Falls Church, Virginia
Falls Church is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,332; the estimated population in 2015 was 13,892. Falls Church is included in the Washington metropolitan area. Falls Church has the lowest level of poverty of any independent county in the United States. Taking its name from The Falls Church, an 18th-century Church of England parish, Falls Church gained township status within Fairfax County in 1875. In 1948, it was incorporated as the City of Falls Church, an independent city with county-level governance status although it is not a county; the city's corporate boundaries do not include all of the area known as Falls Church. For statistical purposes, the U. S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Falls Church with Fairfax City and Fairfax County. At 2.11 square miles, Falls Church is the smallest incorporated municipality in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The independent city of Falls Church is named for the 1734 religious institution named The Falls Church founded at the intersection of important Indian trails that were paved and named Broad Street, Lee Highway and Little Falls Street.
The first known government in the area was the Iroquois Confederacy. After exploration by Captain John Smith, England began sending colonists to what they called Virginia. While no records have yet been found showing the earliest colony settlement in the area, a cottage demolished between 1908 and 1914, two blocks from the city center, bore a stone engraved with the date "1699" set into one of its two large chimneys. During the American Revolution the area is most known for The Falls Church vestrymen George Washington and George Mason. A copy of the United States Declaration of Independence was read to citizens from the steps of The Falls Church during the summer of 1776. During the American Civil War Falls Church voted 44–26 in favor of secession; the Confederate Army occupied the village of Falls Church as well as Munson's and Upton's hills to the East due to their views of Washington, D. C.. On September 28, 1861, Confederate troops withdrew from Falls Church and nearby hills, retreating to the heights at Centreville.
Union troops took Munson's and Upton's hills, yet the village was never brought under Union rule. Mosby's Raiders made several armed incursions into the heart of Falls Church to kidnap and murder suspected Northern sympathizers in 1864 and 1865. Cherry Hill Farmhouse and Barn, an 1845 Greek-Revival farmhouse and 1856 barn and managed by the city of Falls Church, are open to the public on select Saturdays in summer. Tinner Hill Arch and Tinner Hill Heritage Foundation represent a locus of early African American history in the area, including the site of the first rural chapter of the NAACP. Two of the District of Columbia's original 1791 boundary stones are located in public parks on the boundary between Falls Church and Arlington County; the West cornerstone stands in Andrew Ellicott Park at 2824 Meridian Street, Falls Church and N. Arizona Street, just south of West Street. Stone number SW9 stands in Benjamin Banneker Park on Van Buren Street, south of 18th Street, near the East Falls Church Metro station.
Most of Banneker Park is in Arlington County, across Van Buren Street from Isaac Crossman Park at Four Mile Run. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land and none of it water. Falls Church is the smallest independent city by area in Virginia. Since independent cities in Virginia are considered county-equivalents, it is the smallest county-equivalent in the United States by area; the center of the city is the crossroads of Virginia State Route 7 and U. S. Route 29. Tripps Run, a tributary of the Cameron Run Watershed, drains two-thirds of Falls Church, while the Four Mile Run watershed drains the other third of the city. Four Mile Run flows at the base of Minor's Hill, which overlooks Falls Church on its north, Upton's Hill, which bounds the area to its east; as of the census of 2010, Falls Church City had a population of 12,332. The population density was 6,169.1 people per square mile. There were 5,496 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 9.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. In the city, the population was spread out with 7.3% under the age of five, 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.6% over the age of 65. The percentage of the population that were female was 51%. 74.4 % of the population had higher. The median income for a household in the city was $120,000, with 4% of the population below the poverty line, the lowest level of poverty of any independent city or county in the United States; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,377 people, 4,471 households, 2,620 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,225.8 people per square mile. There were 4,725 housing units at an average density of 2,379.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 84.97% White, 3.28% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 6.50% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.52% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.44% of the population. There were 4,471 households out of which 3
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice. Its responsibilities include the investigation and prevention of federal offenses involving the unlawful use and possession of firearms and explosives; the ATF regulates via licensing the sale and transportation of firearms and explosives in interstate commerce. Many of the ATF's activities are carried out in conjunction with task forces made up of state and local law enforcement officers, such as Project Safe Neighborhoods; the ATF operates a unique fire research laboratory in Beltsville, where full-scale mock-ups of criminal arson can be reconstructed. The agency is led by Thomas E. Brandon, Acting Director, Ronald B. Turk, Acting Deputy Director; the ATF has 4,770 employees, an annual budget of $1.15 billion. The ATF was part of the United States Department of the Treasury, having been formed in 1886 as the "Revenue Laboratory" within the Treasury Department's Bureau of Internal Revenue.
The history of ATF can be subsequently traced to the time of the revenuers or "revenoors" and the Bureau of Prohibition, formed as a unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue in 1920. It was made an independent agency within the Treasury Department in 1927, was transferred to the Justice Department in 1930, became a division of the FBI in 1933; when the Volstead Act, which established Prohibition in the United States, was repealed in December 1933, the Unit was transferred from the Department of Justice back to the Department of the Treasury, where it became the Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. Special Agent Eliot Ness and several members of The "Untouchables", who had worked for the Prohibition Bureau while the Volstead Act was still in force, were transferred to the ATU. In 1942, responsibility for enforcing federal firearms laws was given to the ATU. In the early 1950s, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was renamed "Internal Revenue Service", the ATU was given the additional responsibility of enforcing federal tobacco tax laws.
At this time, the name of the ATU was changed to Tobacco Tax Division. In 1968, with the passage of the Gun Control Act, the agency changed its name again, this time to the Alcohol and Firearms Division of the IRS and first began to be referred to by the initials "ATF". In Title XI of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, Congress enacted the Explosives Control Act, 18 U. S. C. A. Chapter 40, which provided for close regulation of the explosives industry and designated certain arsons and bombings as federal crimes; the Secretary of the Treasury was made responsible for administering the regulatory aspects of the new law, was given jurisdiction over criminal violations relating to the regulatory controls. These responsibilities were delegated to the ATF division of the IRS; the Secretary and the Attorney General were given concurrent jurisdiction over arson and bombing offenses. Pub. L. 91-452, 84 Stat. 922, October 15, 1970. In 1972 ATF was established as an independent bureau within the Treasury Department on July 1, 1972, this transferred the responsibilities of the ATF division of the IRS to the new Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms.
Rex D. Davis oversaw the transition, becoming the bureau's first director, having headed the division since 1970. During his tenure, Davis shepherded the organization into a new era where federal firearms and explosives laws addressing violent crime became the primary mission of the agency; however and other alcohol issues remained priorities as ATF collected billions of dollars in alcohol and tobacco taxes, undertook major revisions of the federal wine labeling regulations relating to use of appellations of origin and varietal designations on wine labels. In the wake of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signed into law the Homeland Security Act of 2002. In addition to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the law shifted ATF from the Department of the Treasury to the Department of Justice; the agency's name was changed to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives. However, the agency still was referred to as the "ATF" for all purposes.
Additionally, the task of collection of federal tax revenue derived from the production of tobacco and alcohol products and the regulatory function related to protecting the public in issues related to the production of alcohol handled by the Bureau of Internal Revenue as well as by ATF, was transferred to the newly established Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, which remained within the Treasury Department. These changes took effect January 24, 2003. Complaints regarding the techniques used by ATF in their effort to generate firearm cases led to hearings before Congressional committees in the late 1970s and 1980s. At these hearings, evidence was received from citizens, charged by ATF, from experts who had studied ATF, from officials of the bureau itself. A Senate subcommittee report stated, "Based upon these hearings it is apparent that ATF enforcement tactics made possible by current federal firearms laws are constitutionally and reprehensible."The Subcommittee received evidence that ATF devoted its firearms enforcement efforts to the apprehension, upon technical malum prohibitum charges, of individuals who lack all criminal intent and knowledge.
Evidence received demonstrated that ATF agents tended to concentrate upon collector's items rather than "criminal street guns". In hearings before
Office of the Pardon Attorney
The Office of the Pardon Attorney, within the United States Department of Justice, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States or his or her delegate, assists the President of the United States in the exercise by him of executive clemency as authorized by Article II, Section 2, of the US Constitution. Under the Constitution, the president's clemency power extends only to federal criminal offenses. All requests for executive clemency for federal offenses are directed to the Office of the Pardon Attorney for investigation and review; the pardon attorney prepares the department's recommendation to the president for final disposition of each application. Executive clemency may take several forms, including pardon, conditional pardon, commutation of sentence, conditional commutation of sentence, remission of fine or restitution, respite and amnesty. A pardon may be posthumous; the Office of the Pardon Attorney has a staff that includes the Deputy Pardon Attorney, an executive officer, four staff attorneys, its clerical staff and paralegals who assist in the review of petitions.
Current, Larry Kupers is the Deputy Pardon Attorney, William Taylor II is the executive officer. Since 1789 various offices within the federal government have provided the president with administrative support for the exercise of executive clemency. A presidential order in 1865 formally delegated this responsibility to the Department of Justice; the office's current name was adopted in 1894. When the President proposes to exercise his or her executive clemency, the case is directed to the Office of the Pardon Attorney for review. There are five standards for someone to be considered to be pardoned; the petitioner must be in a good standing during their sentence and must wait a period of at least 5 years before applying to pardon. However, this five year wait period can be waived; the first standard is how the persons conduct and reputation have been during conviction. This means that the individuals conducted themselves as responsible and knowledgeable people who are aware of their crime and are ready to return to normal society.
They must have the potential to create a better society by achieving employment, providing for themselves and loved ones, as well as keeping a clean criminal background. A recent example of this would be when President Trump pardoned 63 year old Alice Marie Johnson after the case was brought up by celebrity Kim Kardashian; the White House described their reasoning for the pardon by stating “while this administration will always be tough on crime, it believes that those who have paid their debt to society and worked hard to better themselves while in prison deserve a second chance". Second is the seriousness; when the offense is years in the past and didn't affect many people, the chance to achieve a pardon is much greater than if the offense was recent and a high crime. Things that must be considered include how the victims would deal with the pardon, how it will set a precedence for future similar crimes. During his presidency, President Barrack Obama granted 1,715 clemencies. Most of these were for nonviolent drug offenders, in an effort to get non-serious offenders out of prison and to reverse the negative outcomes from the War on Drugs.
Third is the individual's acceptance of responsibility and self-awareness of how serious their actions were. The individual's behavior, if they are creating excuses or reasons why they committed the crime, will lower the chances of pardon. If the individual desires forgiveness and portrays complete responsibility for their actions the chances are much higher; every person, considered for a pardon exudes these behaviors. Fourth is the legal disabilities the individual suffered from the conviction. Someone like a lawyer or doctor may have lost their licenses as a result of their conviction; this may grant reason to consider a pardon. Though pardons for this type of relief are minimal and rare, they will not be put at a higher priority over an otherwise deserving person who has a desire for forgiveness. An example of this would be when President Andrew Johnson pardoned Dr. Samuel Mudd in 1869. Dr. Mudd was imprisoned because he treated John Wilkes Booth’s leg after Booth assassinated President Lincoln in 1865.
This crime wasn't a serious crime, considering Mudd claimed he wasn't aware of Booth's actions at the time and he was doing what his profession entailed. Lastly and recommendations from people in powerful positions like politicians, attorneys and victims are looked over to decide if an individual is worthy of a pardon. A controversial pardon was when President Bill Clinton pardoned his brother, Roger Clinton Jr. for cocaine possession and trafficking convictions. Posthumous pardons are rare because it is Department of Justice policy to not accept requests for non living persons; this is due to the limited resources and personnel at the Department of Justice, cases involving living persons take precedent over those who are deceased. The same procedure and reasoning is applied to clemency applications for federal misdemeanors, giving precedent to cases involving federal felony convictions; this structure is designed to allow the DOJ to devote its time to those who will receive the greatest benefit from Federal clemency.
Presidents Clinton, W. Bush, Trump are the only 3 to have granted posthumous pardons; the Office of the Pardon Attorney handles all and every clemency related correspondence and issue, including petitions and applications. This involves several steps; the Office receives and reviews clemency correspondences, investigates applications along with the files sent with them to make more valid the petitioner's plea for pardoni
Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building
Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building is the Washington, D. C. headquarters of the United States Department of Justice. The building is located at 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, on a trapezoidal lot on the block bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue to the north, Constitution Avenue to the south, 9th Street to the east, 10th Street NW to the west, in the Federal Triangle, it is located west of the National Archives Building, east of the Internal Revenue Service Building, north of the National Mall, south of the J. Edgar Hoover Building; the building is owned by the General Services Administration. It comprises seven floors and 1,200,000 sq ft, it houses Department of Justice offices, including the office of the United States Attorney General. It was Completed in 1935. In 2001, it was renamed after Robert F. Kennedy the 64th Attorney General of the United States; the Office of the Attorney General was created by the 1st United States Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. In 1792, the Congress made the Attorney General a Cabinet-level post.
In 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill creating the Department of Justice. Still, there was not yet a permanent home for either the Attorney General or the Justice Department, each had occupied a succession of temporary spaces in federal government buildings and owned office buildings. While plans to provide the Department with its own building were developed as early as 1910, it was not until the late 1920s that significant progress was made toward this goal. In 1908 and in 1928, Congress authorized the purchase of land in what is now known as the Federal Triangle for departmental offices; the authorization was part of a wave of government construction. Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon and the Board of Architectural Consultants, composed of leading architects and headed by Edward H. Bennett of the Chicago architectural firm of Bennett, Parsons & Frost, developed design guidelines for the site. Under Bennett's direction, each member of the board designed one of the buildings in the Federal Triangle complex to "provide each government agency or bureau with a building that would address its functional needs, while combining the individual buildings into a harmonious, monumental overall design expressive of the dignity and authority of the federal government."
Milton Bennett Medary of the Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie & Medary was selected as the architect for the Department of Justice Building. Zantzinger. In 1930, Congress appropriated $10 million for the construction of a permanent Department of Justice headquarters in the Federal Triangle; the building was constructed from 1931 to 1934. Upon completion in 1935, the building provided a headquarters for the Attorney General and Department of Justice. From 1935 to 1941 68 murals were painted in the building. In 1966, the Department of Justice building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site. In 1974, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, headquartered in the same building, moved into its own headquarters at the J. Edgar Hoover Building across the street on Pennsylvania Avenue. In 1978, the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was established after the passage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act; the court of 11 judges appointed by the Chief Justice of the United States meets in secret.
From March 1998 to January 2006, major renovations to the building took place, including work on plumbing, electrical wiring and cooling, elevators. The project included replication of original lighting for the building's corridors and other ornamental spaces. A new $3.1 Million conference center and "data room" were built, the main library and executive suites were restored, a new mechanical and plumbing system was installed. The project's submitting firm and construction manager was the Gilbane Building Company, the architectural firm was Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates, the structural engineering firm was Delon Hampton Associates, the mechanical/electrical engineer was H. F. Lenz Company. Several difficulties were present: The building had to remain operational during renovations, hazardous materials were involved, with a large-scale asbestos abatement effort, lead paint removal, the handling of mercury-vapor lamps with PCBs; the Gilbane Building Company established a "stop-work" rule to halt construction when hazardous material was discovered.
An additional complication was security concerns, because of sensitive and classified information in the building. According to Building Design & Construction, construction personnel were "classified into three tiers and were permitted access to specific building areas based on these three levels of security clearance." The extensive murals and plaster reliefs in the building were protected with shields during the construction, temperature and dust controls were installed. The cost of the renovations was $142 Million, but the project came in $4.2 Million under budget, in part due to significant conservation efforts. Design consultants decided to renovate courtyard plaza and garage structures instead of demolishing them, using 95 percent of existing materials. Cobblestone blocks in the courtyard were "removed, cleaned and reinstalled," with "the foun
Federal Bureau of Prisons
The Federal Bureau of Prisons is a United States federal law enforcement agency, under the Department of Justice, responsible for the custody and care of individuals incarcerated in the federal prison system of the United States. It is responsible for carrying out all judicially ordered federal civilian executions. US federal prisons hold 183,000 inmates, as of 2018, they have been declared overcrowded, with clear implications for safety and security. The BOP has five security levels: Minimum-security. Little or no perimeter fencing, low staff-to-inmate ratio. Low-security, Double-fenced perimeters. Cubicle or dormitory housing. Medium-security. Double-fenced with electronic detection systems. Cell housing. High-security. Reinforced fences or walls. Administrative-security. Houses all security levels. Employees are trained at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Georgia; the BOP is headed by Hugh Hurwitz. The Federal Prison System existed for more than 30 years. Although its wardens functioned autonomously, the Superintendent of Prisons, a Department of Justice official in Washington, was nominally in charge of federal prisons, starting with the passage of the "Three Prisons Act' in 1891, which authorized the federal government's first three penitentiaries: USP Leavenworth, USP Atlanta, USP McNeil Island with limited supervision by the United States Department of Justice afterwards.
Until 1907, prison matters were handled by the Justice Department's General Agent. The General Agent was responsible for Justice Department accounts, oversight of internal operations, certain criminal investigations, as well as prison operations. In 1907, the General Agent's office was abolished, its functions were distributed among three new offices: the Division of Accounts. Pursuant to Pub. L. 71–218, 46 Stat. 325, enacted May 14, 1930, the Bureau of Prisons was established by the U. S. Congress within the U. S. Department of Justice; the new Prison Bureau was now under the Administration of the 31st President Herbert Hoover, was charged with the "management and regulation of all Federal penal and correctional institutions." This responsibility covered the administration of the 11 federal prisons in operation at the time. By the end of the year 1930, the system had expanded to 14 institutions with 13,000 inmates. By a decade in 1940, the federal prison system had 24 institutions with 24,360 incarcerated.
The state of Alaska assumed jurisdiction over its corrections on January 3, 1959, using the Alaska Department of Corrections. Prior to statehood, the BOP had correctional jurisdiction over Alaska; as a result of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 and subsequent legislation which pushed for longer sentences, less judicial discretion, more harsh sentences for drug-related offenses, the federal inmate population doubled in the 1980s and again in the 1990s. The population increase has decelerated since the early 2000s but the federal inmate population continues to grow. National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 transferred responsibility for adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws to the BOP; the Bureau of Prisons is headed by Hugh Hurwitz, the current acting director. Mark S. Inch held the post from September 2017 until May 2018; as of 2015, 63% of BOP employees are white, 22% are black, 12% are Hispanic, 2% are Asian and 1% identify as another race.
73% are male. All BOP employees undergo 200 hours of formal training in their first year of employment. Employees must complete additional 120 hours of training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. There is one corrections officer for every 10 prisoners; the BOP has five security levels. Federal Prison Camps, the BOP minimum-security facilities, feature a lack of or a limited amount of perimeter fencing, a low staff-to-inmate ratio. Low-security Federal Correctional Institutions have double-fenced perimeters, inmates live in cubicle or dormitory housing. Medium-security FCIs and some United States Penitentiaries are classified to hold medium-security inmates; the medium facilities have strengthened perimeters, which consist of double fences with electronic detection systems. Medium-security facilities have cell housing. Most U. S. Penitentiaries are classified as high-security facilities; the perimeters secured have reinforced fences or walls. Federal Correctional Complexes are co-locations of BOP facilities with different security levels and/or genders.
Some units have small, minimum-security camps, known as "satellite camps," adjacent to the main facilities. Twenty-eight BOP institutions hold female inmates; as of 2010 about 15% of the inmates under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons are in facilities operated by third parties. Most of them are in facilities operated by private companies. Others are in facilities operated by local and state governments; some are in Residential Reentry Centers operated by private companies. The bureau
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site