country's ten provinces are now known as Regions; the Centre's soil is composed of Precambrian deposits of metamorphic rocks, such as gneiss, mica and schists.
Granite dominates to the Adamawa border. Faults along the border with the South Province have deposited metamorphic schists and quartzites, with some granite. Laterites are common, caused by the decomposition of the crystalline rock. Red ferrallitic soil dominates most of the province, including the forested zone and much of the savanna area. Though as deep as ten metres, this soil is leached by silica and percolating water, making it only marginally productive for agriculture. However, it is usable as a building material, traditional houses in the province are made from red, sun-dried bricks of mud. Toward the northern border, this soil becomes evolved with large deposits of raw minerals, at the confluence of the Sanaga and Mbam rivers, it is a mixture of several soil types; the Sanaga is the most important river in the province, as its many falls and rapids make it an important source of hydroelectric power. It supports varied agriculture, as it is prone to flooding during the rainy season, it is navigable from Nachtigal Falls to Edéa in the Littoral Province.
Several smaller tributaries that drain the Centre's Mbam division form the Sanaga. The Djérem flows in from the Adamawa and through the far northeast of the area before entering the East Province to join the Lom; the Djérem, like the Sanaga, is subject to seasonal flooding. The Kim flows in from the Adamawa and through the northwestern portion of the Mbam division before merging with the Mbam River at the border with the West Province; the Mbam empties into the Noun. The Noun, which flows in from the West Province, passes through the town of Bafia, receives the flow of the Ndjim River north of Goura; the Noun joins the Sanaga northeast of Monatélé. The Nyong is the only major river in the province, it rises in the East Province, passes through Mbalmayo, continues west forms the border between the Littoral and South provinces. Because the Nyong flows through an equatorial climate, it has one period of high water during the rainy season, during which it is navigable from Mbalmayo to Abong-Mbang in the East Province.
Other Centre Province rivers flow through both equatorial and tropical climate zones where rainy seasons occur at different times, so they never experience great fluctuations in water level. All Centre Province rivers empty into the Atlantic Ocean via the South. Most of the Centre's great demand for electricity is supplied from hydroelectric centres in neighbouring provinces. However, plans are in place for a dam on the Nyong at Njock-Mpoume and on the Sanaga at Nachtigal to better supply the region's power needs. Most lakes in the Centre are manmade and located in the Yaoundé area; the majority of these were created during the colonial period for the pursuit of water sports. The Centre Province is situated on the South Cameroon Plateau; the land varies from 500 to 1000 metres above sea level except for the valleys of the Sanaga and its tributaries, which dip as low as 200 metres. The land rises in escarpments from the southwestern coastal plain before joining the Adamawa Plateau via depressions and granite massifs.
The terrain is characterised by forested hills, the tallest of which have bare, rocky tops. Deep valleys separate these; the province's highest point is Mbam Minkom, northwest of Yaoundé, at 1,295 metres. The Centre falls within a Type A or Guinea-type climate; this gives the region high humidity and precipitation, with rainfall averaging 1,000-2,000 mm each year. Precipitation diminishes toward the north. Temperatures are steady, averaging 24˚ for the entire region except for the northwestern portions of Mbam division, where they fall to 23˚; the Centre experiences equatorial seasons, alternating between rainy and dry periods. The long dry season begins the year. After this comes the short rainy season, which lasts from May to June; the short dry season comes next, from July to October. The year ends in the long rainy season from October to November. North of 5˚, the dry periods last up to four months; the Centre is forested except for the valleys of the Djérem and Noun rivers and the northern border region.
These areas are Sudano-Guinea savanna, respectively. The woodland savanna is characterised by large expanses of grass punctuated by small copses of trees from the forested zones farther south; the Sudano-Guinea portion is similar, only the grass grows more thinly, trees are both evergreen and deciduous