Supreme Allied Commander Europe
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe is the commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations and head of ACO's headquarters, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. The commander is based at SHAPE in Belgium. SACEUR is the second-highest military position within NATO, below only the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee in terms of precedence. SACEUR has always been held by a U. S. military officer, the position is dual-hatted with that of Commander of United States European Command. The current SACEUR, General Curtis M. Scaparrotti, has held the position since 4 May 2016. Since 2003 the Supreme Allied Commander Europe has served as the head of Allied Command Europe and the head of Allied Command Operations; the officeholders have been: The position of deputy head of Allied Command Europe – since 2003 known as deputy head of Allied Command Operations – has been held by the following officers. From January 1978 until June 1993 there were two Deputy SACEURs, one British and one German, but from July 1993 this reverted to a single Deputy SACEUR.
Supreme Allied Commander Secretary General of NATO Chairman of the NATO Military Committee Official website
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Motor Torpedo Boat
Motor Torpedo Boat was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy. The'motor' in the formal designation, referring to the use of petrol engines, was to distinguish them from the majority of other naval craft that used steam turbines or reciprocating steam engines; the capitalised term is used for the Royal Navy boats and abbreviated to "MTB". During the Second World War, the US Navy boats were called by their hull classification symbol of "PT", are covered under PT boat although the class type were still "motor torpedo boats". German motor torpedo boats of the Second World War were called S-boote by the Kriegsmarine and "E-boats" by the Allies. Italian MTBs of this period were known as Motoscafo Armato Silurante. French MTBs were known as vedettes lance torpilles. Soviet MTBs were known as торпедные катеры. Romanian MTBs were known as vedete torpiloare. After the end of the War in 1945, a number of the Royal Navy's MTBs were stripped and the empty hulls sold for use as houseboats.
MTBs were designed for high speed, operating at night, low speed ambush and manoeuvrability on the water. With no significant armour, the boats relied upon surprise and their agility at high speed to avoid being hit by gunfire from bigger ships; the British and Italian navies started developing such vessels in the early 20th century, shortly before the beginning of the First World War. Italian MAS boats were comparatively small, at 20-30 tons displacement. MAS 15 was the only motor torpedo boat in history to sink a battleship, the Austro-Hungarian vessel Szent István in 1918. British torpedo boats of the First World War were small at only around 15 tons and were known as Coastal Motor Boats. In the Second World War, British MTBs were operated by Coastal Forces. A similar size boat with a different role in the Second World War was the BPB 63 ft High Speed Launch used by the RAF; the last MTBs in the Royal Navy were the two Brave-class fast patrol boats of 1958 which were capable of 50 knots. Many boats designated MTBs.
A variety of designs were built. For instance, a 55 ft type, capable of 40 kn, was shown in 1930; the Vosper private boat was designed by Commander Peter Du Cane CBE, the managing director of Vosper Ltd, in 1936. She was completed and launched in 1937, she was bought by the Admiralty and taken into service with the Royal Navy as MTB 102. Length: 68 ft Beam: 19 ft 9 in Draft: 3 ft 9 in, Powerplant: 3 Isotta Fraschini 57-litre petrol engines Power: 3,300 hp Speed: 48 kn, 43 kn Crew: 2 officers, 10 men. Armament: Two 21 in torpedo tubes MTB 102 was the fastest wartime British naval vessel in service, she was at Dunkirk for the evacuation and carried Winston Churchill and Dwight Eisenhower when they reviewed the fleet before the Invasion of Normandy. They were based on the British Power Boat rescue craft and were designed for the Royal Air Force but reduced to 60 ft in length, they could achieve a maximum speed of 33 kn. The Royal Navy ordered their first in 1936; these entered service as MTB numbers 1 to 12 and 14 to 19.
In the early days of the war, they were painted with different numbers and photos distributed to the press to give the impression the Royal Navy had more than they did. One photo was sent to the American monthly Popular Science showing the number twenty-three. Although various boat lengths were produced by Vosper for the Royal Navy, the "70 ft" boat was produced from 1940; the design was produced with modifications as MTBs 31-40, 57-66, 73-98, 222-245, 347-362, 380-395 and 523-537. Using three Packard V1-12 marine engines, they were capable of around 37 kn. Early models carried two 21-inch torpedo tubes, two 0.50 in machine guns and two 0.303 in machine guns. They could carry four depth charges. Between 1943 and 1945, two Vosper designs appeared, the "Vosper Type I 73ft" and the Type II. Length: 73 ft Engine: 3 Packard 12M engines for a total of 4,200 hp Speed: 40 knots Range: 470 nmi at 20 knots Displacement: 47 t Armament: Four 18-inch torpedo tubes Oerlikon 20 mm cannon Two 0.303 in Vickers K machine guns Crew: 13 This design remained in use after the war.
Length 73 ft Engine 4,200 hp Speed 40 knots Range 480 nmi at 20 knots Displacement 49 t Armament Two 18-inch torpedoes QF 6 pdr Mark IIA 20mm Oerlikon Two 0.303 Vickers MG Crew 13 These boats were used by the Royal Canadian Navy 29th MTB Flotilla. Designed as Motor Gun Boats carrying a 6-pounder to engage enemy small craft, they were re-designated Motor Torpedo Boats. Scott-Paine Type G 70 foot boat. Manufacturer: British Power Boats, Hythe Displacement: 55 tons Overall length: 72 ft 6 inches Breadth: 20 ft 7 inches Draught: 5 ft 8 inches Maximum speed: 38–41 kn Armament: auto-loading QF 6-pounder gun Two 21-inch torpedo tubes.303 or.50 Vickers machine guns 20mm Oerlikon or 40 mm Bofors gun Powerplant - three Rolls-Royce or Packard 14M supercharged V-1
Royal Canadian Navy
The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as "Maritime Command" until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.
Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. By the end of the war, the RCN had become the fifth-largest navy in the world after the United States Navy, the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Soviet Navy, with over 900 vessels and 375 combat ships. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. In 1940–41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft. From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.
Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service. The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy.
The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the c
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat. This serves the purpose of ensuring the combat readiness of garrisoned or deployable forces prior to deployment from a home base. War games involving two or more countries allows for better coordination between militaries, observation of enemy's tactics, is a visible show of strength for the participating countries. Exercises in the 20th and 21st centuries have been identified by a unique codename, such as Cobra Gold, in the same manner as military contingency operations and combat operations like Operation Phantom Fury; the more thought of exercise is the field exercise, or the full-scale rehearsal of military maneuvers as practice for warfare. Historical names for field exercises in the military services of the British Commonwealth include "schemes," while those of the military services United States are known as Field Training Exercises, or, in the case of naval forces, Fleet Exercises.
In a field exercise or fleet exercise, the two sides in the simulated battle are called "red" and "blue", to avoid naming a particular adversary. This naming convention originates with the inventors of the table-top war-game, the Prussians von Reiswitz. A Command Post Exercise focuses on the battle readiness of staffs such as a particular Unified Combatant Command or one of its components at any level, it may run in parallel with an FTX or its equivalent, or as a stand-alone event for headquarters staff only with heavy emphasis on simulated events. Other types of exercise include the TEWT known as a sand table, map or cloth model exercise; this type of exercise allows commanders to manipulate models through possible scenarios in military planning. This is called warfare simulation, or in some instances a virtual battlefield and in the past has been described as "wargames." Such examples of modern military wargames include DARWARS, a serious game developed since 2003 by the US DARPA agency with BBN Technologies, a defense contractor, involved in the development of packet switching, used for ARPANET, which developed the first computer modem in 1963.
A subset of simulated exercises is the Table Top Exercise limited to senior personnel stepping through the decision-making processes they would employ in a crisis, a contingency, or general warfare. Several different armed forces of the same nation training together are described as having a joint exercise, while those involving forces of multiple nations are described as having a combined exercise; these latter events incorporating multiple nations have been referred to as NATO exercises, Coalition exercises, Bilateral exercises, Multilateral exercises, or other named events. The modern use of military exercises grew out of the military need to study warfare and to'reenact' old battles for learning purposes. During the age of Kabinettskriege, Frederick the Great, King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, "put together his armies as a well-oiled clockwork mechanism whose components were robot-like warriors. No individual initiative was allowed to Frederick's soldiers; this was in the pursuit of a more effective army, such practices made it easier to look at war from a top-down perspective.
Disciplined troops should respond predictably, allowing study to be confined to maneuvers and command. The stunning Prussian victory over the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War is sometimes credited to the training of Prussian officers with the game Kriegspiel, invented around 1811 and gained popularity with many officers in the Prussian army; these first wargames were played with dice which represented "friction", or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war. 21st century militaries still use wargames to model their reaction. According to Manuel de Landa, after World War II the Command and Communications was transferred from the military staff to the RAND Corporation, the first think tank. Von Neumann was employed by the RAND Corporation, his game theory was used in wargames to model nuclear dissuasion during the Cold War. Thus, the US nuclear strategy was defined using wargames, "SAM" representing the US and "IVAN" the Soviet Union. Early game theory included only zero-sum games, which means that when one player won, the other automatically lost.
The Prisoner's dilemma, which models the situation of two prisoners in which each one is given the choice to betray or not the other, gave three alternatives to the game: Neither prisoners betrays the other, both are given short-term sentences One prisoner betrays the other, is freed, while the other gets a long sentence Both prisoners betray each other, both are given mid-sized sentencesThis modelization gave the basis for the massive retaliation nuclear doctrine. The zero-sum fallacy and cooperative games would be theorized only while the evolution of nuclear technology and missiles made the massive retaliation nuclear strategy obsolete. Military wargaming was progressively improved, although according to Manuel de Landa it still suffers from a systemic bias on conflict ag