United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
Chinese Exclusion Act
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6,1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the US–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the US to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent an ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17,1943, during the early stages of the gold rush, when surface gold was plentiful, the Chinese were tolerated, if not well received. As gold became harder to find and competition increased, animosity toward the Chinese, after being forcibly driven from the mines, most Chinese settled in enclaves in cities, mainly San Francisco, and took up low-wage labor, such as restaurant and laundry work. Another significant anti-Chinese group organized in California during this era was the Supreme Order of Caucasians.
In the early 1850s, there was resistance to the idea of excluding Chinese migrant workers from immigration, but toward the end of the decade, the financial situation improved and subsequently, attempts to legislate Chinese exclusion became successful on the state level. The Chinese immigrant workers provided cheap labor and did not use any of the government infrastructure because the Chinese migrant population was made up of healthy male adults. As time passed and more and more Chinese migrants arrived in California, by 1878 Congress decided to act and passed legislation excluding the Chinese, but this was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Once the Chinese Exclusion Act was finally passed in 1882, California went further by passing laws that were held to be unconstitutional. After the act was passed, most Chinese families were faced with a dilemma, although there was widespread dislike for the Chinese, some capitalists and entrepreneurs resisted their exclusion because they accepted lower wages.
For the first time, federal law proscribed entry of a working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities. The Act excluded Chinese laborers, meaning skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining, from entering the country for ten years under penalty of imprisonment and deportation. The Chinese Exclusion Act required the few nonlaborers who sought entry to obtain certification from the Chinese government that they were qualified to emigrate. However, this group found it difficult to prove that they were not laborers because the 1882 act defined excludables as “skilled and unskilled laborers. The Act affected the Chinese who had settled in the United States. Any Chinese who left the United States had to obtain certifications for reentry, after the Acts passage, Chinese men in the U. S. had little chance of ever reuniting with their wives, or of starting families in their new abodes
Richard Quitevis known by his stage name DJ Qbert or Qbert, is a Filipino American turntablist and composer. Growing up in San Franciscos Excelsior District on Moscow Street, he graduated from Luther Burbank Middle School, Qbert started playing with records at the age of 15, although he got his first Fisher-Price turntable as a toddler. He was influenced by the performers and graffiti artists of the local hip hop community in the mid-1980s. It was at Balboas school cafeteria that he first met Mix Master Mike in a DJ battle, Qbert started his musical career in a group called FM20 with Mix Master Mike and DJ Apollo in 1990. In New York City when playing a show, Crazy Legs saw them and they accepted the offer to join the crew. Going by the name Rock Steady DJs, they proceeded to take the 1992 Disco Mix Club World DJ Championships world title. Qbert was one of the members of the band Invisibl Skratch Piklz. Qbert, along with other Skratch Piklz, created a series of videos entitled Turntable TV, now out of print, the first 5 episodes were released on VHS and contained demonstrations, showcases and other DJ related content.
Qberts solo efforts include 1994s Demolition Pumpkin Squeeze Musik, and 1998s Wave Twisters, the latter album was created mainly with samplers and beat machines versus the turntable, and turned into an animated feature of the same title. 2001s Wave Twisters movie was somewhat unusual in that the animators and digital artists had to invent images and movements to the pre-recorded music, more recently, he has worked with Vestax to develop the QFO, an all-in-one scratching instrument. The QFO combines a turntable with a mixers crossfader, in 2006, he introduced the Qbert turntable cartridge, a model put out by Ortofon. In May,2009, Qbert launched the Qbert Skratch University, at the 2016 edition of the DMC World DJ Championships, DJ Q-Bert was awarded with a DMC Legend jacket. In a 2011 interview with the website WeBeVegan. org, Qbert stated that he is a vegan, qberts music was featured in the video game Tony Hawks Underground and he appeared as himself on the Slam City Jam level. He appeared as himself in DJ Hero 2.
com ThudRumble. com QbertSkratchUniversity
Nob Hill, San Francisco
Nob Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, centered on the intersection of California Street and Powell Street. It is one of San Franciscos 44 hills, and one of its original Seven Hills, prior to the 1850s, Nob Hill was called California Hill. It was renamed after the Central Pacific Railroads Big Four – called the Nobs – built mansions there, the actual peak of Nob Hill lies slightly to the northwest, approximately at the intersection of Jones and Sacramento Streets. South of Nob Hill is Lower Nob Hill neighborhood, the district of Union Square, the Tenderloin neighborhood. To the east is San Franciscos Chinatown and a little farther, northeast of Nob Hill is North Beach and Telegraph Hill. North of Nob Hill is Russian Hill, and eventually, the areas of the waterfront such as Pier 39. The area was settled in the rapid urbanization happening in the city in the late 19th century, because of the views and its central position, it became an exclusive enclave of the rich and famous on the west coast who built large mansions in the neighborhood.
This included prominent tycoons such as Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, for this reason, its early citizens were known as nabobs, which was shortened to nob, giving the area its eventual name. The neighborhood was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire, except for the walls surrounding the Stanford, Huntington. Those walls remain and black caused by smoke from the intense fires that burned after the quake can still be seen. Also gutted by the fires was the newly completed Fairmont Hotel at Mason and California Streets, both structures had stone exteriors that survived the fires, and both buildings were subsequently cleaned and refurbished. The Fairmont Hotel remains in operation to day and the Flood Mansion is the headquarters of the exclusive Pacific-Union Club. While the neighborhood was able to maintain its affluence following the quake, some rebuilt mansions further west in San Francisco, for example, in Pacific Heights and Cow Hollow. In place of where the mansions had been located, swank hotels were erected, hotels built over the ruins of the former mansions include the Mark Hopkins and Stanford Court.
Nob is disparaging British slang abbreviation of noble/nobility referring to the monied, the location is derisively referred to as Snob Hill. The intersection of California and Powell streets is the location of two of its four well-known and most expensive hotels, the Fairmont Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel and the Huntington Hotel are located one block away at Mason & California. The hotels were named for three of The Big Four, four entrepreneurs of the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad, Leland Stanford, the fourth, Charles Crocker has a garage named after him in the neighborhood. The Fairmont is named for a San Francisco tycoon, James G. Fair, opposite the Fairmont Hotel and Pacific Union Club is Grace Cathedral, one of the citys largest houses of worship
Joseph Edward Cronin was a Major League Baseball shortstop and general manager. He served as president of the American League for 14 years, during a 20-year playing career, he played from 1926–45 for three different teams, primarily for the Boston Red Sox. Cronin was a major league manager from 1933–47, a seven-time All-Star, Cronin was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1956. Cronin became the first AL player to become an All-Star with two teams, Cronin was born in Excelsior District of San Francisco, California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake had cost his Irish Catholic parents almost all of their possessions, Cronin attended Sacred Heart Cathedral Preparatory. He played several sports as a child and he won a city championship for his age group when he was 14. At the time, the nearest MLB team was nearly 2,000 miles from San Francisco, Baseball promoter Joe Engel, who scouted for the Senators and managed the Chattanooga Lookouts at Engel Stadium, originally signed Cronin. Engel first spotted Cronin playing in Kansas City, I knew I was watching a great player, Engel said.
I bought Cronin at a time he was hitting.221, when I told Clark Griffith what I had done, he screamed, You paid $7,500 for that bum. Well, you didnt buy him for me, hes not my ballplayer – hes yours. You keep him and dont either you or Cronin show up at the ballpark, in 1930, Cronin had a breakout year, batting.346 with 13 home runs and 126 RBI. Cronin won both the AL Writers MVP and the AL Sporting News MVP and his 1931 season was outstanding, with him posting a.306 average,12 home runs, and 126 RBIs. Cronin led the Senators to the 1933 World Series and married Griffiths niece, Cronin was named player-manager of the Senators in 1933, a post he would hold for two years. In 1935, he was traded to the Boston Red Sox by Griffith, Cronin retired as a player in 1945, but remained manager of the Red Sox until 1947. As early as 1938, it was apparent that Cronin was nearing the end of his playing career, Red Sox farm director Billy Evans thought he had found Cronins successor in Pee Wee Reese, the star shortstop for the Louisville Colonels of the Triple-A American Association.
He was so impressed by Reese that he was able to talk Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey into buying the Colonels, when Cronin went to scout Reese, Cronin realized that they were asking him to scout his replacement. He deliberately downplayed Reeses talent and suggested that the Red Sox trade him, Reese was eventually traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers, where he went on to a Hall of Fame career. As it turned out and Yawkeys initial concerns about Cronin were valid and his last year as a full-time player was 1941, after that year he never played more than 76 games in a season
Marina District, San Francisco
The Marina District is a neighborhood located in San Francisco, California. The neighborhood sits on the site of the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition, aside from the Palace of Fine Arts, all other buildings were demolished to make the current neighborhood. Much of the Marina is built on landfill, and is susceptible to soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes. This phenomenon caused extensive damage to the neighborhood during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The area in the 19th century prior to the 1906 earthquake consisted of bay shallows, tidal pools, sand dunes, human habitation and development came in the mid to late 19th century in the form of a sandwall and of a road from the nearby Presidio to Fort Mason. Most of the dunes were leveled out and a hodgepodge of wharves. However, all of this was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake, during reconstruction of the city after the 1906 earthquake, the area was chosen as the site of the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. Although rubble from the earthquake was used as part of the reclamation, most of the landfill came from dredging mud.
After the end of the exposition in 1915, the land was sold to private developers and this major redevelopment was completed in the 1920s. In the 1930s, with the completion of the nearby Golden Gate Bridge, Lombard Street was widened, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused severe liquefaction of the fill upon which the neighborhood is built, causing major damage including a small firestorm. Firefighters resorted to pumping water directly from the Bay, to replace water unavailable from broken water mains, the neighborhood appears to have changed very little since its construction in the 1920s. The Palace is the building left standing in its original location within the 1915 Exposition fairgrounds. The grounds around the Palace are a popular attraction for tourists and locals. The neighborhood is noted for its demographics, which since the 1980s have shifted from mostly middle-class families and pensioners. These now make up more than half of the population, although a small, San Franciscos Academy of Art University has a campus housing building at the Southern edge of the neighborhood on Lombard Street.
The San Francisco Police Department Northern Station serves the Marina District, a16 Strangers in the night – Bars, cheap sex, and boozy anthropology
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Civic Center, San Francisco
It has two large plazas and a number of buildings in classical architectural style. The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium, the United Nations Charter was signed in the War Memorial Veterans Buildings Herbst Theatre in 1945 and it is where the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco was signed. The San Francisco Civic Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, the Civic Center is bounded by Market Street on the south, Franklin Street on the west, Turk Street on the north, and Leavenworth and Seventh streets on the east. The Civic Center was built in the early 20th century after a city hall was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. Although the noted architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham had provided the city plans for a neo-classical Civic Center shortly before the 1906 earthquake. A temporary city hall was put up on Market Street, but planning for a permanent structure. The current civic center was planned by a group of local architects, the current City Hall was completed in 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition.
The War Memorial Opera House and its twin, the War Memorial Veterans Building, the Main Library. During World War II, Army barracks and Victory gardens were constructed in the plaza in front of City Hall. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall and Harold L. Zellerbach Rehearsal Hall were added in 1980, the 1990s saw the construction of a new Main Library with the conversion of the old Main Library building into the Asian Art Museum, and the removal of all public benches. In 1998, the city officially renamed part of the plaza the Joseph L. Alioto Performing Arts Piazza after the former mayor. Its central location, vast open space, and the collection of government buildings have made and it has been the scene of massive anti-war protests and rallies since the Korean War. It was the scene of major moments of the Gay Rights Movement, activist Harvey Milk held rallies and gave speeches there. After his assassination on November 27,1978, a candlelight vigil was held there. Later, it was the scene of the White Night Riots in response to the lenient sentencing of Dan White, Civic Center was the center point of the Gay Marriage activism, as Mayor Gavin Newsom married couples there.
The centerpiece of the Civic Center is the City Hall, which heads the complex, the section of the street in front of the building was renamed for Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett, a local African American activist, across the street on McAllister Street is the headquarters of the Supreme Court of California. Across from that building is the Asian Art Museum, opened in 2004 in the building of the San Francisco Library which is now in a newer building constructed in 1995
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Their music, writes Lenny Kaye, touches on ground that most other groups dont even know exists and these various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world. The band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue, the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s, the founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron Pigpen McKernan, Phil Lesh, and Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions, Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks before they became the Grateful Dead, he replaced Dana Morgan Jr. who had played bass for a few gigs. Drummer Mickey Hart and nonperforming lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967, with the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, and Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history.
The other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, pianist Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as guesting with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Jerry Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998,2000, and 2002, and the Dead in 2003,2004. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the bands 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together. There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh & Friends, RatDog. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, the bands first show was at Magoos Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, California, on May 5,1965. They were initially known as the Warlocks, the Velvet Underground was using that name on the East Coast, the show was not recorded but the set list has been preserved.
Gigging as a bar band, the group changed its name after finding out that another band of the same name had signed a recording contract. The first show under the new name Grateful Dead was in San Jose, California on December 4,1965, at one of Ken Keseys Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have recorded by the bands fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8,1966. Later that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, the name Grateful Dead was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary. In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, man, the definition there was the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial
Pacific Heights, San Francisco
Pacific Heights is an affluent neighborhood of San Francisco, which is known for the notable people who reside in the area. Its location provides a temperate micro-climate that is clearer, but not always warmer, the Pacific Heights Residents Association defines the neighborhood as inside Pine Street, Presidio Avenue, Union Street, and Van Ness Avenue. Pacific Heights features two parks and Alta Plaza, visible to the north are the Golden Gate Bridge, the Marin Headlands, and Alcatraz Island. Lower Pacific Heights refers to the area located south of California Street down to Post Street, though previously simply considered part of the Western Addition, this new neighborhood designation became popularized by real estate agents in the early 1990s. The neighborhood was first developed in the 1870s, with small Victorian-inspired homes built, starting around the beginning of the 20th century, and especially after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many were replaced with period homes. Still residential, the area is characterized by painted Victorian style architecture, the oldest building in Pacific Heights, located at 2475 Pacific Avenue, was built in 1853, though the majority of the neighborhood was built after the 1906 earthquake.
The architecture of the neighborhood is varied, Mission Revival, several countries have consulates in Pacific Heights. They include Germany, Italy, Russia, South Korea, most of the neighborhoods boutiques and restaurants can be found along Fillmore Street, south of Pacific Avenue. They include stores like Athleta, Marc by Marc Jacobs, other businesses in Pacific Heights are located on California and Divisadero Streets, as well as on Van Ness Avenue. Universities and colleges include Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, part of the University of the Pacific, the San Francisco Police Department Northern Station serves Pacific Heights. Larry Ellison, cofounder and CEO of Oracle Corporation Jonathan Ive, chief designer at Apple Inc
South of Market, San Francisco
SoMa is home to many of the citys museums, to the headquarters of several major software and Internet companies, and to the Moscone Conference Center. The areas boundaries are Market Street to the northwest, San Francisco Bay to the northeast, Mission Creek to the southeast and it is the part of the city in which the street grid runs parallel and perpendicular to Market Street. As with many neighborhoods, the boundaries of the South of Market area are fuzzy. From 1848 until the construction of the Central Freeway in the 1950s, since the 1950s, the boundary has been either 10th Street, 11th Street, or the Central Freeway. Similarly, the entire Mission Bay neighborhood may or may not be counted as part of SoMa, redevelopment agencies, social service agencies, and community activists frequently exclude the more prosperous areas between the waterfront and 3rd Street. Some social service agencies and nonprofits count the economically distressed area around 6th, 7th, the terms South of Market and SoMa refer to both a comparatively large district of the city as well as a much smaller neighborhood.
Before being called South of Market this area was called South of the Slot, while the cable cars have long since disappeared from Market Street, some old timers still refer to this area as South of the Slot. Since 1847, the name of the South of Market area has been the 100 Vara Survey or simply 100 Vara for short. Since the mid-20th century, the name has been gradually forgotten, and today is found mainly in history books, legal documents, title deeds. At the time, the streets of San Francisco were aligned approximately with the points, running north to south. Each block was divided into six lots 50 varas on a side. e, northeast to southwest, and northwest to southeast. He decided to make the new blocks twice as long and twice as wide, finally, OFarrell created a grand promenade linking the old pueblo with the new subdivision, Market Street. Since then, downtown San Francisco north of Lower Market Street has been known as 50 Vara. Rincon Hill became an enclave for the wealthy, while nearby South Park became an enclave for the middle class.
The neighborhood became a largely working-class and lower-middle-class community of recent European immigrants, power stations, the 1906 earthquake completely destroyed the area, and many of the quakes fatalities occurred there. Following the quake, the area was rebuilt with wider than usual streets, the construction of the Bay Bridge and U. S. Route 101 during the 1930s saw large swaths of the area demolished, including most of the original Rincon Hill. The waterfront redevelopment of the Embarcadero in the 1950s pushed a new population into this area in the 1960s, the incipient gay community, and the leather community in particular. From 1962 until 1982, the gay community grew and thrived throughout South of Market, most visibly along Folsom Street
A city map is a large-scale thematic map of a city created to enable the fastest possible orientation in an urban space. The graphic representation of objects on a city map is usually greatly simplified. Depending upon its target group or market, a city map will include not only the citys transport network, the scale of a city map is usually between 1,10,000 and 1,25,000. Densely settled downtown areas will sometimes be drawn in a larger scale. In addition to true to scale maps, there are maps with variable scale. Central to the information provided by a city map is the network, including its street names, along with buildings, parks. Streets and points of interest are listed in a legend or register. Important places such as buildings, cultural institutions, attractions. The map may be complemented by representations of public transport facilities, as early as the time of the Ancient Near East, clay tablets were being produced with scaled, graphical representations of cities. Excavations of the Sumerian city of Nippur brought to light a fragment of an approximately 3, 500-year-old city map, the clay tablet depicts the temple of Enlil, a city park, the city wall including its gates, along with a canal and the river Euphrates.
The individual objects on this map were already labelled, in a Sumerian cuneiform, in manuscripts and early printed books of the Late Middle Ages, cities are often shown in profile, or viewed from an elevated standpoint. Nautical charts of that time sometimes depict partly stylized cityscapes drawn in pictogram form - for example in Cristoforo Buondelmontis Liber insularum archipelagi, from the year 1422. The Nuremberg Chronicle, which first appeared in 1493, is one of the most important collections of city views of the late Middle Ages, panoramas like this one, or the one in Bernhard von Breydenbachs Travelogue from 1483, had more narrative or representative functions. In the 16th century, the artists and scholars of the Renaissance had extensive knowledge of mathematical perspectives and this knowledge affected the work of cartographers and the production of cityscapes. An early example of an exact and highly detailed work of this kind is the city map of Venice created by Jacopo de Barbari in around 1500.
Jacopo de Barbaris map of Venice was already as large as 139 centimetres x 282 centimetres, from the middle of the 16th century, the copperplate process, originating in Antwerp, began to compete with the woodcut, and allowed far more refined and detailed illustrations. One of the first city pocket atlases, and the first pocket atlas of London, was Collins Illustrated Atlas of London published in 1854 and drawn, cartography Street map Media related to Historical city maps at Wikimedia Commons City maps