Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or "dig" is a site being studied; such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific archaeological site or a connected series of sites, may be conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of years. Numerous specialized techniques with particular features are used. Resources and other practical issues do not allow archaeologists to carry out excavations whenever and wherever they choose; these constraints mean. This is with the intention of preserving them for future generations as well as recognising the role they serve in the communities that live near them. Excavation involves the recovery of several types of data from a site; these data include artifacts, ecofacts and, most archaeological context. Ideally, data from the excavation should suffice to reconstruct the site in three-dimensional space; the presence or absence of archaeological remains can be suggested by remote sensing, such as ground-penetrating radar.

Basic information about the development of the site may be drawn from this work but the understanding of finer features requires excavation though appropriate use of augering. Excavation techniques have developed over the years from a treasure hunting process to one which seeks to understand the sequence of human activity on a given site and that site's relationship with other sites and with the landscape in which it is set; the history of excavation began with a crude search for treasure and for artifacts which fell into the category of'curio'. These curios were the subject of interest of antiquarians, it was appreciated that digging on a site destroyed the evidence of earlier people's lives which it had contained. Once the curio had been removed from its context, most of the information it held was lost, it was from this realization that antiquarianism began to be replaced by archaeology, a process still being perfected. Archaeological material tends to accumulate in events. A gardener laid a gravel path or planted a bush in a hole.

A builder back-filled the trench. Years someone built a pigsty onto it and drained the pigsty into the nettle patch. Still, the original wall blew over and so on; each event, which may have taken a short or long time to accomplish, leaves a context. This layer cake of events is referred to as the archaeological sequence or record, it is by analysis of this sequence or record that excavation is intended to permit interpretation, which should lead to discussion and understanding. The prominent processual archaeologist Lewis Binford highlighted the fact that the archaeological evidence left at a site may not be indicative of the historical events that took place there. Using an ethnoarchaeological comparison, he looked at how hunters amongst the Nunamiut Iñupiat of north central Alaska spent a great deal of time in a certain area waiting for prey to arrive there, that during this period, they undertook other tasks to pass the time, such as the carving of various objects, including a wooden mould for a mask, a horn spoon and an ivory needle, as well as repairing a skin pouch and a pair of caribou skin socks.

Binford notes that all of these activities would have left evidence in the archaeological record, but that none of them would provide evidence for the primary reason that the hunters were in the area. As he remarked, waiting for animals to hunt "represented 24% of the total man-hours of activity recorded. No tools left on the site were used, there were no immediate material "byproducts" of the "primary" activity. All of the other activities conducted at the site were boredom reducers." There are two basic types of modern archaeological excavation: Research excavation – when time and resources are available to excavate the site and at a leisurely pace. These are now exclusively the preserve of academics or private societies who can muster enough volunteer labour and funds; the size of the excavation can be decided by the director as it goes on. Development-led excavation – undertaken by professional archaeologists when the site is threatened by building development. Funded by the developer meaning that time is more of a factor as well as its being focused only on areas to be affected by building.

The workforce is more skilled however and pre-development excavations provide a comprehensive record of the areas investigated. Rescue archaeology is sometimes thought of as a separate type of excavation but in practice tends to be a similar form of development-led practice. Various new forms of excavation terminology have appeared in recent years such as Strip map and sample some of which have been criticized within the profession as jargon created to cover up for falling standards of practice. There are two main types of trial excavation in professional archaeology both associated with development-led excavation: the test pit or trench and the watching brief; the purpose of trial excavations is to determine the extent and characteristics of archaeological potential in a given area before extensive excavation work is undertaken. This is conducted in development-led excavations as part of Project management planning; the main difference between Trial trenching and watchin

Black Mask (film)

Black Mask is a 1996 Hong Kong superhero film starring Jet Li, Lau Ching-wan, Karen Mok and Anthony Wong. It was produced by Tsui Hark and his production company Film Workshop. In 1999, the film was released in the US by Artisan Entertainment; the film is an adaptation of the 1992 manhua Black Mask by Li Chi-Tak. In 2002, it was followed by Black Mask 2: City of Masks starring Andy On. In homage to The Green Hornet, Black Mask wears a domino mask and chauffeur's cap in the same style as Kato from the series; the Black Mask is compared to Kato in a news reporter scene. Tsui Chik tries to lead a quiet life as a librarian. However, he is a former test subject for a secretive supersoldier project and the instructor of a special commando unit dubbed "701"; the 701 squad is used for many government missions, but after one of the agents kills a team of policemen in an uncontrollable rage, the government decides to abort the project and eliminate all the subjects. Tsui Chik helped. Having escaped, Tsui Chik lived in Hong Kong.

At night he discovers that the rest of the team were responsible for a violent crime spree, beyond the capability of the local police. He sets out to get rid of them, donning a hat using the superhero alias of The Black Mask. Having lost the ability to feel pain due to the surgery performed on the super-soldiers by the military, Black Mask is invulnerable. Jet Li as Tsui Chik / Black Mask Lau Ching-wan as Inspector Shek Wai-ho Karen Mok as Tracy Lee Françoise Yip as Yeuk-lan Patrick Lung as Commander Hung Kuk Anthony Wong as King Kau Xiong Xin-xin as Jimmy Moses Chan as 701 Squad member Henry Fong Ping as Ricky Tai Shut Mei-yee as Chief of library Szeto Wai-cheuk as Szeto Chung King-fai as Commissioner of Police Ken Lok as Sgt. Crap Lawrence Ah Mon as Op room doctor Dion Lam as Sour Mike Ian Lambert as 701 Squad member Released on 9 November 1996, Black Mask grossed a moderate HK$13,286,788 during its Hong Kong box office run. On 1999, Artisan released a re-edited version in the US theatrically.

It grossed a reasonable US$4,449,692 in its opening weekend, grossed a total of US $12,504,289. Black Mask was released in the United States in May 1999. Lionsgate Home Entertainment released a Blu-ray version in the US on 2 September 2008; the film is recognised for having multiple versions: Hong Kong, English, UK and US. For the Cantonese version, the original Mei Ah DVD is cut for gore, but the remastered DVD restores a scene of blood-spurting; the French DVD features the Hong Kong version in the correct form, but contains no English subtitles. Featured on DVDs distributed in Taiwan by Long Shong and Thundermedia, there is 100 seconds footage exclusive to the Taiwanese version: Extended dialogue between Tracy and other library staff where they discuss what she would do with Tsui Chik if they cohabited. An entire scene where King Kau and a woman are together – he watches her dance, proceeds to have sex and excitedly shoots her with a water gun and smashes a light. An exchange of gestures between Inspector Shek and King Kau.

King Kau saluting Inspector Shek in an exasperated form. A member of the 701 squad impaling himself onto metal spitting blood. Shortly after trying to retaliate and getting swiftly defeated, Black Mask entangles the metal sticks. Shots of bullet-impacting when Black Mask shoots the 701 thugs to save Tracy. A shot of a bullet hitting the arm of a 701 thug whilst choking Tracy. During the hospital sequence, a scene where a 701 thug grabs two breaks them; the thug smashes a cop's head with his hands. More footage of the thug getting shot by police. A shot of Yeuk Lan's shoulder being shot with blood shooting out; some more bullet hits on masked cops. Inspector Shek removes a severed thug's arm, clutching onto his shoulder. Shots of Black Mask bleeding after being stabbed. More footage of Tracy obtaining a blood bag. A shot of Black Mask's blood after being stabbed with a pipe tube. Both Hong Kong and Taiwanese releases maintain the green-tinting of the film. An English version similar to the Hong Kong version was produced for export, but BMG and Artisan decided to make their own.

Whilst only replacing music on the UK release, Artisan commissioned a brand-new English Hip Hop soundtrack – therefore, removing any reference to the original. Despite a tendency of trimming non-action scenes, the Artisan and BMG versions not only contain all gory content, but some non-violent scenes not found in any other version: Tsui Chik looking for Inspector Shek. A few shots of Black Mask's hide-out. Inspector Shek advising Yeuk Lan to seek Tsui Chik. Lawrence Van Gelder of The New York Times called it "long on flying bodies and blood and short on credibility". Marc Savlov of The Austin Chronicle rated it 3/5 stars and called it "a bloodily exhilarating piece of hyper-kinetic filmmaking". Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club wrote, "While never reaching the manic highs of Chan's best work, Black Mask is an exciting, lightning-fast introduction to one of Hong Kong's biggest and most charismatic stars." Black Mask on IMDb Black Mask at Rotten Tomatoes Black Mask at Box Office Mojo Black Mask at AllMovie

Ted Tappe

Theodore Nash Tappe was an American professional baseball player from 1950 to 1952, 1954 to 1955 and 1957 to 1961. An outfielder, he appeared in 34 Major League Baseball games played for the Cincinnati Reds and Chicago Cubs; the 6 ft 3 in, 185 lb Tappe was born in Seattle and attended Washington State University, where he played one season of college baseball for the Cougars in 1950. The 19-year-old Tappe had an unremarkable debut season in professional baseball until he reached the Major Leagues. After batting just.253 in the Class A Central League, Tappe was recalled by the Reds in September 1950. Sent into his first game on September 14 at Ebbets Field as a pinch hitter for Reds' pitcher Frank Smith, Tappe hit a home run off Erv Palica of the Brooklyn Dodgers; the Dodgers won the game, 6–3. In 1951, after another lacklustre minor league campaign split between the Central League and the Double-A Texas League, Tappe was again recalled by Cincinnati in September, registered his second MLB hit, a single off Bubba Church of the Philadelphia Phillies one year after his home run.

Tappe did not return to the Majors until he made the 1955 Cubs' roster coming out of spring training. He started 13 games in right field and appeared as a pinch hitter in ten others, all during the months of April and May, batting.260 with four home runs and ten runs batted in. All told, he collected 15 hits in the Major Leagues, he played the final five seasons of his professional career in the minor leagues, including service in the Class B Northwest League with the Wenatchee Chiefs, Yakima Bears and Salem Senators. He died in Yakima, Washington, at the age of 73. Home run in first Major League at-bat Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference