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AP Chemistry

Advanced Placement Chemistry is a course and examination offered by the College Board as a part of the Advanced Placement Program to give American and Canadian high school students the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities and earn college-level credit. AP Chemistry has the distinction of having the lowest known test participation rate, with 49.5% of AP Chemistry students taking the exam in one study. Another, study found that 52.7% of students enrolled in AP Chemistry took their course's AP test. AP Chemistry is a course geared toward students with interests in chemical and physical sciences, as well as any of the biological sciences; the course aims to prepare students to take the AP Chemistry exam toward the end of the academic year. AP Chemistry topics include atomic theory, chemical bonding, phases of matter, types of reactions, chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and thermodynamics; the College Board recommends successful completion of High School Chemistry and Algebra II. AP Chemistry requires knowledge of Algebra II.

The requirement of regular or honors level High School Chemistry may be waived, but requires completion of a special assignment or exam. The exam covers most of the introductory chemistry topics, including: Reactions Chemical equilibrium Chemical kinetics Stoichiometry Thermodynamics Electrochemistry Reaction types States of matter Gases, Ideal gases and Kinetic theory Liquids Solids Solutions Structure of matter Atomic theory, including evidence for atomic theory Chemical bonding, including intermolecular forces Nuclear chemistry Molecular geometry Molecular models Mass spectrometry Laboratory and chemical calculations Thermochemistry Chemical kinetics Chemical equilibrium Gas laws calculations Structure and Matter, 20%States of Matter, 20% Reactions, 35–40% Descriptive Chemistry, 10–15% Laboratory, 5–10% The annual AP Chemistry examination, administered in May, is divided into two major sections; the old test was composed of two sections: a multiple-choice section consisting of 75 questions with five answer choices each, a free-response section consisting of six essay prompts that required the authoring of chemical equations, solution of problems, development of thoughtful essays in response to hypothetical scenarios.

Section I, the multiple-choice portion, did not allow the use of a calculator, nor did it provide any additional reference material, other than a periodic table. Each question contained five answer choices. 90 minutes were allotted for the completion of Section I. Section I covered the breadth of the curriculum. Section II, the free response section, was divided into two sections: Part A, requiring the completion of three problems, Part B containing three problems. Part A, lasting 55 minutes, allowed the use of calculators, while Part B, lasting 40 minutes, did not; the first problem in Part A concerned equilibrium related to solubility and bases, or pressure/concentration. The first question of Part B was a chemical equation question in which 3 scenarios were presented and the student was required to work all 3 scenarios, authoring a balanced net ionic chemical equation for each scenario and answering questions about the equations and scenarios. If time permitted, students may have edited their responses from Part A during the time allotted for responding to Part B, though without the use of a calculator.

The student needed to have completed all six questions. While the use of calculators was prohibited during Section I and Section II Part B, a periodic table, a list of selected standard reduction potentials, two pages of equations and conventions are available for use during the entirety of Section II; the 2014 AP Chemistry exam was the first administration of a redesigned test as a result of a redesigning of the AP Chemistry course. The exam format is now different from the previous years, with 60 multiple choice questions, 3 long free response questions, 4 short free response questions; the new exam has a focus on more in depth, lab-based questions. The penalty for incorrect answers on the multiple choice section was removed. More detailed information can be found at the related link; the score distributions since 2007 were: Chemistry Glossary of chemistry terms AP Chemistry at CollegeBoard.com Test format change in 2007 AP Chemistry Exam Overview

List of female lieutenant governors in the United States

As of January 2019, there are 15 women serving as lieutenant governors in the United States. 100 women have served overall. Women have been elected lieutenant governor from 43 of the 50 states; the states that have not elected a woman are Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. The first woman to become lieutenant governor was Matilda Dodge Wilson, appointed lieutenant governor of Michigan in 1940 by Luren Dickinson. In 1978, Jean King was elected as the first female Asian-American lieutenant governor, when she was elected lieutenant governor of Hawaii. In 2002, Jennette Bradley was elected as the first female African-American lieutenant governor, when she was elected lieutenant governor of Ohio. In 2010, Jennifer Carroll was elected as the first female military veteran lieutenant governor, when she was elected lieutenant governor of Florida. In 2014, Evelyn Sanguinetti was elected as the first female Hispanic or Latino lieutenant governor, when she was elected lieutenant governor of Illinois.

Kentucky was the first state to hold a transfer of power from one female lieutenant governor to another, when Martha Layne Collins was elected to succeed Thelma Stovall in 1979. Minnesota has had the most female lieutenant governors or other deputy leaders of any state in the Union, with nine consecutive female lieutenant governors since 1983. However, no female politician has been nominated for governor by any major statewide party in any of Minnesota's gubernatorial elections. No state has or had both a female governor and female lieutenant governor at the same time. From 1997 to 2009, Arizona had two female governors and two concurrently serving female secretaries of state. To date, in states without a lieutenant governor, no woman has changed parties during her term as a secretary of state or a state senate president, or been elected as a third party member or an independent. Italics denotes acting lieutenant governor. Italics denotes acting Secretary of State Two states — Maine and New Hampshire — do not have a Lieutenant Governor, do not have the Secretary of State as first in the line of succession to the Governor.

In these two states, the President of the State Senate is first in line to succeed the Governor. Italics denotes acting Senate President List of female governors in the United States

Kenneth Bowra

Kenneth Bowra is a retired major general who served in the US Army from 1970 to 2003. Bowra saw service with US special forces in the Vietnam War and Cambodian Civil War and has worked with the Central Intelligence Agency and Joint Special Operations Command, he fought in the US Invasion of Grenada and in the Somali Civil War and First Gulf War. In 1998 he was given command of the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School and in 2000 was deputy commander of NATO's Kosovo Force. Retiring in 2003 he is now a diplomat with the US State Department in Saudi Arabia. Kenneth Bowra attended The Citadel military college in South Carolina and graduated in 1970, he was completed special forces training. Deployed in the Vietnam War as a Military Assistance Command, VietnamStudies and Observations Group reconnaissance team leader Bowra served as an advisor to Cambodian Army units undertaking training with US forces, leading them on combat missions in Cambodia. Upon his return to the US he served as commander of a High Altitude Low Opening Special Atomic Demolition Munition paratroop unit with the 5th Special Forces Group.

Bowra was posted back to Cambodia in 1974 with the Military Equipment Delivery Team Cambodia and remained in the country until the April 1975 collapse of the Khmer Republic. Bowra spent the next eight years on various assignments with the Central Intelligence Agency from 1977-1978, 4th Infantry Division in Fort Carson and the 2nd battalion of the 75th Ranger Infantry Regiment at Fort Lewis in Washington. In 1983 Bowra volunteered for and completed a specialized selection course for assignment to Delta Force and remained with the unit for five years, participating in Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. Bowra returned to the 5th Special Forces Group in 1988 as the commander of the 2nd battalion and worked on Operation Salam, a de-mining operation in Afghanistan, he was promoted to commander of Army 5th Special Forces Group from 1991 to 1993 and conducted combat and humanitarian operations in Somalia as well as border surveillance and combat operations in Kuwait. He was placed in charge of Special Operations Command South, United States Southern Command in November 1993, held that post until January 1996.

Whilst with that unit Bowra led anti-drugs and humanitarian operations in Central and South America and formed the multi-national peace-keeping force that helped to end the Cenepa War. Bowra was assigned command of the U. S. Army Special Forces Command in May 1996 where he helped to develop the first human rights policy for US special forces soldiers. Bowra was given command of the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School in March 1998 and in March 2000 was deputy-commander of the NATO headquarters of Kosovo Force with responsibility for overseeing all KFOR operations and providing support for elections in the country, he was appointed assistant chief of staff of NATO's Allied Forces Northern Europe in January 2001 and was the senior American military representative to the Netherlands. Bowra retired from the army as a major-general on 1 October 2003, he now works for the State Department as a diplomat at the US embassy in Saudi Arabia. Bowra has written about Cambodian wars; the most recent U.

S. State Department listing of key officials in foreign posts does not show Bowra in any post in Saudi Arabia

Laurita Valenzuela

Rocío Espinosa López-Cepero, known professionally as Laurita Valenzuela or Laura Valenzuela, is a Spanish television presenter and actress of the 1950s and 1960s. Before becoming known in Europe for hosting 1969 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, she was a model and appeared in many publications around the world, she was one of the first faces that Spain saw on television when Televisión Española was launched in 1956. She acted in many films since the early 1950s up through the late 1960s. In 1971, when she married film director José Luis Dibildos and had her daughter, presenter Lara Dibildos, she retired from public life, until she returned to television in 1990 on private channel Telecinco. On, she returned to TVE in 1996, she retired again in the 2000s. She recovered but remains retired, apart from occasional collaborations and appearances, such as on 7 December 2006, when she hosted the special show Gala 50 años de TVE, which celebrated the 50th anniversary of TVE, alongside Anne Igartiburu and Paula Vázquez.

High Fashion The Fisher of Songs It Happened in Seville Three Ladies Madame The Daughters of Helena The Black Tulip Hagan juego, señores Las noches de Monsieur Max Z7 Operation Rembrandt Demasiadas mujeres para Layton Amor a la española Las que tienen que servir Los subdesarrollados La dinamita está servida De profesión, sus labores Growing Leg, Diminishing Skirt Spaniards in Paris List of Eurovision Song Contest presenters Laurita Valenzuela on IMDb Profile, eurovision-spain.com. Profile, eurovision.tv.

Outline of Laos

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Laos: Laos – landlocked sovereign country located in Southeast Asia. Laos borders Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, Thailand to the west. Laos traces its history to the Kingdom of Lan Xang or Land of a Million Elephants, which existed from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. After a period as a French protectorate, it gained independence in 1949. A long civil war ended when the communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975 but the protesting between factions continued for several years. Private enterprise has increased since the late 1990s when economic reforms including rapid business licensing were introduced. Laos is still ranked among the lowest countries in terms of political freedom; the economy of Laos grew at 7.2% in 2006, 35th fastest in the world. Eighty percent of the employed practice subsistence agriculture; the country's ethnic make-up is diverse, with around 70% belonging to the largest ethnic group, the Lao.

Pronunciation: Common English country name: Laos Official English country name: The Lao People's Democratic Republic Adjectives: Lao, Laotian Demonym: Etymology: Name of Laos International rankings of Laos ISO country codes: LA, LAO, 418 ISO region codes: See ISO 3166-2:LA Internet country code top-level domain:.la Geography of Laos Laos is: a landlocked country Location: Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere Eurasia Asia South East Asia Indochina Time zone: UTC+07 Extreme points of Laos High: Phou Bia 2,817 m Low: Mekong 70 m Land boundaries: 5,083 km Vietnam 2,130 km Thailand 1,754 km Cambodia 541 km China 423 km Myanmar 235 kmCoastline: nonePopulation of Laos: 5,859,000 - 106th most populous country Area of Laos: 236,800 km2 Atlas of Laos Climate of Laos Protected areas of Laos Wildlife of Laos Fauna of Laos Birds of Laos Mammals of Laos Rivers of Laos World Heritage Sites in Laos: None List of ecoregions in Laos Administrative divisions of Laos Provinces of Laos Districts of Laos Provinces of Laos Districts of Laos Capital of Laos: Vientiane Cities of Laos Demographics of Laos Politics of Laos Form of government: Capital of Laos: Vientiane Elections in Laos Political parties in Laos Government of Laos Head of state: President of Laos, Head of government: Prime Minister of Laos, Parliament of Laos Upper house: Senate of Laos Lower house: House of Commons of Laos Court system of Laos Foreign relations of Laos Diplomatic missions in Laos Diplomatic missions of Laos Laos-Vietnam relations The Lao People's Democratic Republic is a member of: Law of Laos Constitution of Laos Crime in Laos Human rights in Laos LGBT rights in Laos Freedom of religion in Laos Law enforcement in Laos Military of Laos Command Commander-in-chief: Forces Army of Laos Navy of Laos: None Military history of Laos History of Laos Timeline of the history of Laos Current events of Laos Military history of Laos Culture of Laos Cuisine of Laos Festivals in Laos Languages of Laos List of museums in Laos National symbols of Laos Coat of arms of Laos Flag of Laos National anthem of Laos Lao people Prostitution in Laos Public holidays in Laos Religion in Laos Buddhism in Laos Christianity in Laos Hinduism in Laos Islam in Laos World Heritage Sites in Laos: None Literature of Laos Music of Laos Theatre in Laos Sports in Laos Football in Laos Laos at the Olympics Economy of Laos Economic rank, by nominal GDP: 141st Agriculture in Laos Communications in Laos Internet in Laos Companies of Laos Currency of Laos: Kip ISO 4217: LAK Energy in Laos Tourism in Laos Transport in Laos Airports in Laos Rail transport in Laos Education in Laos Health in Laos Laos Index of Laos-related articles List of international rankings List of Laos-related topics Member state of the United Nations Outline of Asia Outline of geography Wikimedia Atlas of Laos The National Portal of Laos Lao National Tourism Administration Lao Voices Lao Media Laos at Curlie Laos travel guide from Wikivoyage Collaborative Collection of Creative Commons licensed images of Laos Media related to Laos at Wikimedia Commons