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In commerce and management, exnovation, an opposite of innovation, can occur when products and processes that have been tested and confirmed to be best-in-class are standardized to ensure that they are not innovated further.[1][2][3][4] Companies that have followed exnovation as a strategy to improve organizational performance include General Electric, Ford Motor Company and American Airlines.[5]

One of the earliest usages of the term came in 1981, when John Kimberly referred to "removal of innovation from an organisation";[6] in 1996 A. Sandeep provided the modern definition of exnovation as the philosophy of not innovating – in other words, ensuring that best-in-class entities are not innovated further. Since then "exnovation" has become a notable parlance in various practices, from management to medicine.[7][8][9][10][11][12]


  1. ^ Exnovation!
  2. ^ "Should You "Exnovate" your Product Portfolio? - Tech-Clarity". Tech-Clarity. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  3. ^ "The Exnovation Conundrum". LDI. 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  4. ^ "The Mother of all Innovations Exnovation". www.4psbusinessandmarketing.com. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  5. ^ "Exnovation! -". www.businessandeconomy.org. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  6. ^ Kimberly, J.R. (1981) 'Managerial Innovation'. In Nystorm, P.C. and Starbuck, W.H. (eds) Handbook of Organizational Design. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 84–104.
  7. ^ Rodriguez, H (2016). "The exnovation of chronic care management processes by physician organizations". Milbank Quartlerly. 94: 626–53. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12213. PMC 5020147Freely accessible. PMID 27620686. 
  8. ^ Williams, I (2011). "Organizational readiness for innovation in health care: some lessons from the recent literature". Health Serv Manage Res. 24: 213–8. doi:10.1258/hsmr.2011.011014. PMID 22040949. 
  9. ^ http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Exnovation.pdf
  10. ^ Frank, Richard G.; Glied, Sherry A. (2008-04-01). Better But Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States since 1950. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801889103. 
  11. ^ "The mother of all innovations - Exnovation". a--sandeep.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2017-02-08. 
  12. ^ "What is 'Exnovation' and Where Does it Fit in the Innovation Life Cycle? | Innovation Management". www.innovationmanagement.se. Retrieved 2017-02-08.