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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Exon

An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing. The term exon refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene and to the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. In RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are covalently joined to one another as part of generating the mature messenger RNA. Just as the entire set of genes for a species constitutes the genome, the entire set of exons constitutes the exome; the term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of the cistron… must be replaced by that of a transcription unit containing regions which will be lost from the mature messenger – which I suggest we call introns – alternating with regions which will be expressed – exons."This definition was made for protein-coding transcripts that are spliced before being translated. The term came to include sequences removed from rRNA and tRNA, it was used for RNA molecules originating from different parts of the genome that are ligated by trans-splicing.

Although unicellular eukaryotes such as yeast have either no introns or few and vertebrate genomes have a large fraction of non-coding DNA. For instance, in the human genome only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. This can provide a practical advantage in omics-aided health care because it makes commercialized whole exome sequencing a smaller and less expensive challenge than commercialized whole genome sequencing; the large variation in genome size and C-value across life forms has posed an interesting challenge called the C-value enigma. Across all eukaryotic genes in GenBank, there were, on average, 5.48 exons per gene. The average exon encoded 30-36 amino acids. While the longest exon in the human genome is 11555 bp long, several exons have been found to be only 2 bp long. A single-nucleotide exon has been reported from the Arabidopsis genome. In protein-coding genes, the exons include both the protein-coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions.

The first exon includes both the 5′-UTR and the first part of the coding sequence, but exons containing only regions of 5′-UTR or 3′-UTR occur in some genes, i.e. the UTRs may contain introns. Some non-coding RNA transcripts have exons and introns. Mature mRNAs originating from the same gene need not include the same exons, since different introns in the pre-mRNA can be removed by the process of alternative splicing. Exonization is the creation of a new exon, as a result of mutations in introns. Exon trapping or'gene trapping' is a molecular biology technique that exploits the existence of the intron-exon splicing to find new genes; the first exon of a'trapped' gene splices into the exon, contained in the insertional DNA. This new exon contains the ORF for a reporter gene that can now be expressed using the enhancers that control the target gene. A scientist knows. Splicing can be experimentally modified so that targeted exons are excluded from mature mRNA transcripts by blocking the access of splice-directing small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles to pre-mRNA using Morpholino antisense oligos.

This has become a standard technique in developmental biology. Morpholino oligos can be targeted to prevent molecules that regulate splicing from binding to pre-mRNA, altering patterns of splicing. Exitron Exon shuffling Interrupted gene Intron mRNA Outron Untranslated region Twintron Zhang MQ. "Statistical features of human exons and their flanking regions". Human Molecular Genetics. 7: 919–32. Doi:10.1093/hmg/7.5.919. PMID 9536098. Thanaraj TA, Robinson AJ. "Prediction of exact boundaries of exons". Brief. Bioinform. 1: 343–56. Doi:10.1093/bib/1.4.343. PMID 11465052. Exon-intron graphic maker

Lothair of France

Lothair, sometimes called Lothair III or Lothair IV, was the penultimate Carolingian king of West Francia, reigning from 10 September 954 until his death in 986. Lothair was born in Laon near the end of 941, as the eldest son of King Louis IV and Gerberga of Saxony, he succeeded his father on 10 September 954 at the age of thirteen and was crowned at the Abbey of Saint-Remi by Artald of Reims, Archbishop of Reims on 12 November 954. Lothair had been associated with the throne since the illness of his father in 951, this being a custom in the royal succession since the founding of the Kingdom of the Franks by the Merovingian dynasty. Queen Gerberga made an arrangement with her brother-in-law Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, an adversary of Lothair's father. In exchange for supporting Lothair's rule Hugh was given rule over Duchy of Aquitaine and much of the Kingdom of Burgundy as more or less a regent. Lothair inherited a fragmented kingdom, where the great magnates took lands and offices without any regard for the authority of the king.

Magnates like Hugh the Great and Herbert II, Count of Vermandois were always a veiled threat. In 955 Lothair and Hugh the Great together took Poitiers by siege. With Hugh the Great's death in 956 Lothair, only fifteen, came under the guardianship of his maternal uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, brother of East Francia's king Otto I. With Bruno's advice, Lothair mediated between Hugh's sons -- Otto, Duke of Burgundy; the King gave Paris and the title of dux francorum to Hugh Capet, invested Otto with the Duchy of Burgundy in 956. The guardianship of Archbishop Bruno of Cologne lasted until 965 and oriented Lothair towards policy of submission towards East Francia, evolving into the German Holy Roman Empire. Despite his youth, Lothair reinforced his authority over his vassals; this desire of political independence led to a deterioration in relations between the King and his maternal relatives and a struggle with the new Holy Roman Empire. Despite this, Lothair wanted to maintain ties with Emperor Otto I by marrying Princess Emma of Italy in early 966.

In 962 Baldwin III, Count of Flanders, son, co-ruler, heir of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders died and Arnulf bequeathed Flanders to Lothair. On Arnulf's death in 965, Lothair invaded Flanders and took many cities, but was repulsed by the supporters of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders, he temporarily remained in control of Douai. Lothair attempted to increase his influence in the Lotharingia, once held by his family, in turn Emperor Otto II encouraged resistance to Lothair's overtures. In 976 the brothers Reginar IV, Count of Mons and Lambert I, Count of Louvain, after being dispossessed from their paternal inheritance by Emperor Otto II, made an alliance with Charles and Otto, Count of Vermandois and with an army they marched against the Imperial troops. A great battle, which remained undecided, took place in Mons. Although Lothair secretly encouraged this war, he did not intervene directly to help his brother. Charles established himself in Lotharingia, his main interest was to break the harmony between Lothair and the House of Ardennes, loyal to Emperor Otto II and powerful in Lotharingia and to which belonged both the Chancellor-Arbishop Adalberon of Reims and his namesake Bishop Adalberon of Laon.

In 977, Charles accused Queen Emma of adultery with Bishop Adalberon of Laon. The Synod of Sainte-Macre, led by Archbishop Adalberon of Reims, took place in Fismes to discuss the matter. Due to a lack of evidence, both the Queen and Bishop were absolved, but Charles, who maintained the rumors, was expelled from the kingdom by Lothair; the House of Ardennes and the Lotharingian party, who were favorable to an agreement with Otto II, seemed all-powerful at the court of Lothair. Otto II, committed the mistakes of restoring the County of Hainaut to Reginar IV and Lambert I, of appointing Charles as Duke of Lower Lorraine, a region corresponding to the northern half of Lotharingia, separate from the Upper Lotharingia since the late 950. Rewarding Charles, who had questioned the honor of the wife of the King of the Franks, was a way to offend the King himself. In August 978 Lothair mounted an expedition into Lorraine accompanied by Hugh Capet and upon their crossing the Meuse river took Aachen, but did not capture Otto II or Charles.

Lothair sacked the imperial Palace of Aachen for three days, reversed the direction of the bronze eagle of Charlemagne to face east instead of west. In retaliation Otto II, accompanied by Charles, invaded West Francia in October 978 and ravaged Reims and Laon. Lothair was able to escape from the Imperial troops, but Charles was proclaimed King of the Franks in Laon by Bishop Dietrich I of Metz, a relative of Emperor Otto I; the Imperial army advanced to Paris. On 30 November 978, Otto II and Charles, unable to take Paris, lifted their siege of the city and turned back; the Frankish royal army led by Lothair pursued and defeated them while crossing the river Aisne and being able to recover Laon, forcing Otto II to flee and take refuge in Aachen with Charles, the puppet-King he wanted to impose on West Francia. In West Francia the hasty retreat of Emperor Otto II had a considerable impact and long after was evoked as a great victory of Lothair. Thus, written in 1015, the Chronicles of Sens gives an epic description: there Lothai

Nuclear magnetic resonance in porous media

Nuclear magnetic resonance in porous materials covers the application of using NMR as a tool to study the structure of porous media and various processes occurring in them. This technique allows the determination of characteristics such as the porosity and pore size distribution, the permeability, the water saturation, the wettability, etc. Microscopically the volume of a single pore in a porous media may be divided into two regions; the surface area is a thin layer with thickness δ of a few molecules close to the pore wall surface. The bulk volume is the remaining part of the pore volume and dominates the overall pore volume. With respect to NMR excitations of nuclear states for hydrogen-containing molecules in these regions, different relaxation times for the induced excited energy states are expected; the relaxation time is shorter for a molecule in the surface area, compared to a molecule in the bulk volume. This is an effect of paramagnetic centres in the pore wall surface that causes the relaxation time to be faster.

The inverse of the relaxation time T i, is expressed by contributions from the bulk volume V, the surface area S and the self-diffusion d: 1 T i = 1 T i b + δ S V 1 T i s + D 2 12 with i = 1, 2 where δ is the thickness of the surface area, S is the surface area, V is the pore volume, T i b is the relaxation time in the bulk volume, T i s is the relaxation time for the surface, γ is the gyromagnetic ratio, G is the magnetic field gradient, t E is the time between echoes and D is the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid. The surface relaxation can be assumed as non-uniform; the NMR signal intensity in the T 2 distribution plot reflected by the measured amplitude of the NMR signal is proportional to the total amount of hydrogen nuclei, while the relaxation time depends on the interaction between the nuclear spins and the surroundings. In a characteristic pore containing for an example, the bulk water exhibits a single exponential decay; the water close to the pore wall surface exhibits faster T 2 relaxation time for this characteristic pore size.

NMR techniques are used to predict permeability for fluid typing and to obtain formation porosity, independent of mineralogy. The former application uses a surface-relaxation mechanism to relate measured relaxation spectra with surface-to-volume ratios of pores, the latter is used to estimate permeability; the common approach is based on the model proposed by Tarr. They have shown that, in the fast diffusion limit, given by the expression: ρ r / D where ρ is the surface relaxivity of pore wall material, r is the radius of the spherical pore and D is the bulk diffusivity; the connection between NMR relaxation measurements and petrophysical parameters such as permeability stems from the strong effect that the rock surface has on promoting magnetic relaxation. For a single pore, the magnetic decay as a function of time is described by a single exponential: M = M 0 e − t / T 2 where M 0 is the initial magnetization and the transverse relaxation time T 2 is given by: 1 T 2 = 1 T 2 b + ρ S V S / V is the surface-to-volume ratio of the pore, T 2 b is bulk relaxation time of the fluid that fills the pore space, ρ is the surface relaxation strength.

For small pores or large ρ, the bulk relaxation time is small and the equation can be approximated by: 1 T 2 =

Tadashi Yamamoto

Tadashi Yamamoto was one of Japan's leading internationalists and a pioneering proponent of efforts to strengthen nongovernmental ties between Japan and the United States as well as between Japan and other countries. Yamamoto championed the view that civilian diplomacy and person-to-person exchanges conducted by nongovernmental organizations had a critical role to play in international relations, he was the founder and longtime president of the Japan Center for International Exchange a foreign policy think tank established in 1970 which promotes bilateral relations and exchanges between nongovernmental organizations. Yamamoto helped to found the Shimoda Conference in 1967, a private sector forum for the discussion of bilateral issues between American and Japanese policymakers and policy experts; the Wall Street Journal has called him "an ardent champion of the U. S.-Japan alliance."Yamamoto served as the President of the Japan Center for International Exchange from 1970 until his death in 2012.

As head of the JCIE, Yamamoto served as director for a number of forums, including the German-Japan Forum, the UK-Japan 21st Century Group, the Korea-Japan Forum, the Trilateral Commission Pacific Asia Group, the Friends of the Global Fund, which works to promote the goals of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria throughout Asia. In addition to the Shimoda Conference and the JCIE, Yamamoto founded the Korea-Japan Forum, the U. S.-Japan Parliamentary Exchange Program, the Trilateral Commission. Yamamoto was born in 1936 into a Japanese Catholic family in Tokyo, his family moved to Hong Kong. The family moved to Bombay, British India, where they lived for seven months. Yamamoto and his family returned to Japan in 1940, he studied at Rokko Senior High School before transferring to Komaba High School, from which he graduated in 1953. He enrolled at Sophia University in 1954 with the intention of becoming a Catholic priest. However, his career path changed when he transferred from Sophia University in Japan to St. Norbert College in the U.

S. state of Wisconsin in 1958. He studied in the United States from 1958 until 1962, receiving his MBA from Marquette University, a Jesuit university in Milwaukee, in 1962, he became interested in the social changes occurring in the U. S. at the time, including the civil rights movement, the election of President John F. Kennedy, whose table he waited on during the 1960 campaign; the progressive ideals that they advocated and the values of “love and community” which he saw reflected in the Vatican II reforms of the same era became the inspiration for his work. He married his wife, Chiyoko Aikawa, in 1966, they had four sons together. After graduating from Marquette in 1962 he returned to Japan where he worked at the Shin-Etsu Chemical Company as the foreign relations secretary for Tokusaburo Kosaka, the president of Shin-Etsu who would be elected to the House of Representatives of Japan. Working for Kosaka, Yamamoto helped organize and found the first Shimoda Conference in Shimoda, Japan, in 1967, where United States Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield served as the keynote speaker.

The inaugural Shimoda Conference was the first postwar meeting to convene political leaders and public intellectuals from the United States and Japan on equal footing for a foreign policy dialogue, it came to be seen as a milestone in Japan’s reemergence on the world stage. The conference, held until the 1990s, became a leading avenue to promote private sector dialogue between the two countries. In February 2012, Yamamoto organized a relaunch of the Shimoda Conference, which had not been held in seventeen years. During his keynote speech at the 1967 Shimoda Conference, Mansfield made a public call for the establishment of a sponsored exchange between members of the US Congress and the Japanese Diet so they could build mutual understanding and speak frankly and off-the-record about common challenges. In response, Yamamoto launched the first US-Japan parliamentary exchange in 1968; these exchanges are credited by early participants, such as Speaker of the US House of Representatives Tom Foley, U.

S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker, for introducing a generation of American leaders to Japan and creating the personal ties that were important in defusing trade tensions and strengthening bilateral cooperation in a range of areas; this led Foley to remark that he knew “of no more important individual so effective in strengthening our bilateral ties.”In 1970, after managing Tokusaburo Kosaka's successful campaign for a Diet seat, Yamamoto made the decision that he could best contribute to Japan's international relations by leaving Kosaka's employment and creating an independent and nonpartisan policy institute. He founded the Japan Center for International Exchange in 1970 and, while growing it into one of the country’s most prominent international affairs institutes, he remained fiercely insistent that it could only contribute to Japan and the world by maintaining complete autonomy from government influence; as a member of the US House of Representatives, Donald Rumsfeld was among the first participant in JCIE's US-Japan Parliamentary Exchange, beginning a long professional relationship between Yamamoto and Rumsfeld.

In 1975, Yamamoto organized a meeting at the White House between Rumsfeld, the White House Chief of Staff for President Gerald Ford, the Vice Chairman of the now defunct Japanese Socialist Party, Saburo Eda. Yamamoto made the meeting possible, despite Socialist Party's opposition to the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan; as the first meeting b

Armenia‚ÄďAzerbaijan relations in the Eurovision Song Contest

Armenia has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest, a pan-European music competition, since 2006, while Azerbaijan has participated since 2008. The continuing conflict between the two countries over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh, considered to be a de jure part of Azerbaijan by the United Nations, but has been under control of the Armenia-backed de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since 1993, has affected the Eurovision Song Contest on several occasions. Conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan first appeared in 2006, when Azerbaijani media criticized the event's website for listing Nagorno-Karabakh as the birthplace of Armenia's first representative, André, as it was part of the Azerbaijan SSR at the time. Conflicts notably escalated throughout the 2009 contest: during the semi-finals, Azerbaijani officials objected to the depiction of the Nagorno-Karabakh monument We Are Our Mountains during an introductory video for the Armenian entry. Armenia responded during the finals by displaying multiple images of the monument whilst presenting its results.

Following the contest, allegations emerged that Azerbaijan's state broadcaster had tampered with its feed of the broadcast to censor the Armenian entry, that the Azerbaijani government was interrogating citizens who voted for Armenia, accusing them of being unpatriotic and a threat to security. Following an inquiry, Azerbaijan was fined by the European Broadcasting Union for breaching the privacy of voters. Following the 2010 Junior Eurovision Song Contest, Armenian media claimed that Azerbaijan's broadcaster had cut off the broadcast when it became apparent that Armenia had won. Accordingly, as Azerbaijan prepared to host the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest following its victory in 2011, a group of Armenian musicians led a boycott effort, the country would withdraw from the contest, causing the broadcaster to be fined for the late notice. Armenia returned in the 2013 edition, held in Sweden; the move was criticized by an Azerbaijani politician and a representative of the country's state broadcaster, who felt that Armenia's participation could have been a symbol of peace between the two nations, that the decision would further damage the country's reputation.

Conflicts between the two countries began to develop again during the lead-up to the 2015 contest, where allegations emerged that the Armenian entry, "Don't Deny", was a call for recognition of the Armenian Genocide. As Azerbaijan denies the genocide, officials from the country issued a statement threatening Armenia for attempting to use Eurovision as an outlet for its "political ambitions"; the song was subsequently renamed "Face the Shadow" to address concerns over its alleged political themes. The following year, Armenian representative Iveta Mukuchyan was reprimanded by organizers for displaying the flag of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic during the first semi-final. In 2006—the first year in which Armenia participated, the official Eurovision website listed the birthplace of its performer André as being in the "Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh". Media outlets in Azerbaijan criticized the contest's organizers for recognizing the republic given that the region was an autonomous oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR when André was born in 1979.

The birthplace listing on André's profile was removed entirely. Azerbaijan would make its own Eurovision debut in 2008—marking the first time both Armenia and Azerbaijan competed against each other at the contest; the Armenian entry, "Qélé, Qélé" by Sirusho, finished in 4th place, while Azerbaijan's inaugural entry, "Day After Day", finished 8th. During the first semi-final of the 2009 contest, the "postcard" video introducing the performance of the Armenian entry "Jan Jan" depicted, amongst other monuments, We Are Our Mountains, an art piece located in Nagorno-Karabakh's capital city of Stepanakert. Due to the country's claims over the region, Azerbaijani officials objected to the portrayal of We Are Our Mountains as being an Armenian landmark. For the finals telecast, the video was edited to remove the statue. In protest of the decision, multiple photographs of We Are Our Mountains were displayed during the presentation of voting results from Armenia. Despite the controversy, 1,065 Armenians voted for the Azerbaijani entry, enough to give the country a single point.

A total of 43 Azerbaijanis voted for the Armenian entry. Following the contest, reports surfaced that the local Azerbaijani broadcaster, İctimai Television, had attempted to censor the Armenian performance from its broadcast of the final, had obscured the voting number for the entry in an effort to discourage voting for it. İTV denied these claims, provided footage showing that its broadcast was untampered with. In August 2009, a number of Azerbaijanis who had voted for Armenia's entry during the contest were summoned for questioning at the Ministry of National Security in Baku, during which they were accused of being "unpatriotic" and "a potential security threat". One of those summoned, Rovshan Nasirli said that his interrogators told him that they had the names and addresses of all 43 Azerbaijanis who had voted for Armenia. Following these reports, Svante Stockselius, executive supervisor of the Eurovision Song Contest, announced the launch of an enquiry into the incidents. In their response, İctimai TV s

Pierson B. Reading

Pierson Barton Reading was a California pioneer. Reading was born in New Jersey, he came across country to California with Samuel J. Hensley as a member of the Chiles-Walker party in 1843. In 1844, Reading entered the service of General Sutter as a clerk and chief of trappers, he received the 26,632-acre Mexican land grant Rancho Buena Ventura in 1844 for the area occupied by today's Redding and Cottonwood, along the Sacramento River. In the Winter of 1844–45, while Sutter was marching with about one hundred men to join Governor Michaeltorena, Pierson was in command at Sutters Fort. In 1846, Reading was a participant in the Bear Flag Revolt. In the Mexican–American War, Reading enlisted under Fremont and was appointed Paymaster of the California Battalion, with the rank of Major. In 1848 Reading was among the first to visit James W. Marshall's gold discovery in Coloma, California – and shortly after engaged extensively in prospecting for gold in Shasta County, along the Trinity River. In the fall of 1849, Major Reading fitted out an expedition to discover the bay into which he supposed the Trinity and Klamath Rivers must empty.

From 1849 to 1850, Reading operated a store in Sacramento with Samuel J. Hensley and Jacob R. Snyder, he was the Whig candidate for Governor of California in 1851. In 1854 Reading went to Washington, D. C. for the US Supreme Court hearing on his land grant claim. There he married Fanny Wallace Washington. Reading returned to his Rancho Buena Ventura in Shasta County in 1856, where he remained until his death in 1868