Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong
The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong is the representative office of the Republic of China in Hong Kong. Its counterpart body in Taiwan is the Hong Kong Economic and Cultural Office in Taiwan; the General Manager of TECO is the Director of the Bureau of Hong Kong Affairs in the Mainland Affairs Council of the Executive Yuan. The founding director of the office was Susie Chiang Su-hui; the office is located at Lippo Centre building Tower 1 in Admiralty. The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong known as Chung Hwa Travel Service, was first established in Hong Kong in 1966 during British rule; this operated under quasi-diplomatic arrangements unilaterally extended by the British authorities. While the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing had negotiated with the British regarding the appointment of a Consul-General in 1945, it decided against such an appointment, with its representative in the colony, T W Kwok instead being styled Special Commissioner for Hong Kong.
This was in addition to his role as Special Commissioner for Guangxi. Disagreements arose with the British authorities, with the Governor, Alexander Grantham, opposing an office building for the "Commissioner for Foreign Affairs of the Provinces of Kwantung and Kuangsi" being erected on the site of the Walled City in Kowloon. In 1950, following British recognition of the People's Republic of China, the office of the Special Commissioner was closed and Kwok withdrawn. Following the transfer of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997, the Service continued to operate, despite not having been registered with the Hong Kong SAR Government. However, in 2000, Beijing set out the conditions under which the Chung Hwa Travel Service could operate in Hong Kong, although the Mainland Affairs Council refused to detail them. In 2004, the newly-appointed managing director of the Service faced a five-month delay before received approval to enter Hong Kong and assume his post. Other Taiwan government officials faced difficulties in obtaining visas to visit Hong Kong.
In 2009, the Service opened a visa office at Hong Kong International Airport, thereby allowing mainland visitors to Taiwan to collect their visas at the airport instead of having to travel to the office in Admiralty. On 20 July 2011, in a ceremony presided over by Mainland Affairs Council Chairwoman Lai Shin-yuan, it was renamed the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office; this brought it into line with most other representative offices around the world, which had "Taipei" in their titles. The renaming was considered a milestone in the improved cross-strait relations between Taipei and Beijing; the office is accessible within walking distance West from Admiralty Station of the Hong Kong MTR. Hong Kong–Taiwan Economic and Cultural Co-operation and Promotion Council Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau Hong Kong Economic and Cultural Office List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan Consular missions in Hong Kong Cross-Strait relations Official website in Chinese Kwang Hwa Information and Culture Centre
Kinmen or Quemoy Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres to the northeast, it is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres east of the mainland city of Xiamen, their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city. Kinmen was given its name in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming dynasty appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou attacks.
The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties. Quemoy is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization, it began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi. This form of the islands' name was used exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".
Kinmen is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government, the islands' airport, the national park use this spelling. Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard. Jinmen is the hanyu pinyin form of the island's name used in sources from the People's Republic of China; the Kinmen County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen itself. People began settling down in Kinmen during the Tang Dynasty, changing the original name from Wuzhou to Kinmen. During the Ming Dynasty, more migrants came to settle down in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen as a base to liberate Kinmen and Penghu from the Dutch.
He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen vulnerable to soil erosion. The Prince of Lu, a member of the Southern Ming Dynasty, resisted the invading Manchu Qing Dynasty forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663. After the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, Kinmen became part of Fukien Province. Japan did however occupy Kinmen during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, it was claimed by both the ROC and PRC; the People's Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan Strait crises in 1954–1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC. Kinmen was a military reserve, which led to the tragedy of 1987 Lieyu massacre; the island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed.
Direct travel between mainland China and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links, there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists. Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS outbreak, but has since resumed. Many Taiwanese businessmen use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businessmen relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC. On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen.
This privilege applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The people of Kinmen see themselves as Kinmenese, Mínnánrén, or Chinese, but not so much as Taiwanese; the strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China when Kinmen was under military administration. In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law wa
Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau
The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau is the representative office of the Republic of China in Macau. Its counterpart body in Taiwan is the Macau Cultural Office in Taiwan; the office is located at Dynasty Plaza building in Sé. The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau known as the Taipei Trade and Tourism Office in Macau between 1989 and 1999 and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Center in Macau between 1999 and 2011, was established in Macau in 1989 during Portuguese rule; until 1967, Taipei was represented in Macau by the Special Commissariat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China. However, following the "12-3" riots in 1966, the Portuguese government agreed to close it down, as well as ban all pro-Kuomintang activities; as a result, the opening of the Taipei Trade and Tourism Office prompted concerns from the local branch of the Xinhua News Agency, the People's Republic of China's de facto mission in Macau, which threatened to protest to the Macau authorities "if anything went wrong".
The official opening of the office under its new current name was unveiled on 19 July 2011 by the Minister of Mainland Affairs Council of the Republic of China Lai Shin-yuan. The renaming however was done prior to the official office launch under the new name on 4 July 2011. In the future, the office will be served from Jardim das Artes Station of the Macau LRT. Cross-Strait relations Macau Economic and Cultural Office Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan One-China policy
A visa is a conditional authorisation granted by a territory to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that territory. Visas may include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, can be revoked at any time. A visa most takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document. Immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport.
Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must apply in advance for what is called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post or over the internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, or may take the form of a separate document or an electronic record of the authorisation, which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the visited territory; some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits. Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travelling, details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry; some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travellers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country. Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty.
Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level in 2015. In Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century and visas were not necessary for moving from one country to another; the high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used. Passports and visas became necessary as travel documents only after World War I. Long before that, in ancient times and visas were the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents; some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist, specialised in the issuance of international travel documents.
These agencies are authorised by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travellers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country one would have to travel to a third country and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border; the need or absence of need of a visa depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits. The issuing authority a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department, consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant; this may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country, proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc.
Some countries ask for proof of health status for long-term visas. The exact conditions depend on the category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not enforced. Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory; the issuing authority may require applicants to attest that they have no criminal convictions, or that they not participate in certain activities. Some countries will deny visas if travellers' passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country, considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel. Many countries demand strong evid
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Foochow Romanized known as Bàng-uâ-cê or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê, is a Latin alphabet for the Fuzhou dialect of Eastern Min adopted in the middle of the 19th century by Western missionaries. It had varied at different times, became standardized in the 1890s. Foochow Romanized was used inside of Church circles, was taught in some Mission Schools in Fuzhou, but unlike its counterpart Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Hokkien in its prime days Foochow Romanized was by no means universally understood by Christians. After Fuzhou became one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of First Opium War, many Western missionaries arrived in the city. Faced with widespread illiteracy, they developed Latin alphabets for Fuzhou dialect; the first attempt in romanizing Fuzhou dialect was made by the American Methodist M. C. White, who borrowed a system of orthography known as the System of Sir William Jones. In this system, 14 initials were designed according to their voicing and aspiration. ⟨p⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨k⟩ and ⟨ch⟩ stand for, and.
Besides the default five vowels of Latin alphabet, four diacritic-marked letters ⟨è⟩, ⟨ë⟩, ⟨ò⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ were introduced, and, respectively. This system is described at length in White's linguistic work The Chinese Language Spoken at Fuh Chau. Subsequent missionaries, including Robert S. Maclay from American Methodist Episcopal Mission, R. W. Stewart from the Church of England and Charles Hartwell from the American Board Mission, further modified White's System in several ways; the most significant change was made for the plosive consonants, where the spiritus lenis ⟨᾿⟩ of the aspirated initials was removed and the letters ⟨b⟩, ⟨d⟩ and ⟨g⟩ substituted for and. In the aspect of vowels, ⟨è⟩, ⟨ë⟩, ⟨ò⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ were replaced by ⟨a̤⟩, ⟨e̤⟩, ⟨o̤⟩ and ⟨ṳ⟩. Since the diacritical marks were all shifted to underneath the vowels, this left room above the vowels, occupied by the newly introduced tonal marks, thus Foochow Romanized avoids the awkward diacritic stacking seen for instance in the Vietnamese script, where tone and vowel quality marks both sit above the vowel.
The sample characters are taken from the Qi Lin Bayin, a renowned phonology book about the Fuzhou dialect written in the Qing Dynasty. The pronunciations are recorded in standard IPA symbols. Note that Foochow Romanized uses the breve, not the caron, to indicate Yīnpíng and Yángrù tones of Fuzhou dialect. Everything You Want To Know About Foochow Romanized Gô Iók Cŭ: The Old Testament, in Foochow Romanized. Sĭng Iók Cŭ: The New Testament, in Foochow Romanized. An English-Chinese Dictionary of the Foochow Dialect, by T. B. Adam, 1905 Learning material of Foochow Romanized at the Wayback Machine