Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)
Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent. It maintains that the decrees of the Council of Trent can be interpreted by the Papal office itself; this was seen by Church contemporaries of Pius IV as an attempt to strengthen the influence of the Papacy against the rise of Conciliarism exemplified by the Council of Trent itself. There is a more minor bull of the same title written by Benedict XII in 1336. Bulla S. D. N. D. Pii Divina Providentia papae generalis concilii Tridentini. Mexicopoli: Ocharte, 1565 Text at archive.org The full text of Benedictus Deus at Wikisource
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture. By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. According to historian Norman Cantor, the investiture controversy was "the turning-point in medieval civilization", marking the end of the Early Middle Ages with the Germanic peoples' "final and decisive" acceptance of Christianity. More it set the stage for the religious and political system of the High Middle Ages, it began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in 1076. There was a brief but significant investiture struggle between Pope Paschal II and King Henry I of England from 1103 to 1107; the conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed on the Concordat of Worms, which differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
The outcome was a papal victory, but the Emperor still retained considerable power. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies about who had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, investiture was performed by members of the ruling nobility despite theoretically being a task of the church. Many bishops and abbots were themselves part of the ruling nobility. Given that most members of the European nobility practiced primogeniture, willed their titles of nobility to the eldest surviving male heir, surplus male siblings sought careers in the upper levels of the church hierarchy; this was true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, had become to a great extent feudal lords over great districts of the imperial territory.
The control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance due to its effect on imperial authority. It was essential for a nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. Since a substantial amount of wealth and land was associated with the office of a bishop or abbot, the sale of church offices—a practice known as "simony"—was an important source of income for leaders among the nobility, who themselves owned the land and by charity allowed the building of churches; the crisis began when supporters of the Gregorian Reform decided to rebel against simony by forcefully taking the power of investiture from the ruling secular power, the Holy Roman Emperor, placing that power wholly within control of the church. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to forcibly gain the papacy from the control of the emperor; when Emperor Henry IV became a six-year-old German king in 1056, the reformers seized the papacy while the king was still a child.
In 1059, a church council in Rome declared, with In Nomine Domini, that leaders of the nobility would have no part in the selection of popes and created the College of Cardinals as a body of electors made up of church officials. Having regained control of the election of the pope, the church was now ready to tackle investiture and simony. In 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted, it declared that the Roman church was founded by God alone – that the papal power was the sole universal power. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child, he continued to appoint his own bishops, he reacted to this declaration by sending Gregory VII a letter in which he withdrew his imperial support of Gregory as pope in no uncertain terms: the letter was headed "Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk". It called for the election of a new pope, his letter ends, "I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down!", is quoted with "and to be damned throughout the ages", a addition.
The situation was made more dire when Henry IV installed his chaplain, Tedald, a Milanese priest, as Bishop of Milan, when another priest of Milan, had been chosen in Rome by the pope for candidacy. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance. Enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the king's deposition, they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, for seizure of royal holdings. Aristocrats claimed local lordships over peasants and property, built forts, outlawed, built up localized fiefdoms to secure their autonomy from the empire. Thus, because of these combining factors, Henry IV had no choice but to back down, needing time to marshal his forces to fight the rebellion. In 1077, he traveled to Canossa in northern Italy to apologize in person.
As penance for his sins, echoing his own punishment of the Saxons after the First Battle of Langensalza, he wore a hair sh
Collectio canonum quadripartita
The Collectio canonum quadripartita is an early medieval canon law collection, written around the year 850 in the ecclesiastical province of Reims. It consists of four books; the Quadripartita is an episcopal manual of penitential law. It was a popular source for knowledge of penitential and canon law in France and Italy in the ninth and tenth centuries, notably influencing Regino's enormously important Libri duo de synodalibus causis. Well into the thirteenth century the Quadripartita was being copied by scribes and quoted by canonists who were compiling their own collections of canon law; this work should not be confused with the early twelfth-century Latin translation of Old English law known as the Quadripartitus. The complementary acts of confession and penance highly ritualized acts undertaken only once in a lifetime and in public fora, developed in the early Middle Ages into a disciplinary system known as private penance, in which the faithful were encouraged to confess their sins and in secret to a priest or confessor, who enjoined an appropriate period of punishment.
Through the Middle Ages the private penitential system became an elaborate and ritualized institution. In its earliest form, however―that is, as it was practiced from around the sixth to eighth centuries―this system was dependent upon the transmission of basic lists of sins and their corresponding punishments; these short lists of sins made up a genre of texts known as the'penitential handbook'. Penitentials were first employed as disciplinary tools by Irish and British monks living in cloistered ascetical religious communities, but soon spread to England and France, where they developed into varied and grander forms. By the eighth century, penitentials had adopted a focus on lay sins, their popularity was rivalled only by their variety. This gave rise during the early ninth century to a backlash against the diversity of penitentials and the diversity of disciplinary and theological'errors' which they propagated. A number of Frankish councils demanded that the laws of the older penitentials be brought into line with the accepted canonical norms of the church, as reflected in the more conservative collectiones canonum being compiled at the time.
As a result of such efforts towards standardization, the older penitentials fell out of use and were replaced by the large collections of penitential and canon law which dominated in France and Italy in the tenth and eleventh centuries. During the Carolingian period there evolved two different yet overlapping contexts in which the penitentials were used; the first of these was the pastoral context of confession between parishioner. The second was an administrative and/or academic context, in which books of penitential law served bishops in their roles as administrators of local dioceses, adjudicators at judicial synods and students of moral philosophy and canon law; the penitential required by a bishop was much different than that required by the confessor-priest, it is within this episcopal context that the penitentials evolved from mere manuals into vast collections of penitential and administrative law. By the ninth century, chapters from penitential manuals had entered many of the influential canon law collections being copied and compiled on the Continent.
Since at least the fifth and sixth centuries, canon law collections could boast of being repositories of the ancient and authoritative conciliar and papal judgements of the Christian church. As such, these collections had at first stood in stark contrast to the early penitentials, whose lists of sins and corresponding penances was neither ancient nor authoritative. In time, the genres of collectio and penitential blended together; as canon law collections succumbed to revision and abandoned their claims to antique authority by including newer and less authoritative laws, it became more common for them to include penitential canons. The collections began to look more like penitentials as penitentials everywhere were beginning to take on characteristics of the more'formal' collectiones. Problems of textual stability and genre were further exacerbated by the fact that no one code or collection of canon law claimed status as the recognized standard, it was in this context of fluctuating generic and textual boundaries in France that the Quadripartita developed.
The first book treats the life, preaching and duty of priests. Books 3 and 4 are longer than books 1 and 2. Scholars have divided the Quadripartita into a number of component parts, including a dedicatory letter, a brief list of authorities used, a list or register of titles for each book, a general preface, prefaces for books 2–4, the text or canons of the four books and an Epilogue
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches, it thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world". Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying the names and composition of each dicastery, enumerating which competencies, or responsibilities, each dicastery was charged with overseeing, it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and Pontifical Commissions of the Roman Curia.
It established the norms for the ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States; the Council for Public Affairs of the Church had been a section of the Secretariat of State, but was made an independent dicastery by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. For centuries, only cardinals were eligible for membership in the organs of the Holy See, but Pope Paul VI allowed diocesan bishops to be members following calls for collegiality at the Second Vatican Council. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the central government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia; as of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended by Quaerit semper in 2011, Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam in 2013, Confermando una tradizione in 2014.
In the Apostolic Letter Ministrorum institutio of 16 January 2013, Pope Benedict XVI transferred the governance of seminaries from the Congregation for Catholic Education to the Congregation for the Clergy. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization. In October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. On 24 February 2014, Francis issued the Apostolic Letter Fidelis dispensator et prudens establishing the Council for the Economy to oversee the administrative and financial structures and activities of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the institutions linked to the Holy See, the Vatican City State, it established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, authorized by the Secretariat of State.
Wooden, Cindy. "Changing needs, changing names: Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition", Catholic New Service, 13 July 2014 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
The Decretum Gratiani known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or as the Decretum, is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian. It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici, it was used by canonists of the Roman Catholic Church until Pentecost 1918, when a revised Code of Canon Law promulgated by Pope Benedict XV on 27 May 1917 obtained legal force. It was about 1150 that Gratian, teacher of theology at the monastery of Saints Nabor and Felix and sometimes believed to have been a Camaldolese monk, composed the work entitled by himself, Concordia discordantium canonum, but called by others Nova collectio, Corpus juris canonici Decretum Gratiani, the latter being now the accepted name, he did this to obviate the difficulties which beset the study of practical, external theology, i. e. the study of canon law.
In spite of its great reputation and wide diffusion, the Decretum has never been recognized by the Church as an official collection. It is divided into three parts; the first part is divided into 101 distinctions, the first 20 of which form an introduction to the general principles of canon Law. The second part contains 36 causes, divided into questions, treat of ecclesiastical administration and marriage; the third part, entitled "De consecratione", treats of the sacraments and other sacred things and contains 5 distinctions. Each distinction or question contains dicta Gratiani, or maxims of Gratian, canones. Gratian himself raises questions and brings forward difficulties, which he answers by quoting auctoritates, i. e. canons of councils, decretals of the popes, texts of the Scripture or of the Fathers. These are the canones, it is to be noted that many auctoritates have been inserted in the "Decretum" by authors of a date. These are the Paleœ, so called from Paucapalea, the name of the principal commentator on the "Decretum".
The Roman revisers of the 16th century corrected the text of the "Decree" and added many critical notes designated by the words Correctores Romani. The Decretum is quoted by indicating the number of the canon and that of the distinction or of the cause and the question. To differentiate the distinctions of the first part from those of the third, question of the 33rd cause of the second part and those of the third part, the words de Pœn. i. e. de Pœnitentiâ, de Cons. i. e. de Consecratione are added to the latter. For instance, "c. 1. D. XI" indicates the first part of the "Decree". Distinction XI, canon 1. 1. de Pœn. d. VI," refers to the second part, 33rd cause, question 3, distinction VI, canon 1. 8, de Cons. d. II" refers to the third part, distinction II, canon 8. 8, C. XII, q. 3" refers to the second part, cause XII, question 3, canon 8. Sometimes in the case of well-known and much-quoted canons, the first words are indicated, e. g. c. Si quis suadente diabolo, C. XVII, q. 4, i. e. the 29th canon of the second part, cause XVII, question 4.
The first words alone are quoted. In both cases, to find the canon it is necessary to consult the alphabetical tables that contain the first words of every canon. Gratian was a canon lawyer from Bologna, he flourished in the mid 12th century. Little else is known about him, he is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Franciscus Gratianus, Johannes Gratian, or Giovanni Graziano. For a long time he was believed to have been born at the end of the 11th century, at Chiusi in Tuscany, he was said to have become a monk at Camaldoli and he taught at the monastery of St. Felix in Bologna and devoted his life to studying canon law, but contemporary scholarship does not attach credibility to these traditions. Since the 11th century, Bologna had been the centre of the study of canon law, as well as of Roman law, after the Corpus Juris Civilis was rediscovered in western Europe. Gratian's work was an attempt, using early scholastic method, to solve contradictory canons from previous centuries. Gratian quoted a great number of authorities, including the Bible and conciliar legislation, church fathers such as Augustine of Hippo, secular law in his efforts to reconcile the canons.
Gratian found a place in Dante's Paradise among the doctors of the Church: He has long been acclaimed as Pater Juris Canonici, a title he shares with his successor St. Raymond of Penyafort; the vulgate version of Gratian's collection was completed at some point after the Second Lateran Council, which it quotes. Research by Anders Winroth established that some manuscripts of an early version of Gratian's text, which differs from the mainstream textual tradition, have survived. With commentaries and supplements, the work was incorporated into the Corpus Juris Canonici; the Decretum became the standard textbook for students of canon law throughout Europe, but it never received any formal official recognition by the papacy. Only the Codex Juris Canonici of 1917 put it out of use; as late as 1997, scholars set the date of completion at 1140, but this accuracy in dating isn't possible after Anders Winroth's grou
Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, is one of the constitutions of the Second Vatican Council. It was approved by the assembled bishops by a vote of 2,147 to 4 and promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 4 December 1963; the main aim was to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church's liturgy. The title is taken from the opening lines of the document and means "this Sacred Council"; the numbers given correspond to section numbers within the text. Introduction General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church's Life The Promotion of Liturgical Instruction and Active Participation The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy General Norms Norms Drawn from the Hierarchic and Communal Nature of the Liturgy Norms Based Upon the Didactic and Pastoral Nature of the Liturgy Norms for Adapting the Liturgy to the Culture and Traditions of Peoples Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese and Parish The Promotion of Pastoral-Liturgical Action The Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist The Other Sacraments and the Sacramentals The Divine Office The Liturgical Year Sacred Music Sacred Art and Sacred Furnishings Appendix: A Declaration of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican on Revision of the Calendar As is customary with Catholic documents, the name of this constitution, "Sacred Council" in Latin, is taken from the first line of the document: 1.
This sacred Council has several aims in view: it desires to impart an increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful. The Council therefore sees cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy. One of the first issues considered by the council, the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the renewal of the liturgy; the central idea was. Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations, demanded by the nature of the liturgy; such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people, is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. Popes Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently. Now the bishops decreed that: "To promote active participation, the people should be encouraged to take part by means of acclamations, psalmody and songs."
Composers should "produce compositions which... for the active participation of the entire assembly of the faithful."After centuries when, with the Mass in Latin, Catholic piety centred around popular devotions, the bishops decreed that "Popular devotions... should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."On 24 August 2017 Pope Francis emphasized that "the reform of the liturgy is irreversible" and called for continued efforts to implement the reforms, repeating what Pope Paul VI had said one year before he died: "The time has come, now, to leave aside the disruptive ferments pernicious in one sense or the other, to implement according to its right inspiring criteria, the reform approved by us in application of the decisions of the council." The council fathers established guidelines to govern the renewal of the liturgy, which included and encouraged greater use of the vernacular in addition to Latin for the biblical readings and other prayers.
Implementation of the council's directives on the liturgy was to be carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. Magnum principium Mass of Paul VI Musicam sacram