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Exabyte

The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. In the International System of Units, the prefix exa indicates multiplication by the sixth power of 1000. Therefore, one exabyte is one quintillion bytes; the unit symbol for the exabyte is EB. 1 EB = 1018bytes = 10006bytes = 1000000000000000000B = 1000 petabytes = 1millionterabytes = 1billiongigabytes. 1000 EB = 1 zettabyte A related unit, the exbibyte, using a binary prefix, is equal to 10246 bytes, about 15% larger. A processor with a 64-bit address bus can address 16 exbibytes of memory, over 18 exabytes; the world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, to 295 exabytes in 2007. This is equivalent to less than one CD per person in 1986 four in 1993, 12 in 2000, 61 in 2007. Piling up the imagined 404 billion CDs from 2007 would create a stack from the Earth to the Moon and a quarter of this distance beyond; the world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of information in 1986, 715 exabytes in 1993, 1,200 exabytes in 2000, 1,900 in 2007.

The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 0.281 exabytes of information in 1986, 0.471 in 1993, 2.2 in 2000, 65 exabytes in 2007. In 2004, the global monthly Internet traffic passed 1 exabyte for the first time. In January 2007, Bret Swanson of the Discovery Institute coined the term exaflood for a impending flood of exabytes that would cause the Internet's congestive collapse; the global Internet traffic has continued its exponential growth, as of March 2010, it was estimated at 21 exabytes per month. The global data volume at the end of 2009 had reached 800 exabytes. According to an International Data Corporation paper sponsored by EMC Corporation, 161 exabytes of data were created in 2006, "3 million times the amount of information contained in all the books written", with the number expected to hit 988 exabytes in 2010. A gram of DNA can theoretically hold 455 exabytes. In 2014, DARPA's ARGUS-IS surveillance system could stream 1 exabyte of high-definition video per day.

According to the CSIRO, in the next decade, astronomers expect to be processing 10 petabytes of data every hour from the Square Kilometre Array telescope. The array is thus expected to generate one exabyte every four days of operation. According to IBM, the new SKA telescope initiative will generate over an exabyte of data every day. IBM is designing hardware to process this information. According to the Digital Britain Report, 494 exabytes of data was transferred across the globe on June 15, 2009. Several filesystems use disk formats that support theoretical volume sizes of several exabytes, including Btrfs, XFS, ZFS, exFAT, NTFS, HFS Plus, ReFS; the ext4 file system format supports volumes up to 1.1529215 exabytes in size, although the userspace tools cannot yet administer such filesystems. Oracle Corporation claimed the first exabyte tape library with the SL8500 and the T10000C tape drive in January 2011. 100 years of uncompressed video at 8K UHD, 120 frames per second and 16-bit per color channel would amount to 72 exabytes.

"all words spoken by human beings" could be stored in 5 exabytes of data. This claim cites a project at the UC Berkeley School of Information in support; the 2003 University of California, report credits the estimate to the website of Caltech researcher Roy Williams, where the statement can be found as early as May 1999. This statement has been criticized. Mark Liberman calculated the storage requirements for all human speech at 42 zettabytes if digitized as 16 kHz 16-bit audio, although he did confess that "maybe the authors were thinking about text". Earlier studies from the University of California, estimated that by the end of 1999, the sum of human-produced information was about 12 exabytes of data; the 2003 Berkeley report stated that in 2002 alone, "telephone calls worldwide on both landlines and mobile phones contained 17.3 exabytes of new information if stored in digital form" and that "it would take 9.25 exabytes of storage to hold all U. S. calls each year". International Data Corporation estimates that 160 exabytes of digital information were created and replicated worldwide in 2006.

Research from the University of Southern California estimates that the amount of data stored in the world by 2007 was 295 exabytes and the amount of information shared on two-way communications technology, such as cell phones, in 2007 as 65 exabytes. The content of the Library of Congress is estimated to hold 10 terabytes of data in all printed material. Recent estimates of the size including audio and digital materials start at 3 petabytes to 20 petabytes. Therefore, one exabyte could hold a hundred thousand times the printed material or 50 to 300 times all the content of the Library of Congress. In 2013, Randall Munroe compiled published assertions about Google's data centers, estimated that the company has about 10 exabytes stored on disk, additi

Derivatives market

The derivatives market is the financial market for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange-traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives; the legal nature of these products is different, as well as the way they are traded, though many market participants are active in both. The derivatives market in Europe has a notional amount of €660 trillion. Participants in a derivative market can be segregated into four sets based on their trading motives. Hedgers Speculators Margin Traders Arbitrageurs Futures exchanges, such as Euronext.liffe and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, trade in standardized derivative contracts. These are options futures contracts on a whole range of underlying products; the members of the exchange hold positions in these contracts with the exchange, who acts as central counterparty. When one party goes long, another goes short; when a new contract is introduced, the total position in the contract is zero.

Therefore, the sum of all the long positions must be equal to the sum of all the short positions. In other words, risk is transferred from one party to another; the total notional amount of all the outstanding positions at the end of June 2004 stood at $53 trillion.. That figure grew to $81 trillion by the end of March 2008 Tailor-made derivatives, not traded on a futures exchange are traded on over-the-counter markets known as the OTC market; these consist of investment banks with traders who make markets in these derivatives, clients such as hedge funds, commercial banks, government-sponsored enterprises, etc. Products that are always traded over-the-counter are swaps, forward rate agreements, forward contracts, credit derivatives, accumulators etc; the total notional amount of all the outstanding positions at the end of June 2004 stood at $220 trillion.. By the end of 2007 this figure had risen to $596 trillion and in 2009 it stood at $615 trillion. OTC Markets are separated into two key segments: the customer market and the interdealer market.

Customers exclusively trade through dealers because of the high search and transaction costs. Dealers are large institutions that arrange transactions for their customers, utilizing their specialized knowledge and access to capital. In order to hedge the risks incurred by transacting with customers, dealers turn to the interdealer market, or the exchange-traded markets. Dealers can trade for themselves or act as market makers in the OTC market. Global: US: Figures below are from SECOND QUARTER, 2008 Total derivatives: $182.2 trillion Interest rate contracts: $145.0 trillion Foreign exchange contracts: $18.2 trillion 2008 Second Quarter, banks reported trading revenues of $1.6 billion Total number of commercial banks holding derivatives: 975 According to Bank for International Settlements "$516 trillion at the end of June 2007" Positions in the OTC derivatives market have increased at a rapid pace since the last triennial survey was undertaken in 2004. Notional amounts outstanding of such instruments totalled $516 trillion at the end of June 2007, 135% higher than the level recorded in the 2004 survey.

This corresponds to an annualised compound rate of growth of 34%, higher than the approximatively 25% average annual rate of increase since positions in OTC derivatives were first surveyed by the BIS in 1995. Notional amounts outstanding provide useful information on the structure of the OTC derivatives market but should not be interpreted as a measure of the riskiness of these positions. Gross market values, which represent the cost of replacing all open contracts at the prevailing market prices, have increased by 74% since 2004, to $11 trillion at the end of June 2007. Notional amounts outstanding as of December 2012 are $632 trillion as per recent survey; the derivative markets have been accused for their alleged role in the financial crisis of 2007-2010. The credit default swaps CDSs, financial instruments traded on the over the counter derivatives markets, the mortgage-backed securities MBSs, a type of securitized debt; the leveraged operations are said to have generated an "irrational appeal" for risk taking, the lack of clearing obligations appeared as damaging for the balance of the market.

The G-20’s proposals for financial markets reform all stress these points, suggest: higher capital standards stronger risk management international surveillance of financial firms' operations dynamic capital rules. Commodity market Securitization Financial engineering Bartram, Söhnke M.. "The Effects of Derivatives on Firm Risk and Value". Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 46: 967–999. Doi:10.1017/s0022109011000275. SSRN 1550942. Bartram, Söhnke M.. "International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage". Financial Management. 38: 185–206. Doi:10.1111/j.1755-053x.2009.01033.x. SSRN 471245. Bartram, Söhnke M.. "Competition without Fungibility: Evidence from Alternative Market Structures for Derivatives". Journal of Banking and Finance. 31: 659–677. Doi:10.1016/j.jbankfin.2006.02.004. SSRN 311880. Damodaran, A.. Living with noise: Valuation in the face of uncertainty. Journal of Applied Finance, 23, 6-22. Weinberg, Ari, "The Great Derivatives Smackdown", Forbes

London Councils

London Councils is the local government association for Greater London, England. It is a cross-party organisation that represents London's 32 borough councils and the City of London, it was formed in 1995 as a merger of the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities. In April 2000 it gained further functions. London Councils is a think tank and lobbying organisation, provides some services directly through legislation that allows multiple local authorities to pool responsibility and funding. London Councils is based at 59½ Southwark Street; the Association of London Government came out of a merger between the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities in 1995. The ALA consisted of many Labour, councils which had left the LBA in the 1980s. To coincide with the creation of the Greater London Authority, the ALG merged with the London Boroughs Grants Committee, the Greater London Employers Association, the London Housing Unit and the Transport Committee for London on 1 April 2000.

In October 2006 it changed its name from the Association of London Government to London Councils to avoid confusion with the Greater London Authority and the Local Government Association. The membership of London Councils comprises the 32 London borough councils, the City of London Corporation, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime; the GLA was a member of the ALG for a period, before Mayor Ken Livingstone fell out with leading councillors and withdrew. The two organisations co-ordinate their work; the members of the Executive Committee of London Councils is as follows: Cllr Clyde Loakes, Waltham Forest Cllr Ravi Govindia, Wandsworth London Councils fights for more resources for London and is committed to getting the best possible deal for London's 33 councils. It develops policy, lobbies government and others, runs a range of direct services designed to make life better for Londoners. London Councils represents London local government to national government, European institutions and other bodies, lobbying for investment and funding.

The direct services it provides on behalf of the boroughs, include the Freedom Pass providing more than a 1.2 million older and blind people free travel on London's buses and trains, the Parking and Traffic Appeals service, the Taxicard and Lorry Control schemes, London Care Placements and NOTIFY – the service that helps homeless families access services. The grants committee provides funding for many local groups who work across London boroughs on issues such as employment, domestic violence and advocacy and distributes European Social Fund grants; the current Chair of London Councils is Cllr Peter John OBE, Labour leader of Southwark London Borough Council, who replaced Claire Kober on 7 June 2018. Previous chairs were: Cllr Peter John OBE, Southwark, 2018 – present Cllr Claire Kober, Labour, 2016-2018 Mayor Jules Pipe, Labour, 2010–2016 Cllr Merrick Cockell and Chelsea, Conservative, 2006–2010 Mayor Sir Robin Wales, Labour, 2000–2006 Cllr Toby Harris, Labour, 1995–2000 London Councils is run by a committee made up of all the leaders of London's borough councils and meet each month to discuss and agree policy issues of importance to Londoners and their councils.

The committee is supported by a cross-party executive of eleven senior members which acts as a forum for detailed policy development. Each member of the executive holds a specific policy area portfolio. Politically, the Executive comprises councillors in proportion to the party representation on London councils. London Boroughs Grants Committee Transport and Environment Committee took over Freedom Pass from Transport Committee for London. London Housing Unit Committee was a "sectoral joint committee" and not all London borough councils were members. In 2008, a new directorate of London Councils was formed: Capital Ambition; this was formed from the merger of the previous London Centre of Excellence, London Connects and London's regional improvement and efficiency partnership, Capital Ambition. Over the three-year period, Capital Ambition provided funding for projects run by London's authorities and local strategic partnerships that were designed to deliver efficiencies, improve performance and support innovative ways of working.

Capital Ambition is now closed to new applications for funding although funding for some existing projects will continue until 2015. List of electoral wards in Greater London Local Government Association London Councils Capital Ambition Freedom Pass PATAS Taxicard London Care Placements NOTIFY

Chen Boda

Chen Boda, was a Chinese Communist journalist and political theorist who rose to power as the chief interpreter of Maoism in the first 20 years of the People's Republic of China. Chen became a close associate of Mao Zedong in Yan'an, during the late 1930s, drafting speeches and theoretical essays and directing propaganda. After 1949, Chen played a leading role in overseeing mass ideology. However, his ultra-radical line and close ties with Lin Biao led to his downfall in 1970. Chen Boda was born Chen Jianxiang in 1904 to peasant parents, his courtesy name was Shangyou. During his childhood, his family moved to Jimei, in modern-day Xiamen to facilitate young Chen's enrollment at the Jimei Normal School, from which Chen graduated as a schoolteacher. In 1925, Chen enrolled at Shanghai Labor University, studying literature, in 1927 he joined the Communist Party of China. After returning to Fujian, he was hired as the personal secretary of General Zhang Zhen, helping to prepare for the 1926–1927 Northern Expedition from the CPC side of the First United Front.

When the Front collapsed, Chen fled and was arrested in Nanjing. He was released after a month on General Zhang's recommendation. Shortly thereafter, Chen was sent by the Party to Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, where he studied politics and Marxist philosophy for four years. In 1931, Chen Boda returned to China, married Sichuan native Zhu Yuren, who had studied in Moscow. Chen became a professor of politics and ancient Chinese history at China College in Beijing while writing articles under the pen names Chen Zhimei and Chen Boda. Most of these articles focused on the dispute between advocates of "national defense literature" such as Lu Xun, more nationalist authors. Chen did underground work for the Party in Tianjin. From 1937 on, he taught politics and Marxist philosophy at the Central Party School of the Communist Party of China in Yan'an, where he became a leader in the Yan'an Rectification Movement, he soon became personal research chief political aide to Mao Zedong. Chen published the first collection of Mao's writings in 1937, an official history of the Party in 1945.

After the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Mao entrusted Chen with many important tasks. Chen Boda became: Deputy Director of the CPC Propaganda Department, overseeing the People's Daily and the Xinhua News Agency Director of the Institute of Political Research Editor-in-chief of the CPC theoretical organ Red Flag, when it was established in 1958 Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, overseeing Social and Political Sciences In 1951, Chen wrote an article with the title Mao Zedong's theory of the Chinese Revolution is the combination of Marxism-Leninism with the Chinese Revolution and a book entitled Mao Zedong on the Chinese Revolution; these works made him one of the most important interpreters of Mao Zedong Thought, in the 1950s he became one of Mao's closest associates, compiling many of the quotations published in the Red Book. In 1950 Chen accompanied Mao to Moscow to participate in the negotiations with Joseph Stalin that led to the signing of the 30-year treaty of alliance between China and the Soviet Union.

From 1966 until 1969, Chen Boda was to play an important role in the Cultural Revolution. In May 1966, he was placed at the head of the newly formed Cultural Revolution Group, a body established to oversee and direct the course of the Cultural Revolution. In time, this group would rise to become the most important political body in China, surpassing the influence of the Politburo. Furthermore, Chen Boda was placed as head of the Communist government's propaganda apparatus alongside Jiang Qing when the previous leader, Lu Dingyi, was deposed in 1966, he became a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo. According to the Central Committee leadership, the Cultural Revolution Group began to show signs of ultra-leftism during the late 1960s. Boda's reputation began to wane after the 9th Party Congress in 1969 due to his ties with Lin Biao and his opposition to Zhou Enlai's attempt to deescalate the Cultural Revolution and refocus on consolidating the Party; this marked the end of Chen Boda's involvement in the Cultural Revolution.

As the leadership became more moderate in its outlook and the initial aims of the Cultural Revolution were sidelined, Chen's radicalism caused concern, he was denounced at the 10th Party Congress in 1973 as a'revisionist secret agent' for his associations with Lin Biao. After the Cultural Revolution, he was tried by the post-Mao government for collaboration with the Gang of Four, he was sentenced to eighteen years in prison, but was released shortly afterwards due to his ill health. He died on 20 September 1989, at the age of 85

Vachel Lindsay

Nicholas Vachel Lindsay was an American poet. He is considered a founder of modern singing poetry, as he referred to it, in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted. Lindsay was born in Springfield, Illinois where his father, Vachel Thomas Lindsay, worked as a medical doctor and had amassed considerable financial resources; the Lindsays lived across the street from the Illinois Executive Mansion, home of the Governor of Illinois. The location of his childhood home influenced Lindsay, one of his poems, "The Eagle Forgotten", eulogizes Illinois governor John P. Altgeld, whom Lindsay admired for his courage in pardoning the anarchists involved in the Haymarket Affair, despite the strong protests of US President Grover Cleveland. Growing up in Springfield influenced Lindsay in other ways, as evidenced in such poems as "On the Building of Springfield" and culminating in poems praising Springfield's most famous resident, Abraham Lincoln. In "Lincoln", Lindsay exclaims, "Would I might rouse the Lincoln in you all!"

In his 1914 poem "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight", Lindsay places Lincoln in Springfield, with the poem's opening: It is portentous, a thing of state That here at midnight, in our little town A mourning figure walks, will not rest... Lindsay studied medicine at Ohio's Hiram College from 1897 to 1900, but he did not want to be a doctor. Once he wrote to them, he left Hiram anyway, heading to Chicago to study at the Art Institute of Chicago from 1900 to 1903. In 1904 he left to attend the New York School of Art to study ink. Lindsay remained interested in art for the rest of his life, drawing illustrations for some of his poetry, his art studies probably led him to appreciate the new art form of silent film. His 1915 book The Art of the Moving Picture is considered the first book of film criticism, according to critic Stanley Kauffmann, discussing Lindsay in For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism. While in New York in 1905 Lindsay turned to poetry in earnest, he tried to sell his poems on the streets.

Self-printing his poems, he began to barter a pamphlet titled "Rhymes To Be Traded For Bread," which he traded for food as a self-perceived modern version of a medieval troubadour. From March to May, 1906, Lindsay traveled 600 miles on foot from Jacksonville, Florida, to Kentucky, again trading his poetry for food and lodging. From April to May, 1908, Lindsay undertook another poetry-selling trek, walking from New York City to Hiram, Ohio. From May to September 1912 he traveled—again on foot—from Illinois to New Mexico, trading his poems for food and lodging. During this last trek, Lindsay composed his most famous poem, "The Congo". Going through Kansas, he was so successful that "he had to send money home to keep his pockets empty". On his return, Harriet Monroe published in Poetry magazine first his poem "General William Booth Enters into Heaven" in 1913 and "The Congo" in 1914. At this point, Lindsay became well known. Unlike Lindsay's more purely intellectual contemporaries, the poet declaimed his works from the stage, complete with the extravagant gestures of a carnival barker and old time preacher, from the beginning declaring himself to be a product of what he termed'Higher Vaudeville': "I think that my first poetic impulse is for music.

This is evidenced by the 1931 recording he made just before his suicide, his still-radical performances of'The Mysterious Cat','The Flower-Fed Buffaloes' and parts of'The Congo' exhibiting a fiery and furious, zany, at times incoherent delivery that appears to have owed more to jazz than poetry, though the religious Lindsay was always reluctant to align himself thus. Part of the success and great fame that Lindsay achieved—albeit briefly—was due to the singular manner in which he presented his poetry "fundamentally as a performance, as an aural and temporal experience...meant...to be chanted, belted out, amplified by gesticulation and movement, punctuated by shouts and whoops." His best-known poem, "The Congo," exemplified his revolutionary aesthetic of sound for sound's sake. It imitates the pounding of the drums in onomatopoeic nonsense words. At parts, the poem ceases to use conventional words when representing the chants of Congo's indigenous people, relying just on sound alone. Lindsay's extensive correspondence with the poet W. B.

Yeats details his intentions of reviving the musical qualities of poetry as they were practiced by the ancient Greeks. Because of his identity as a performance artist and his use of American midwestern themes, Lindsay became known in the 1910s as the "Prairie Troubador." In the final twenty years of his life, Lindsay was one of the best known poets in the U. S, his reputation enabled him to befriend and mentor other poets, such as Langston Hughes and Sara Teasdale. His poetry, lacked elements which encouraged the attention of academic scholarship, after his death, he became an obscure figure. Most contemporaries acknowledged Lindsay's intention to be an advocate for African-Americans; this intention was evident in the 1918 poem "The Jazz Birds", praising the war efforts of African-Americans during World War I, an issue to which the vast majority of the white US seemed blind. Additionally, W. E. B. Du Bois hailed Lindsay's story "The Golden-Faced People" for its insights into racism. Lindsay saw himself as anti-racist not only in his own writing but in his

Alholmens Kraft Power Station

The Alholmens Kraft Power Station is a biomass power station in Alholmen, Jakobstad in Ostrobothnia region, Finland. It is the largest biomass cogeneration power station in the world; the power station was commissioned in 2001. It was built next to the existing, now decommissioned power station; the power station is located north of UPM-Kymmene Wisaforest pulp and paper mill in Alholmen. The decommissioned power station had two black liquor recovery boilers, one oil fired package boiler, one bark boiler as well as several steam turbines with the electrical output of 75 MW; the new power station was designed by Metso and its boiler was manufactured by Kværner. It employs 400 people; the power station has an installed capacity of 265 MW of electrical power. In addition, it provides 60 MW district heating for the city of Jakobstad and 100 MW process steam and heat for the UPM-Kymmene paper mill; the new power station uses wood-based biofuels as the main fuel. Peat is used while coal is a reserve fuel.

It burns about 300,000 bales of forest residues per year. The power station is equipped with the circulating fluidized bed boiler with capacity of 500 MWth, the largest biomass-fired CFB boiler in the world; the operating temperature of the boiler is 545 °C and the operational pressure is 165 bars. Energy in Finland List of largest power stations in the world List of power stations in Finland