Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, cloud computing, Google was founded in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University, in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and they incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4,1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19,2004, in August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabets leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabets Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Googles core search engine. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, the new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated, a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience.
Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier, alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google. com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube, Googles mission statement, from the outset, was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was Dont be evil. In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing, Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. They called this new technology PageRank, it determined a websites relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine BackRub, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Originally, Google ran under Stanford Universitys website, with the domains google. stanford.
edu, the domain name for Google was registered on September 15,1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4,1998. It was based in the garage of a friend in Menlo Park, craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. At least three other investors invested in 1998, Amazon. com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton. Author Ken Auletta claims that each invested $250,000, early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million, vinod Khosla, one of Excites venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it. Googles initial public offering took place five years later, on August 19,2004, at that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024
Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, Microsoft Office office suite, and Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup, as of 2016, it was the worlds largest software maker by revenue, and one of the worlds most valuable companies. Microsoft was founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates on April 4,1975, to develop and it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows. The companys 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion, in June 2012, Microsoft entered the personal computer production market for the first time, with the launch of the Microsoft Surface, a line of tablet computers.
The word Microsoft is a portmanteau of microcomputer and software, Paul Allen and Bill Gates, childhood friends with a passion for computer programming, sought to make a successful business utilizing their shared skills. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which offered a computer that tracked and analyzed automobile traffic data. Allen went on to pursue a degree in science at Washington State University. The January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systemss Altair 8800 microcomputer, Allen suggested that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device, after a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration. Since they didnt actually have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter and they officially established Microsoft on April 4,1975, with Gates as the CEO. Allen came up with the name of Micro-Soft, as recounted in a 1995 Fortune magazine article.
In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, the company moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the OS business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, however, it was MS-DOS that solidified the companys dominance. For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, branding it as MS-DOS, following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOSs available software selection, the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkins disease, while jointly developing a new OS with IBM in 1984, OS/2, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows, a graphical extension for MS-DOS, on November 20,1985.
Once Microsoft informed IBM of NT, the OS/2 partnership deteriorated, in 1990, Microsoft introduced its office suite, Microsoft Office
Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin is an American computer scientist, internet entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Together with Larry Page, he co-founded Google, Brin is the President of Googles parent company Alphabet Inc. In October 2016, Brin was the 12th richest person in the world, Brin immigrated to the United States with his family from the Soviet Union at the age of 6. He earned his bachelors degree at the University of Maryland, following in his fathers and grandfathers footsteps by studying mathematics, after graduation, he moved to Stanford University to acquire a PhD in computer science. There he met Page, with whom he became friends. They crammed their dormitory room with computers and applied Brins data mining system to build a web search engine. The program became popular at Stanford, and they suspended their PhD studies to start up Google in a rented garage, Brin was born in Moscow in the Soviet Union, to Russian Jewish parents and Mikhail Brin, both graduates of Moscow State University.
His father is a professor at the University of Maryland. In May 1979, when Brin was five years old, his family felt compelled to emigrate out of the Soviet Union. In an interview with Mark Malseed, co-author of The Google Story, Mikhail Brin therefore changed his major to mathematics where he received nearly straight As. In another interview with Dominic Lawson of The Independent, Mikhail said and he went on to tell Lawson how MSU required Jews to take their entrance exams in different rooms from non-Jewish applicants, and how they were marked on a harsher scale. The Brin family lived in an apartment in central Moscow. Brin told Malseed, Ive known for a time that my father wasnt able to pursue the career he wanted. In 1977, after his returned from a mathematics conference in Warsaw, Poland. We cannot stay here any more, he told his wife, at the conference, he was able to mingle freely with colleagues from the United States, France and Germany and discovered that his intellectual brethren in the West were not monsters.
He added, I was the one in the family who decided it was really important to leave. Sergeys mother was willing to leave their home in Moscow. Malseed writes, For Genia, the decision came down to Sergey
Instant messaging is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a way over a local area network. Short messages are typically transmitted bi-directionally between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select send, some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission, usually referred to as chat rooms, where participants might be anonymous or might be previously known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users, depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be peer-to-peer or client-server. Instant messaging is a set of technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks.
Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users. Some systems permit messages to be sent to users not logged on, IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply. However IM is basically not necessarily supported by transaction control, in many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it even more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone, many applications allow file transfers, although they are usually limited in the permissible file-size. It is usually possible to save a text conversation for reference, Instant messages are often logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Initially, some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, as networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks.
Some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol, while others required peers to connect to a server, the Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MITs Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of which was Talkomatic on the PLATO system, during the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging, Freelancin Roundtable was one prime example. The first such general-availability commercial online service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander Sandy Trevor in Columbus. Early instant messaging programs were primarily real-time text, where appeared as they were typed. This includes the Unix talk command line program, which was popular in the 1980s, some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOLs Real-Time IM as an optional feature, (Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger
Vinod Khosla is an Indian-born American engineer and businessman. Khosla is listed by Forbes magazine as a billionaire, Khosla made his early fortune as one of the co-founders of Sun Microsystems, where he was the founding CEO and chairman in the early 1980s. Khoslas father was an officer in the Indian Army and was posted at New Delhi, Khosla read about the founding of Intel in Electronic Engineering Times at the age of fourteen and this inspired him to pursue technology as a career. He attended Mount St Marys School in Delhi and he went on to receive multiple degrees from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Carnegie Mellon University, and Stanford Graduate School of Business. In 1980, after post-graduating from Stanford University, Khosla worked for electronic design automation company Daisy Systems, in 1982, Khosla co-founded Sun Microsystems, along with Stanford classmates Scott McNealy, Andy Bechtolsheim, and UC Berkeley computer science graduate student Bill Joy. Khosla served as the first chairman and CEO of Sun Microsystems from 1982 to 1984, in 1987, Khosla joined the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as a general partner.
At Kleiner, Khosla became a venture capitalist, with several successful early-stage investments. Khosla played a key role with several of the industrys most spectacular failures, including Asera, BroadBand Office, Excite@Home. He invested in an Indian microfinance company, SKS Microfinance, Khosla is one of the founders of TiE, The Indus Entrepreneurs, and has guest-edited a special issue of The Economic Times, a leading business newspaper in India. Khosla was featured on Dateline NBC in May 2006, where he discussed the practicality of ethanol as a gasoline substitute and he is known to have invested heavily in ethanol companies, in hopes of widespread adoption. Khosla was a proponent of the Yes on 87 campaign to pass Californias Proposition 87, The Clean Energy Initiative. In 2006, Khoslas wife Neeru co-founded the CK-12 Foundation, which aims to open source textbooks and lower the cost of education in America. Khosla and his wife are donors to the Wikimedia Foundation, Khosla formed his own venture capital firm, Khosla Ventures in 2004.
The firm is based in Menlo Park and manages approximately $1 billion of capital as well as investments funded by Khosla himself. In September 2009, Khosla completed fundraising for two new funds, to invest in cleantech and information technology start-ups, Khosla Ventures III secured $750 million of investor commitments to invest in traditional early-stage and growth stage companies. Khosla raised $250 million for Khosla Seed, which will invest in higher-risk opportunities, in May 2010, it was announced that former British Prime Minister Tony Blair was to join Khosla Ventures to provide strategic advice regarding investments in technologies focused on the environment. Khosla Ventures invested in HackerRank, in addition to his role in founding Sun Microsystems, Khosla has founded a number of other businesses and organizations. Khosla was involved with the founding of Daisy Systems in 1981, Khosla served as the Honorary Chair of the DonorsChoose San Francisco Bay Area Advisory Board
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
Lawrence Larry Edward Page is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur who co-founded Google along with Sergey Brin. Page is the executive officer of Googles parent company, Alphabet Inc. After stepping aside as Google CEO in August 2001 in favour of Eric Schmidt and he announced his intention to step aside a second time in July 2015 to become CEO of Alphabet, under which Googles assets would be reorganized. Under Page, Alphabet is seeking to deliver major advancements in a variety of industries, in November 2016, he is the 12th richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$36.9 billion. Page is the inventor of PageRank, Googles best-known search ranking algorithm, Page received the Marconi Prize in 2004. Page was born March 26,1973 in East Lansing and his father, Carl Victor Page, Sr. He was a science professor at Michigan State University and Pages mother, was an instructor in computer programming at Lyman Briggs College. Page was an avid reader during his youth, writing in his 2013 Google founders letter that I remember spending an amount of time poring over books.
According to writer Nicholas Carlson, the influence of Pages home atmosphere and his attentive parents fostered creativity. Page played saxophone and studied music composition while growing up, Page has mentioned that his musical education inspired his impatience and obsession with speed in computing. In some sense I feel like music training led to the legacy of Google for me. In an interview Page said that In music you’re very cognizant of time. Time is like the thing and that If you think about it from a music point of view, if you’re a percussionist, you hit something, it’s got to happen in milliseconds. Page was first attracted to computers when he was six years old and he became the first kid in his elementary school to turn in an assignment from a word processor. His older brother taught him to take things apart and before long he was taking everything in his house apart to see how it worked. He said that from a early age, I realized I wanted to invent things. So I became really interested in technology and business, probably from when I was 12, I knew I was going to start a company eventually.
Page attended the Okemos Montessori School in Okemos, from 1975 to 1979 and he attended Interlochen Center for the Arts as a saxophonist for two summers while in high school
Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Apples consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the media player, the Safari web browser. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. In November 2014, Apple became the first U. S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. The company employs 115,000 full-time employees as of July 2015 and it operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the worlds largest music retailer. Consumers use more than one billion Apple products worldwide as of March 2016, Apples worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015.
This revenue accounts for approximately 1. 25% of the total United States GDP.1 billion, the corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. Apple was founded on April 1,1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, which was less than what is now considered a personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66, Apple was incorporated January 3,1977, without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple, during the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months.
Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, the Apple II, invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16,1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics. While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the platform for the first killer app of the business world, VisiCalc. VisiCalc created a market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore, by the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line
The company is headquartered in Mountain View, California. Greater than 95% of its revenues and earnings come from its activities within the United States, Intuit makes TurboTax, a consumer tax preparation application, the small business accounting program QuickBooks, professional tax solutions ProSeries and Lacerte, and multiple payroll products. In April 2016, Intuit completed the sale of its flagship product, Quicken. In addition to the United States, the company has offices in seven countries around the world, UK, France, India, the company was founded in 1983 by Scott Cook and Tom Proulx in Palo Alto, California. On his quest to find a programmer he ended up running into Tom Proulx at Stanford, the two started Intuit, which initially operated out of a modest room on University Avenue in Palo Alto. The first version of Quicken was coded in Microsofts BASIC programming language for the IBM PC, in 1991 Microsoft decided to produce a competitor to Quicken called Microsoft Money. To win retailers loyalty, Intuit included a US$15 rebate coupon and this was the first time a software company offered a rebate.
Roughly around the time the company engaged John Doerr of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. In 1993 Intuit went public and used the proceeds to make a key acquisition, the time after the IPO was marked by rapid growth and culminated with a buyout offer from Microsoft in 1994, at this time Intuits market capitalization reached US$2 billion. In response, Intuit launched new web-based products and solutions and put emphasis on QuickBooks. The company made a number of investments around this time, among others, it purchased a large stake in Excite and acquired Lacerte Software, a Dallas-based developer of tax preparation software used by tax professionals. It divested itself of its online bill payment service unit, Intuit has more than US$4 billion in annual revenue and a market capitalization of more than US$20 billion. Intuit has been ranked in Fortunes Top 100 Best Companies to Work For for the past several years, Intuit has been ranked in Fortunes Americas most admired software companies. In June 2013, Intuit announced it would sell its financial services unit to private equity firm Thoma Bravo for $1.03 billion, in June 2015, Intuit laid off approximately 5% of its workforce as part of a company reorganization.
Intuit has several communities, some of which offer integration or cross-sells into other Intuit products. Each consists of blogs, an expert map and event calendar and discussion groups, podcasts and webinars. JumpUp is a social networking and resources site for small business owners and/or start-ups. Intuitlabs. com is a website Intuit created to get new solutions into peoples hands quickly, TaxAlmanac is a free online tax research resource
Excite is a collection of web sites and services, launched in December 1995. Excite is a service offering a variety of content, including an Internet portal showing news. A metasearch engine, an email, instant messaging, stock quotes. The content is collated from over 100 different sources, Excites portal and services are owned by Excite Networks, but in the United States, Excite is a personal portal, called My Excite, which is operated by Mindspark and owned by IAC Search and Media. In the 1990s, Excite was one of the most recognized brands on the Internet, Excite was founded as Architext in 1994 by Graham Spencer, Joe Kraus, Mark VanHaren, Ryan McIntyre, Ben Lutch and Martin Reinfried, who were all students at Stanford University. In July 1994, International Data Group paid them US$80,000 to develop an online service, soon thereafter, Geoff Yang, of Institutional Venture Partners, introduced an additional US$1.5 million in financing and Excite was formally launched in December 1995. In January 1996, George Bell joined Excite as its Chief Executive Officer, Excite purchased two search engines and signed exclusive distribution agreements with Netscape and Apple, in addition to other companies.
In 1994, Excite hired Jim Bellows, 72, to figure out how to present the content in a journalistic manner and he paid good journalists to write brief reviews of web sites. However, users wanted to get directly to the content and skipped the reviews, on April 4,1996, Excite went public with an initial offering of two million shares. In June 1997, maker of Quicken and TurboTax, purchased a 19% stake in Excite, on October 16,1997, Excite purchased Netbot, a comparison shopping agent. At the same time Intuit announced the launch of Excite Business & Investing, that year a deal was finalized with Ticketmaster to provide direct online ticketing. On March 31,1998, Excite reported a net loss of approximately $30.2 million, in December 1998, Yahoo. was in negotiations to purchase Excite for $5.5 billion to $6 billion. According to Justin Rohrlich, writing for Minyanville, Excites refusal to buy what became a $180 billion company by 2010 was labeled by Rohrlich a stupid business decision. The US$6.7 billion merger of Excite and @Home Network in 1999 became one of the largest mergers of two Internet companies at the time.
@Homes high-speed Internet services and existing portal were combined with Excites search engine and portal, the new company was named Excite@Home and, six months after the merger, Tom Jermoluk stepped down as CEO of Excite@Home. Excite’s George Bell, who was the President of the Excite division of @Home after the merger, became the new CEO of the combined Excite@Home, following the merger, the Excite division purchased iMall, as well as online greeting card company, Blue Mountain Arts. Excite acquired photo sharing company Webshots, Excite furthermore paid for sponsorship of Infiniti Indy car driver Eddie Cheever, Jr. through the 2000 and 2001 racing seasons. However, the merger between Excite and @Home fell disastrously short of expectations, online advertising revenue plummeted, while cable network ISP revenue continued to grow
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990
AOL Inc. is an American multinational mass media corporation based in New York, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications. AOL was one of the pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s. It originally provided a service to millions of Americans, as well as providing a web portal, e-mail, instant messaging. At the height of its popularity, it purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner in the largest merger in U. S. history, AOL rapidly declined thereafter, partly due to the decline of dial-up to broadband. AOL was eventually spun off from Time Warner in 2009, with Tim Armstrong appointed the new CEO, under his leadership, the company invested in media brands and advertising technologies. On June 23,2015, AOL was acquired by Verizon Communications for $4.4 billion, in the following months, AOL made a deal with Microsoft and acquired several tech properties, including Millennial Media and Kanvas to bolster their mobile ad-tech capabilities. AOL began in 1983, as a venture called Control Video Corporation.
Its sole product was a service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console. Subscribers bought a modem from the company for US$49.95, GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of US$1 per game. The telephone disconnected and the game would remain in GameLines Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game. In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a consultant for Control Video. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, in early 1985, von Meister left the company. The technical team consisted of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ray Heinrich, Steve Trus, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Craig Dykstra, Doug Coward, in 1987, Case was promoted again to executive vice-president. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to take over the role of CEO, Kimsey changed the companys strategy, and in 1985, launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers, originally called Quantum Link.
The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from PlayNet, the service was different from other online services as it used the computing power of the Commodore 64 and the Apple II rather than just a dumb terminal. It passed tokens back and forth and provided a fixed price service tailored for home users, in May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation, after the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the services name to America Online