It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)
"It's the End of the World as We Know It" is a song by American rock band R. E. M. which first appeared on their 1987 album Document. It was released as a single in November 1987, reaching No. 69 in the US Billboard Hot 100 and reaching No. 39 on the UK Singles Chart on its re-release in December 1991. The song originated from a unreleased song called "PSA". "PSA" was itself reworked and released as a single in 2003, under the title "Bad Day". In an interview with Guitar World magazine published in November 1996, R. E. M. Guitarist Peter Buck agreed that "End of the World" was in the tradition of Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues"; the track is known for its quick flying stream of consciousness rant with a number of diverse references, such as a quartet of individuals with the initials "L. B.": Leonard Bernstein, Leonid Brezhnev, Lenny Bruce, Lester Bangs. In a 1990s interview with Musician magazine, R. E. M.'s lead singer Michael Stipe claimed that the "L. B." references came from a dream he had in which he found himself at a party surrounded by famous people who all shared those initials.
"The words come from everywhere." Stipe explained to Q Magazine in 1992. "I'm aware of everything around me, whether I am in a sleeping state, dream-state or just in day to day life, so that ended up in the song along with a lot of stuff I'd seen when I was flipping TV channels. It's a collection of streams of consciousness."The song was included on the 2001 Clear Channel memorandum of songs thought to be "lyrically questionable" after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The song was played for a 24-hour period to introduce the new format for WENZ 107.9 FM "The End", a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio in 1992. When the station underwent a new format change in 1996, they again played the song in 24-hour loop. There was a documentary film made about the station entitled The End of the World As We Knew It, released in 2009 which featured many of the former staffers and jocks; the song was featured in several satirical videos on YouTube, in connection with the prediction of radio pastor Harold Camping of Family Radio, that the world would end on May 21, 2011.
Before the supposed Mayan apocalypse on December 21, 2012, sales for the song jumped from 3,000 to 19,000 copies for the week. Alternative radio station CFEX-FM in Calgary, Canada stunted by playing the song all day on December 21, 2012, interspersed with "Get to Know a Mayan" and "Apocalypse Survival Tips" segments; the music video was directed by James Herbert, who worked with the band on several other videos in the late 1980s. It depicts a young skateboarder, Noah Ray, in a cluttered room of an abandoned, half-collapsed farmhouse; as he rummages through the junk, which includes several band pictures and flyers, he shows off various toys and items to the camera and plays with a dog that wanders into the house. As the video ends, he goes shirtless and starts performing skateboard tricks while still inside the room. "7: IRS IRM 145:"It's the End of the World as We Know It" – 4:04 "This One Goes Out" – 4:19"7: IRS IRS-53220. E. M. Bill Berry – drums, backing vocals Peter Buck – guitar Mike Mills – bass guitar, backing vocals Michael Stipe – lead vocals The cast of SMTV Live sang a variation of the song in the final episode on December 27, 2003.
Vic Chesnutt, "discovered" by R. E. M.'s Michael Stipe, recorded a loose cover of the song for the 1992 R. E. M. Tribute album Surprise Your Pig. Newfoundland folk-rockers Great Big Sea covered the song on their 1997 album Play under the title "End of the World", their version is a minute and a half shorter than R. E. M.'s, yet still contains all the verses. It peaked at #24 on the Canadian Singles Chart on the week of April 6, 1998. DC Talk covered the song on their 1997 live album; the Suicide Machines covered the song for their 2001 release Steal This Record. American actress America Ferrera covered the song during episode "Blackout!" of ABC television series Ugly Betty. On May 21, 2011, in preparation for the apparent 2011 end times prediction, the song was covered by Matt Nathanson and Little Big Town in Holmdel, New Jersey, Bon Jovi did a separate cover in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Orange County ska punk band Starpool released a cover of the song as a digital download on December 21, 2012. In 2011, Chris Carrabba of Dashboard Confessional covered this song on his album Covered In The Flood.
Peter Buffett covered the song and released it on December 21, 2012. Italian rocker and songwriter Luciano Ligabue covered the song and released it on his fourth album "A che ora è la
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Nuclear warfare is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects from the fallout released, could lead to a "nuclear winter" that could last for decades, centuries, or millennia after the initial attack; some analysts dismiss the nuclear winter hypothesis, calculate that with nuclear weapon stockpiles at Cold War highs, although there would be billions of casualties, billions more rural people would survive. However, others have argued that secondary effects of a nuclear holocaust, such as nuclear famine and societal collapse, would cause every human on Earth to starve to death. So far, two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, a uranium gun-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type device was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
These two bombings resulted in the deaths of 120,000 people. After World War II, nuclear weapons were developed by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China, which contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became known as the Cold War. In 1974, in 1998, two countries that were hostile toward each other, developed nuclear weapons. Israel and North Korea are thought to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, though it is not known how many; the Israeli government has never admitted or denied to having nuclear weapons, although it is known to have constructed the reactor and reprocessing plant necessary for building nuclear weapons. South Africa manufactured several complete nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but subsequently became the first country to voluntarily destroy their domestically made weapons stocks and abandon further production. Nuclear weapons have been detonated on over 2,000 occasions for testing demonstrations. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was thought to have declined.
Since concern over nuclear weapons has shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from nuclear proliferation, the threat of nuclear terrorism. The possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is divided into two subgroups, each with different effects and fought with different types of nuclear armaments; the first, a limited nuclear war, refers to a small-scale use of nuclear weapons by two belligerents. A "limited nuclear war" could include targeting military facilities—either as an attempt to pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an offensive measure; this term could apply to any small-scale use of nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets. The second, a full-scale nuclear war, could consist of large numbers of nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including military and civilian targets; such an attack would certainly destroy the entire economic and military infrastructure of the target nation, would have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere.
Some Cold War strategists such as Henry Kissinger argued that a limited nuclear war could be possible between two armed superpowers. Some predict, that a limited war could "escalate" into a full-scale nuclear war. Others have called limited nuclear war "global nuclear holocaust in slow motion", arguing that—once such a war took place—others would be sure to follow over a period of decades rendering the planet uninhabitable in the same way that a "full-scale nuclear war" between superpowers would, only taking a much longer path to the same result; the most optimistic predictions of the effects of a major nuclear exchange foresee the death of many millions of victims within a short period of time. More pessimistic predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could bring about the extinction of the human race, or at least its near extinction, with only a small number of survivors and a reduced quality of life and life expectancy for centuries afterward. However, such predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold War highs, have not been without criticism.
Such a horrific catastrophe as global nuclear warfare would certainly cause permanent damage to most complex life on the planet, its ecosystems, the global climate. If predictions about the production of a nuclear winter are accurate, it would change the balance of global power, with countries such as Australia, New Zealand, China and Brazil predicted to become world superpowers if the Cold War led to a large-scale nuclear attack. A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December 2006 asserted that a small-scale regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. In a regional nuclear conflict scenario in w
Global catastrophic risk
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale crippling or destroying modern civilization. An event that could cause human extinction or permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an existential risk. Potential global catastrophic risks include anthropogenic risks, caused by humans, non-anthropogenic or external risks. Examples of technology risks are hostile artificial intelligence and destructive biotechnology or nanotechnology. Insufficient or malign global governance creates risks in the social and political domain, such as a global war, including nuclear holocaust, bioterrorism using genetically modified organisms, cyberterrorism destroying critical infrastructure like the electrical grid. Problems and risks in the domain of earth system governance include global warming, environmental degradation, including extinction of species, famine as a result of non-equitable resource distribution, human overpopulation, crop failures and non-sustainable agriculture.
Examples of non-anthropogenic risks are an asteroid impact event, a supervolcanic eruption, a lethal gamma-ray burst, a geomagnetic storm destroying electronic equipment, natural long-term climate change, hostile extraterrestrial life, or the predictable Sun transforming into a red giant star engulfing the Earth. A "global catastrophic risk" is any risk, at least "global" in scope, is not subjectively "imperceptible" in intensity; those that are at least "trans-generational" in scope and "terminal" in intensity are classified as existential risks. While a global catastrophic risk may kill the vast majority of life on earth, humanity could still recover. An existential risk, on the other hand, is one that either destroys humanity or at least prevents any chance of civilization recovering. In Catastrophe: Risk and Response, Richard Posner singles out and groups together events that bring about "utter overthrow or ruin" on a global, rather than a "local or regional" scale. Posner singles out such events as worthy of special attention on cost-benefit grounds because they could directly or indirectly jeopardize the survival of the human race as a whole.
Posner's events include meteor impacts, runaway global warming, grey goo and particle accelerator accidents. Researchers experience difficulty in studying near human extinction directly, since humanity has never been destroyed before. While this does not mean that it will not be in the future, it does make modelling existential risks difficult, due in part to survivorship bias. However, civilizations vanished rather in human history; some risks left a geological record. Together with contemporary observations, it is possible to make informed estimates of the likelihood such events will occur in the future. For example, an extinction-level comet or asteroid impact event before the year 2100 has been estimated at one-in-a-million. Supervolcanoes are another example. There are several known supervolcanos, including Mt. Toba, which some say wiped out humanity at the time of its last eruption; the geologic record suggests this particular supervolcano re-erupts about every 50,000 years. Without the benefit of geological records and direct observation, the relative danger posed by other threats is much more difficult to calculate.
In addition, it is one thing to estimate the likelihood of an event taking place, something else to assess how an event will cause extinction if it does occur, most difficult of all, the risk posted by synergistic effects of multiple events taking place simultaneously. Given the limitations of ordinary calculation and modeling, expert elicitation is used instead to obtain probability estimates. In 2008, an informal survey of experts on different global catastrophic risks at the Global Catastrophic Risk Conference at the University of Oxford suggested a 19% chance of human extinction by the year 2100; the conference report cautions that the results should be taken "with a grain of salt", the results were not meant to capture all large risks and did not include things like climate change, the results reflect many cognitive biases of the conference participants. Table source: Future of Humanity Institute, 2008; the 2016 annual report by the Global Challenges Foundation estimates that an average American is more than five times more to die during a human-extinction event than in a car crash.
There are significant methodological challenges in estimating these risks with precision. Most attention has been given to risks to human civilization over the next 100 years, but forecasting for this length of time is difficult; the types of threats posed by nature have been argued to be constant, though this has been disputed, new risks could be discovered. Anthropogenic threats, are to change with the development of new technology; the ability of experts to predict the future over these timescales has proved limited. Man-made threats such as nuclear war or nanotechnology are harder to predict than natural threats, due to the inherent methodological difficulties in the social sciences. In general, it is hard to estimate the magnitude of the risk from this or other dangers as both international relations and technology can change rapidly. Existential risks pose unique challenges to prediction more than o
Asteroids are minor planets of the inner Solar System. Larger asteroids have been called planetoids; these terms have been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not resemble a planet-like disc and was not observed to have characteristics of an active comet such as a tail. As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered they were found to have volatile-rich surfaces similar to comets; as a result, they were distinguished from objects found in the main asteroid belt. In this article, the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System including those co-orbital with Jupiter. There exist millions of asteroids, many thought to be the shattered remnants of planetesimals, bodies within the young Sun's solar nebula that never grew large enough to become planets; the vast majority of known asteroids orbit within the main asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, or are co-orbital with Jupiter. However, other orbital families exist with significant populations, including the near-Earth objects.
Individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra, with the majority falling into three main groups: C-type, M-type, S-type. These were named after and are identified with carbon-rich and silicate compositions, respectively; the sizes of asteroids varies greatly. Asteroids are differentiated from meteoroids. In the case of comets, the difference is one of composition: while asteroids are composed of mineral and rock, comets are composed of dust and ice. Furthermore, asteroids formed closer to the sun; the difference between asteroids and meteoroids is one of size: meteoroids have a diameter of one meter or less, whereas asteroids have a diameter of greater than one meter. Meteoroids can be composed of either cometary or asteroidal materials. Only one asteroid, 4 Vesta, which has a reflective surface, is visible to the naked eye, this only in dark skies when it is favorably positioned. Small asteroids passing close to Earth may be visible to the naked eye for a short time; as of October 2017, the Minor Planet Center had data on 745,000 objects in the inner and outer Solar System, of which 504,000 had enough information to be given numbered designations.
The United Nations declared 30 June as International Asteroid Day to educate the public about asteroids. The date of International Asteroid Day commemorates the anniversary of the Tunguska asteroid impact over Siberia, Russian Federation, on 30 June 1908. In April 2018, the B612 Foundation reported "It's 100 percent certain we'll be hit, but we're not 100 percent sure when." In 2018, physicist Stephen Hawking, in his final book Brief Answers to the Big Questions, considered an asteroid collision to be the biggest threat to the planet. In June 2018, the US National Science and Technology Council warned that America is unprepared for an asteroid impact event, has developed and released the "National Near-Earth Object Preparedness Strategy Action Plan" to better prepare. According to expert testimony in the United States Congress in 2013, NASA would require at least five years of preparation before a mission to intercept an asteroid could be launched; the first asteroid to be discovered, was considered to be a new planet.
This was followed by the discovery of other similar bodies, with the equipment of the time, appeared to be points of light, like stars, showing little or no planetary disc, though distinguishable from stars due to their apparent motions. This prompted the astronomer Sir William Herschel to propose the term "asteroid", coined in Greek as ἀστεροειδής, or asteroeidēs, meaning'star-like, star-shaped', derived from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ astēr'star, planet'. In the early second half of the nineteenth century, the terms "asteroid" and "planet" were still used interchangeably. Overview of discovery timeline: 10 by 1849 1 Ceres, 1801 2 Pallas – 1802 3 Juno – 1804 4 Vesta – 1807 5 Astraea – 1845 in 1846, planet Neptune was discovered 6 Hebe – July 1847 7 Iris – August 1847 8 Flora – October 1847 9 Metis – 25 April 1848 10 Hygiea – 12 April 1849 tenth asteroid discovered 100 asteroids by 1868 1,000 by 1921 10,000 by 1989 100,000 by 2005 ~700,000 by 2015 Asteroid discovery methods have improved over the past two centuries.
In the last years of the 18th century, Baron Franz Xaver von Zach organized a group of 24 astronomers to search the sky for the missing planet predicted at about 2.8 AU from the Sun by the Titius-Bode law because of the discovery, by Sir William Herschel in 1781, of the planet Uranus at the distance predicted by the law. This task required that hand-drawn sky charts be prepared for all stars in the zodiacal band down to an agreed-upon limit of faintness. On subsequent nights, the sky would be charted again and any moving object would be spotted; the expected motion of the missing planet was about 30 seconds of arc per hour discernible by observers. The first object, was not discovered by a member of the group, but rather by accident in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, director of the observatory of Palermo in Sicily, he discovered a new star-like object in Taurus and followed the displacement of this object during several nights. That year, Carl Friedrich Gauss used these observations to calculate the orbit of this unknown object, found to be between the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Piazzi named it after Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture. Three other asteroids (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Ves
Dirk Felsenheimer, better known under his stage name Bela B, is a German musician and songwriter. He is best known for being the one of the singers in the German band Die Ärzte. In 2006, he released his first solo album entitled Bingo. Bela B is an actor and has done several voice-overs for television and film. Dirk Albert Felsenheimer was born in the westernmost borough of Berlin, he has a twin sister named his parents separated when he was five years old. Felsenheimer graduated from the Carlo-Schmid-Oberschule. Afterwards he joined the police force due to boredom and because of the influence of his uncle, a police officer. However, shortly before joining the force Bela became punk, which seemed at odds with the conformity required of him in the police. Despite his reservations, he began police training, as he could think of no other viable option and he did not want his mother to worry about him. However, he quit the force soon after joining because he felt that he did not belong there and he began being harassed by the other recruits.
He worked in a warehouse for a short time before beginning a 3-year apprenticeship as a window-dresser for the department store Hertie. Felsenheimer took his stage name from Dracula actor Bela Lugosi, whom he has admired since childhood; the B stands for Barney, as the German name of the fictional The Flintstones character Barney Rubble is "Barney Geröllheimer" and he was nicknamed after him because of the similarity to "Felsenheimer". Felsenheimer is registered with the German performing rights society GEMA as'Bela Barney Felsenheimer'. Bela B. lives with their son in Hamburg. Bela B. first played in the short-lived Soilent Grün before co-founding Die Ärzte in 1982 with singer/guitarist Farin Urlaub and bassist Hans Runge. The group soon appeared on the 20 Überschäumende Stimmungshits compilation, after winning an amateur band contest they spent their winnings on their 1983 debut EP, Uns geht's prima.... They signed a record deal with Columbia Records, which issued the band's debut LP, Debil, in 1984.
After releasing several albums, the band broke up in 1988 and reunited in 1993. After Die Ärzte split up, he soon formed a new band, S. U. M. P, with friend Rodrigo González and the band released an EP entitled Get Wise, Get Ugly, Get S. U. M. P. Featuring cover versions of popular songs; the band was renamed Depp Jones, named after a character in the German version of the comic book series Lucky Luke. Their 1990 debut LP, Return to Caramba!, failed to capitalise on the popularity of Die Ärzte, its follow-ups Welcome to Hell and At 2012 A. D. did worse. Farin Urlaub's new band, King Køng struggled, in 1993 he and Bela B. agreed to reform Die Ärzte, with former Depp Jones guitarist Rodrigo González joining them on bass. In 2006, Bela released his first solo album Bingo, produced by Wayne Jackson and Olsen Involtini; the record combined many different music styles such as country, beat music and traditional rock elements. Bela's love for Horror can be heard in many of the songs on the album, he worked in return guested on his album Cake or Death.
Charlotte Roche and Bela's close friend, singer Lula feature on Bingo. Bela's record reached number five in Austria. Following the album release, Bela toured with his band Bela B. Y Los Helmstedt, including appearances at several German festivals including Rock im Park, Rock am Ring, MTV Campus Invasion and Gurtenfestival. A follow-up record, Code B was released on 2 October 2009. Bela is a fan of horror, reflected in many of his songs, such as Dein Vampyr, Der Graf, Die Nacht, Wir werden schön, Der Vampir mit dem Colt, Licht am Ende des Sarges and Monsterparty. One of Bela's particular features is that he plays drums standing up during performances, he has done this since he saw the Stray Cats perform in 1983. Up to that point he had performed sitting down for the first Die Ärzte concerts. However, he plays sitting down in the studio, performed seated during the "Rock'n'Roll Realschule" concert and in the unplugged sections of the "Jenseits der Grenze des Zumutbaren" and "Unrockstar" tours. Bela was the owner of the Leipzig comic book publisher Extrem Erfolgreich Enterprises, which published horror comic books, including German versions of independent series such as "Faust" and "Satanika".
Their titles included their own publications such as "Schweinevogel" and a comic about Die Ärzte. In an interview with the Berlin magazine Zitty in September 2006, Bela B. announced that he was giving up his publishing project, "In recent years the publishing house has just petered out. In 2005 we published the book "Zehn kleine Grufties" and three other books; that isn't much for a publishing house and that's why we have now decided to close down EEE. As an author he has written for the vampire anthology Liber Vampirorum: Last Blood and for comic books published by his publishing house. Bela's other hobbies include acting and he has appeared in many German television productions, including episodes of Alarm für Cobra 11 and Tatort, as well as in Gonger for the German television channel ProSieben in 2008 and in the film Ein Göttlicher Job. In 1985 Bela portrayed one of the main characters in Richy Guitar, a film about an aspiring rock band which starred his Die Ärzte bandmates Farin Urlaub and Hans Runge.
More Bela played the lead role of concentrati
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. This means. Supervolcanoes occur when magma in the mantle rises into the crust but is unable to break through it and pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure; this can occur at subduction zones. Another setting for the eruption of large amounts of volcanic material is in large igneous provinces, which can cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash, causing long-lasting climate change, which can threaten species with extinction; the Oruanui eruption of New Zealand's Taupo Volcano was the world's most recent super eruption at a VEI-8 eruption. The origin of the term "supervolcano" is linked to an early 20th-century scientific debate about the geological history and features of the Three Sisters volcanic region of Oregon in the United States. In 1925, Edwin T. Hodge suggested that a large volcano, which he named Mount Multnomah, had existed in that region.
He believed that several peaks in the Three Sisters area are the remnants of Mount Multnomah after it had been destroyed by violent volcanic explosions, similar to Mount Mazama. In 1948, the possible existence of Mount Multnomah was ignored by volcanologist Howel Williams in his book The Ancient Volcanoes of Oregon; the book was reviewed in 1949 by F. M. Byers Jr.. In the review, Byers refers to Mount Multnomah as a supervolcano. Subsequent research proved that each peak of the Three Sisters was formed independently, that Mount Multnomah did not exist. More than fifty years after Williams' book was published, the term supervolcano was popularised by the BBC popular science television program Horizon in 2000, to refer to eruptions that produce large amounts of ejecta; the term megacaldera is sometimes used for caldera supervolcanoes, such as the Blake River Megacaldera Complex in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Eruptions that rate VEI 8 are termed "super eruptions". Though there is no well-defined minimum explosive size for a "supervolcano", there are at least two types of volcanic eruptions that have been identified as supervolcanoes: large igneous provinces and massive eruptions.
Large igneous provinces, such as Iceland, the Siberian Traps, Deccan Traps, the Ontong Java Plateau, are extensive regions of basalts on a continental scale resulting from flood basalt eruptions. When created, these regions occupy several thousand square kilometres and have volumes on the order of millions of cubic kilometers. In most cases, the lavas are laid down over several million years, they release large amounts of gases. The Réunion hotspot produced the Deccan Traps about 66 million years ago, coincident with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event; the scientific consensus is that a meteor impact was the cause of the extinction event, but the volcanic activity may have caused environmental stresses on extant species up to the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Additionally, the largest flood basalt event occurred around 250 million years ago and was coincident with the largest mass extinction in history, the Permian–Triassic extinction event, although it is unknown whether it was responsible for the extinction event.
Such outpourings are not explosive. Many volcanologists consider that Iceland may be a large igneous province, being formed; the last major outpouring occurred in 1783–84 from the Laki fissure, 40 km long. An estimated 14 km3 of basaltic lava was poured out during the eruption; the Ontong Java Plateau has an area of about 2,000,000 km2, the province was at least 50% larger before the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus broke away. Volcanic eruptions are classified using the Volcanic Explosivity Index, or VEI, it is a logarithmic scale, which means that an increase of one in VEI number is equivalent to a tenfold increase in volume of erupted material. VEI 7 or VEI 8 eruptions are so powerful that they form circular calderas rather than cones because the downward withdrawal of magma causes the overlying rock mass to collapse into the empty magma chamber beneath it. Based on incomplete statistics, at least 60 VEI 8 eruptions have been identified. VEI 7 eruptions, less colossal but still massive, have occurred in historical times.
Four VEI 7 eruptions have occurred within the past 2000 years: Taupo Volcano's Hatepe eruption c. 232, the 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain, the eruption of Mount Samalas in 1257, the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. * means DRE. Nova featured an episode "Mystery of the Megavolcano" in September 2006 examining such eruptions in the last 100,000 years. Global catastrophic risk – Hypothetical future event that has the potential to damage human well-being on a global scale Timeline of volcanism on Earth Toba catastrophe theory Volcanic winter Mason, Ben G.. "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth". Bulletin of Volcanology. 66: 735–748. Bibcode:2004BVol...66..735M. Doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. Oppenheimer, C.. Eruptions that shook the world. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64112-8. Timmreck, C.. "The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 6: 35–49. Doi:10.5194/acp-6-35-2006.
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