Use of Sarum
The Use of Sarum known as the Sarum Rite or Use of Salisbury, is a variant of the Roman Rite used for the ordering of Christian public worship, including the Mass and the Divine Office. It was established by Saint Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, Richard Poore in the 11th century and was the local form used in the Cathedral and Diocese of Salisbury, England, it became prevalent throughout southern England and came to be used throughout most of England, Wales and Scotland, until the 16th century reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip. Although abandoned after the 16th century and the Protestant Reformation, it was a notable influence on the pattern of Anglican liturgy represented in the Book of Common Prayer. Occasional interest in and attempts at restoration of the liturgy by Anglicans and Catholics have not, produced a general revival. In 1078, William of Normandy appointed a Norman nobleman, as bishop of Salisbury; as bishop, Osmund initiated some revisions to the extant Celtic-Anglo-Saxon rite and the local adaptations of the Roman rite, drawing on both Norman and Anglo-Saxon traditions.
Nineteenth-century liturgists theorized that the liturgical practices of Rouen in northern France inspired the Sarum liturgical books. The Normans had deposed most of the Anglo-Saxon episcopate, replacing them with Norman bishops, of which Osmund was one. Given the similarities between the liturgy in Rouen and that of Sarum, it appears the Normans imported their French liturgical books as well; this conjecture approaches certainty when it is found that the Use of Rouen and that of Sarum were identical in the 11th century. A curious and interesting illustration of this will be found in an extract of a Rouen manuscript missal, assumed to be 650 years old.... The Rouen Pontifical, of about 1007 A. D. quoted in the same work, shows a like affinity of that of Sarum and Exeter in days. The revisions during Osmund's episcopate resulted in the compilation of a new missal and other liturgical manuals, which came to be used throughout southern England and parts of Ireland; some dioceses issued their own missals, inspired by the Sarum rite, but with their own particular prayers and ceremonies.
Some of these are so different that they have been identified as distinct liturgies, such as those of Hereford, York and Aberdeen. Other missals were more varied only in details. Liturgical historians believe the Sarum rite had a distinct influence upon other usages of the Roman rite outside England, such as the Nidaros rite in Norway and the Braga Rite in Portugal; when the Church of England separated from the Catholic Church in the 1530s, it retained the Sarum rite, with gradual modifications. Under Edward VI, Protestant pressure for public worship in English resulted in its replacement by successive versions of the Book of Common Prayer in 1549 and 1552. Mary I restored the Sarum rite in 1553 and promulgated it throughout England, but it was abolished by Elizabeth I in 1559. Catholic recusants continued to use the Sarum rite until it was replaced by the Roman Rite. Many of the ornaments and ceremonial practices associated with the Sarum rite—though not the full liturgy itself—were revived in the Anglican Communion in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as part of the Anglo-Catholic Oxford Movement in the Church of England.
Some Anglo-Catholics wanted to find a traditional formal liturgy, characteristically "English" rather than "Roman." They took advantage of the'Ornaments Rubric' of 1559, which directed that English churches were to be furnished as they had been at the start of Edward VI's reign, that is, in Sarum fashion, with few concessions to Protestant practice. However, there was a tendency to read back Victorian centralizing tendencies into mediaeval texts, so a rather rubrical spirit was applied to liturgical discoveries, it was asserted, for instance, that Sarum had a well-developed series of colours of vestments for different feasts. There may have been tendencies to use a particular colour for a particular feast, but most churches were too poor to have several sets of vestments, so used what they had. There was considerable variation from diocese to diocese, or church to church, in the details of the rubrics: the place where the Epistle was sung, for instance, varied enormously; some scholars thought that the readings were proclaimed from the top of the rood screen, most unlikely given the tiny access doors to the rood loft in most churches.
This would not have permitted dignified access for a vested Gospel procession. Chief among the proponents of Sarum customs was the Anglican priest Percy Dearmer, who put these into practice at his parish of St Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, in London, he explained them at length in The Parson's Handbook. This style of worship has been retained in some present-day Anglican churches and monastic institutions, where it is known as "English Use" or "Prayer Book Catholicism"; the Sarum Mass has been celebrated within the Catholic Church. A brief resurgence of interest in the 19th century did not lead to a revival. Sarum Masses were organised by the Oxford University Newman Society for the celebration of the Feast of the Translation of St Frideswide on 10 February 1996
In Catholicism, the cantor, sometimes called the precentor or the protopsaltes is the chief singer, instructor, employed at a church, a cathedral or monastery with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir and the preparation of liturgy. The cantor's duties and qualifications have varied according to time and rite, its prestige was so high that it came close to the highest offices in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, for instance monastic cantors promoted to the office of an abbot or abbess. Sometimes the office was connected with administrative and governmental duties with those of a schoolteacher, as in case of the Thomaskantor in charge of the Thomasschule zu Leipzig, educating a boys' choir that served four churches. A cantor must be competent to choose and to conduct the vocals for the choir, to start any chant on demand, to be able to identify and correct the missteps of singers placed under him, he may be held accountable for the immediate rendering of the music, showing the course of the melody by movements of the hand, similar to a conductor.
In the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic Churches, a cantor called a chanter, is a monk or a lay person in minor orders who chants responses and hymns in the services of the church. There are several titles for the psaltes, which depend on the recognition of his capabilities as a chanter, sometimes connected with an employment, by the local or Ecumenical Patriarchate. In some smaller communities it is possible, that the community sings within an oral tradition and without any instruction by a protopsaltes, in other Orthodox Rites, there are various hierarchical offices, which can be passed during a long career, connected with a lifelong process of learning. In the Byzantine tradition, the cantor in charge of doing the music for a service is referred to as the protopsaltes, a term which may refer to an office within a diocese or whole jurisdiction, but this title was not used before the 12th century; the cantor or chanters sing the many hymns called for during the Divine Services and the Divine Liturgy.
A chanter must be knowledgeable about the ecclesiastical modes as well as the complex structure of the services. At Constantinople the charge of a protopsaltes was connected with Byzantine offices. In the tradition of the cathedral rite at Hagia Sophia, there was a distinction between the leader of the right choir and the leader of the left choir. Still during the last centuries, the usual career was to start as the "Second Domestikos of the Great Church" who assisted the first to proceed in the office of the teacher, even to the Lampadarios, who replaced the left choir as a soloist called "monophonares", this career was sometimes continued by the promotion to the "Protopsaltes or Archon Psaltes of the Great Church" of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. In the Greek tradition, a chanter will wear the exorason, a black outer cassock with angel-wing sleeves; the Slavic tradition—which tends more to use a choir rather than a cantor—assigns no specific vestment to the chanters, unless an individual has been ordained a Reader, in which case he would wear only the inner cassock and put on the sticharion when he receives Holy Communion.
In the Greek tradition, the chanters are stationed at a psalterion, a chanting podium positioned to the south and sometimes to the north side of the sanctuary. In the Slavic tradition, the chanters are positioned, the area is referred to as the kliros. Before and after the Second Vatican Council, in the Roman Catholic Church a cantor was the leading singer of the choir, a bona fide clerical role; the medieval cantor of the papal Schola Cantorum was called Prior scholae or Primicerius. In medieval cathedrals, the cantor or precentor directed the music and chant, was one of the ranking dignitaries of the chapter. During the 14th century in many churches, the cantor began to delegate his instruction of the singers to a master of music. After the introduction of harmonized music, some duties fell to the conductor or choirmaster. Today, the cantor is a role. In parishes without a choir, the cantor serves to lead the responsorial singing with the congregation; the cantor's locality in the church is most to the right of the choir, directly to his left is his assistant called the succentor.
A common custom for cantors was the bearing of the staff, the mark of his dignity and a visual representative of his sacred role inside the church. This custom still survives in some places. In Protestant churches the role of the cantor can be pastoral. In Northern European cities in Germany, the title of Cantor or Kantor survived the Reformation, referred to a musician who supervised the music in several principal churches, taught in the boys' secondary school, provided music for civic functions. Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann were among the famous musicians employed under this system. In cathedral churches in the Anglican Communion, the precentor or head cantor is a member of the governing chapter, second in rank to the dean, his stall is opposite the dean's and the two sides of the divided choir are accordingly known as "decani" and "cantori
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Jewish prayer are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. However, the term tefillah as referenced in the Talmud refers to the Shemoneh Esreh. Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based commandment, it is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. You shall serve God with your whole heart. However, in general, Jewish men are obligated to conduct tefillah three times a day within specific time ranges, according to some posekim, women are only required to engage in tefillah once a day, others say at least twice a day. Traditionally, since the Second Temple period, three prayer services are recited daily: Morning prayer: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Afternoon prayer: Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Additional prayer: Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".
Further additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement; the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers de-rabbanan since the early Second Temple period on: to recall the daily sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, and/or because each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayer. The Talmud yerushalmi states that the Anshei Knesset HaGedola learned and understood the beneficial concept of regular daily prayer from personal habits of the forefathers as hinted in the Tanach, instituted the three daily prayers. A distinction is made between individual prayer and communal prayer, which requires a quorum known as a minyan, with communal prayer being preferable as it permits the inclusion of prayers that otherwise would be omitted. Maimonides relates that until the Babylonian exile, all Jews had composed their own prayers, but thereafter the sages of the Great Assembly in the early Second Temple period composed the main portions of the siddur.
Modern scholarship dating from the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement of 19th-century Germany, as well as textual analysis influenced by the 20th-century discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggests that dating from this period there existed "liturgical formulations of a communal nature designated for particular occasions and conducted in a centre independent of Jerusalem and the Temple, making use of terminology and theological concepts that were to become dominant in Jewish and, in some cases, Christian prayer." The language of the prayers, while from the Second Temple period employs Biblical idiom. Jewish prayerbooks emerged during the early Middle Ages during the period of the Geonim of Babylonia Over the last two thousand years traditional variations have emerged among the traditional liturgical customs of different Jewish communities, such as Ashkenazic, Yemenite, Eretz Yisrael and others, or rather recent liturgical inventions such as Hassidic and various Reform minhagim; however the differences are minor compared with the commonalities.
Halachically, Jews can switch from one nusach tefillah to an other at any time on a daily basis, are not bound to follow the nusach of their forefathers. Most of the Jewish liturgy is chanted with traditional melodies or trope. Synagogues may designate or employ a professional or lay hazzan for the purpose of leading the congregation in prayer on Shabbat or holidays. According to the Talmud Bavli, tefillah is a Biblical command: "'You shall serve God with your whole heart.' What service is performed with the heart? This is tefillah." Prayer is therefore referred to as Avodah sheba-Lev. It is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. Mentioning tefillah, the Talmud always refers to the Amidah, called Shemoneh Esreh; the noted rabbi Maimonides categorizes tefillah as a Biblical command of Written law, as the Babylon Talmud says. However, corresponding with the Jerusalem Talmud, the RaMBaM did hold that the number of tefillot and their times are not a Biblical command of Written law and that the forefathers did not institute such a Takkanah, rather it was a rabbinical command de-rabbanan based on a takkanah of the Anshei Knesset HaGedola.
The Oral law, according to the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers: According to Rabbi Jose b. Hanina, each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayers; this view is supported with Biblical quotes indicating that the Patriarchs prayed at the times mentioned. However according to this view, the exact times of when the services are held, moreover the entire concept of a mussaf service, are still based on the sacr
Anglican church music
Anglican church music is music, written for Christian worship in Anglican religious services, forming part of the liturgy. It consists of pieces written to be sung by a church choir, which may sing a capella or accompanied by an organ. Anglican music forms an important part of traditional worship not only in the Church of England, but in the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Church in Wales, the Church of Ireland, the Episcopal Church in America, the Anglican Church of Canada, the Anglican Church of Australia and other Christian denominations which identify as Anglican, it can be used at the Personal Ordinariates of the Roman Catholic Church. The chief musical forms in Anglican church music are centred around the forms of worship defined in the liturgy. Service settings are choral settings of the words of the liturgy; these include: The Ordinary of the Eucharist Sung Eucharist is a musical setting of the service of Holy Communion. Naming conventions may vary according to the churchmanship of the place of worship.
Musical pieces corresponding to the liturgical pattern of the Ordinary of the Mass may be sung by the choir or congregation. Many English-language settings of the communion service have been written, such as those by Herbert Howells and Harold Darke. In high church worship, Latin Mass settings are preferred, such as those by William Byrd. Morning Service The Anglican service of morning prayer, known as Mattins, is a peculiarly Anglican service which originated in 1552 as an amalgam of the monastic offices of Matins and Prime in Thomas Cranmer’s Second Prayer Book of Edward VI. Choral settings of the Morning Service may include the opening preces and responses, the Venite, the morning canticles of Te Deum, Benedictus, Jubilate and a Kyrie. Evening ServiceEvening Prayer known as Evensong, consists of preces and responses, canticles, hymns and an anthem; the evening canticles are the Magnificat and the Nunc Dimittis, these texts have been set to music by many composers. Herbert Howells alone composed 20 settings of the canticles, including Magnificat and Nunc dimittis for St Paul's Cathedral.
Like Mattins, Evensong is a service, a distinctively Anglican service, originating in the Book of Common Prayer of 1549 as a combination of the offices of Vespers and Compline. Choral Evensong is sung daily in most Church of England cathedrals, as well as in churches and cathedrals throughout the Anglican Communion, it is noted for its particular appeal to worshippers and visitors, attracting both believers and atheists with its meditative quality and cultural value. A service of Choral Evensong is broadcast weekly on BBC Radio 3, a tradition begun in 1926; the Preces and responses are a set of prayers from the Book of Common Prayer for both Morning and Evening Prayer. They may be sung antiphonally by the choir. There are a number of popular choral settings by composers such as Bernard Rose. Morning and Evening Prayer and Holy Communion include a Psalm, chosen according to the lectionary of the day; this may be sung by the choir or congregation, either to plainsong, or to a distinctive type of chant known as Anglican chant by the choir or congregation.
Part-way through a service of worship, a choir may sing an anthem or motet, a standalone piece of sacred choral music, not part of the liturgy but is chosen to reflect to the liturgical theme of the day. The singing of hymns is a common feature of Anglican worship and includes congregational singing as well as a choir. An Introit hymn is sung at the start of a service, a Gradual hymn precedes the Gospel, an Offertory hymn is sung during the Offertory and a recessional hymn at the close of a service. A piece for organ, known as a voluntary, is played at the end of a service of worship after the recessional hymn. All Anglican church music is written for choir with or without organ accompaniment. Adult singers in a cathedral choir are referred to as lay clerks, while children may be referred to as choristers or trebles. In certain places of worship, such as Winchester College in England, the more archaic term quirister is used. An Anglican choir uses "SATB" voices, though in many works some or all of these voices are divided into two for part or all of the piece.
There may be soloists only for part of the piece. There are works for fewer voices, such as those written for men's voices or boys'/women's voices. Many more recent works were written for, or dedicated to, one of the many famous cathedral or collegiate choirs of England. At traditional Anglican choral services, a choir is vested, i.e. clothed in special ceremonial vestments. These are a cassock, a long, full-length robe which may be purple, red or black in colour, over, worn a surplice, a knee-length white cotton robe. A surplice is only worn during a service of worship, so a choir rehearses wearing cassocks only. Younger choristers who have newly joined a choir begin to wear a surplice after an initial probationary period. Cassocks originated in the medieval perio
Early Christianity covers the period from its origins until the First Council of Nicaea. This period is divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period; the first Christians were Jewish Christians, either by conversion. Important practices were baptism, which made one a member of the Christian community, the communal meals, from which the Eucharist developed, the participation in Christ's death and resurrection; the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. A variety of Christianities developed throughout the 2nd and 3rd century, alongside a developing proto-orthodoxy, which defined orthodoxy and heresy. Proto-orthodoxy developed in tandem with the growing number of Christians, which necessitated the devlopment of eccelsiastical structure. Early Christians used and revered the Hebrew Bible as religious text in the Greek or Aramaic translations, but developed their own Canon of the New Testament, which includes the canonical gospels, letters of the Apostles, Revelation, all written before 120.
Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. Christianity "emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine" in the syncretistic Hellenistic world of the first century CE, dominated by Roman law and Greek culture. During the early first century CE there were many competing Jewish sects in the Holy Land, those that became Rabbinic Judaism and Proto-orthodox Christianity were but two of these. There were Pharisees and Zealots, but other less influential sects, including the Essenes; the first century BCE and first century CE saw a growing number of charismatic religious leaders contributing to what would become the Mishnah of Rabbinic Judaism.
A central concern in 1st century Judaism was the covenant with God, the status of the Jews as the chosen people. Many Jews believed; the Law was given by God to guide them in their worship of the Lord and in their interctions with each other, "the greatest gift God had given his people."The Jewish messiah concept has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, promising a future leader or king from the Davidic line, expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age and world to come. The Messiah is referred to as "King Messiah" or malka meshiḥa in Aramaic. In the Synoptic Gospels Jewish eschatology stands central. After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus teaches extensively for a year, or maybe just a few months, about the Kingdom of God, in aphorisms and parables, using similes and figurs of speech. In the Gospel of John, Jesus himself is the main subject; the Kingdom is described as eschatological, becoming reality in the near future.
Jesus talks as expecting the coming of the "Son of Man" from heaven, an apocalyptic figure who would initiate "the coming judgment and the redemption of Israel." According to Davies, the Sermon on the Mount presents Jesus as the new Moses who brings a New Law, the Messianic Torah. His ministry was ended by his execution by crucifixion, his early followers believed that three days after his death, Jesus rose bodily from the dead and was exalted to Divine status. Paul's letters and the Gospels document a number of post-resurrection appearances, the resurrection of Jesus "signalled for earliest believers that the days of eschatological fulfilment were at hand." The resurrection was seen as the exaltation of Jesus to the status of divine Son and Lord. His followers expected Him to return in the near future. Since the 18th century, three scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were developed during each specific phase.
Scholars involved in the third quest for the historical Jesus have constructed a variety of portraits and profiles for Jesus, most prominently that of Jesus as a Jewish apocalyptic prophet or eschatological teacher. The first part of the period, named after the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles as narrated in the Acts of the Apostles, is called the Apostolic Age; the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. After the death of Jesus, "Christianity emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine." The first Christians were all Jews, either by birth or conversion, who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology. The New Testament's Acts of the Apostles and Epistle to the Galatians record the existence of a Christian community centered on Jerusalem, that its leaders included Peter, the "brother of Jesus", John the Apostle; the Jerusalem Church "held a central place among all the churches,".
Christian missionary activity spread Christianity
The Erfurt Enchiridion is the second Lutheran hymnal. It appeared in 1524 in Erfurt in two competing editions. One of them contains 26 songs, the other 25, 18 of them by Martin Luther, others by Elisabeth Cruciger, Erhard Hegenwald, Justus Jonas and Paul Speratus. While the songs of the Enchiridion could be used in churches, they were intended for singing elsewhere, such as at home, at court, in guild meetings; the songs of the reformer Luther and others were first sold as broadsheets, contributed to the spreading of Protestant ideas. They were printed in collections, beginning with the First Lutheran hymnal, called the Achtliederbuch, with the Wittenberg song book, both published in 1524; the Erfurt Enchiridion appeared the same year, in two equal editions by two different printers, Johannes Loersfeld and Matthes Maler. Both books are identical except for one song; the double appearance suggests. The edition printed by Loersfeld came first, to be copied by Maler; the version of Loersfeld was printed in octavo, includes 48 pages, 47 of them printed.
It contains the German version of the creed and a two-page anonymous preface. The version of Maler contains one song more. Sixteen different choral melodies are used, eighteen of the songs are by Luther, but his name is attached to only one of them. Three of the hymns were written by Paul Speratus, one or two by Justus Jonas, one by Elisabeth Cruciger, one is attributed to Jan Hus; the arrangement of the songs is not systematic, only seven paraphrases of psalms form a cohesive group. Five songs are German rhymed versions of Latin liturgical chants; the song "Ein neues Lied wir heben an" describes the execution in Brussels of two monks who were martyrs of the Reformation, Hendrik Vos and Johannes van Esschen. The title describes: "Eyn Enchiridion oder Handbüchlein. Eynem ytzlichen Christen fast nutzlich bey sich zuhaben / zur stetter vbung vnd trachtung geystlicher gesenge vnd Psalmen / Rechtschaffen vnd kunstlich verteutscht." The author of the preface describes the former ecclesiastical chant as "shouting like the priests of Baal in unintelligable cries" and "cry like the forest-donkeys to a deaf God".
The songs included in the collection are described as founded on scripture, serving improvement and the education of youth, the preface suggests that a Christian should always carry the book with him, for constant practise. While the songs of the Enchiridion could be used in churches, they were intended for singing elsewhere, such as at home, at court, in guild meetings. Many of the songs of the Erfurt Enchiridion were disseminated, seventeen are still in the current German Protestant hymnal Evangelisches Gesangbuch, some of them now with different melodies. Five of the hymns are part of the Catholic hymnal Gotteslob. Translations began with Goostly psalms and spiritual songes drawen out of the holy Scripture by Myles Coverdale, the so-called "first English hymn book", printed in London in 1555 and contained 16 of the songs from the Enchiridion. Full digital facsimile and diplomatic transcription of the hymnbook in the Deutsches Text Archiv Brodersen, Christiane. Ein Enchiridion oder Handbüchlein geistlicher Gesänge und Psalmen.
Kartoffeldruck-Verlag, Speyer. ISBN 978-3-939526-03-2. Doukhan, Lilianne. In Tune With God. Mn House Publishing. Pp. 163, 164 & footnote 15 on p. 191. Herbst, Wolfgang. Wer ist wer im Gesangbuch?. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen. Pp. 86–87 Erfurter Enchiridion. ISBN 3525503237. Liersch, Helmut. Ein Unikat in der Marktkirchen-Bibliothek Goslar: Das Erfurter Färbefaß-Enchiridion von 1524. Goslar: Goslarsches Forum 6, ed. Otmar Hesse. Pp. 40–44, 81–83. Brodersen, Christiane; the Erfurt Enchiridion: A Hymn Book of 1524. Kartoffeldruck-Verlag. ISBN 978-3939526049. Hase, Martin von. "Die Drucker der Erfurter Enchiridien, Mathes Maler u. Johannes Loersfelt". Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie. 2: 91–93. JSTOR 24189314. Smend, Julius. Die evangelische Lied von 1524: Festschrift zum 400-jährigen Gesangbuch-Jubiläum. Leipzig