click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Exotic matter

In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties. A broader definition of exotic matter is any kind of non-baryonic matter—that is not made of baryons, the subatomic particles of which ordinary matter is composed. Exotic mass has been considered a colloquial term for matters such as dark matter, negative mass, or complex mass. There are several proposed types of exotic matter: Hypothetical particles and states of matter that have "exotic" physical properties that would violate known laws of physics, such as a particle having a negative mass. Hypothetical particles and states of matter that have not yet been encountered, but whose properties would be within the realm of mainstream physics if found to exist. Several particles whose existence has been experimentally confirmed that are conjectured to be exotic hadrons and within the Standard Model. States of matter that are not encountered, such as Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, quantum spin liquid, string-net liquid, supercritical fluid, color-glass condensate, quark–gluon plasma, Rydberg matter, Rydberg polaron and photonic matter but whose properties are within the realm of mainstream physics.

Forms of matter that are poorly understood, such as dark matter and mirror matter. Ordinary matter placed under high pressure, which may result in dramatic changes in its physical or chemical properties. Degenerate matter Exotic atoms Negative mass would possess some strange properties, such as accelerating in the direction opposite of applied force. Despite being inconsistent with the expected behavior of "normal" matter, negative mass is mathematically consistent and introduces no violation of conservation of momentum or energy, it is used in certain speculative theories, such as on the construction of artificial wormholes and the Alcubierre drive. The closest known real representative of such exotic matter is the region of pseudo-negative-pressure density produced by the Casimir effect. According to mass–energy equivalence, mass m is in proportion to energy E and the coefficient of proportionality is c 2. M is still equivalent to E although the coefficient is another constant such as − c 2.

In this case, it is unnecessary to introduce a negative energy because the mass can be negative although the energy is positive. That is to say, E = − m c 2 > 0 m = − E c 2 < 0 Under the circumstances, d E = F d s = d p d t d s = d s d t d p = v d p = v d − c 2 d m = v d − c 2 d m = 2 m v d − c 2 d = d − m 2 c 2 = m 2 v 2 + C When v = 0, C = − m 0 2 c 2 Consequently, − m 2 c 2 = m 2 v 2 − m 0 2 c 2 m = m 0 1 + v 2 c 2 where m 0 < 0 is invariant mass and invariant energy equals E 0 = − m 0 c 2 > 0. The squared mass is still positive and the particle can be stable. Since m = m 0 1 + v 2 c 2 < 0, p = m v = m 0 v 1 + v 2 c 2 < 0 {\displaystyle p=mv={m_v \over {\sqrt {1+\displaystyle {v^{

Ghost gun

In the United States, a ghost gun is a firearm made by an individual, without serial numbers or other identifying markings. The term is used by gun control advocates, gun rights advocates, law enforcement, some in the firearm industry. By making the gun themselves, owners may bypass background checks and registration regulations. Under U. S. federal law, the creation and possession of ghost guns by individuals for personal use is allowed. In contrast, firearms for sale or distribution must bear manufacturer's markings and unique serial numbers, a federal license is required to manufacture them; some states have passed laws restricting ghost guns. The receiver, which in the United States is the only part considered a "firearm", can be completed from raw material, or up to an "80% receiver", one, up to 80% completed before being sold without background or identity checks; the remaining percentage of the work may be done using machine tools, a common drill press or a hand-held Dremel tool or other hand tools.

Companies sell kits including drill bits and jigs to aid the process, but some proficiency with the equipment may be required. It has always been possible to make firearms from raw material, more it has been possible to produce the receiver from scratch using plastic or more durable metal in a 3D printer, though the variety of materials and methods can create challenges in ensuring the resulting receiver is suitable for use. More Defense Distributed introduced a CNC mill called the "Ghost Gunner", optimized for the purpose of completing a lower receiver from an aluminum unfinished receiver; some AR-15 style firearms are made as ghost guns. AR-15s are modular firearms, the serial number is applied to the lower receiver, which holds the trigger group. A person who has an AR-15 lower receiver can assemble a complete weapon using available components, such as barrels, stocks and upper receivers. Pistols and AK-47 style semi-automatic rifles are made as ghost guns. In some countries unmarked firearms were and are made, with production centered on China, the Khyber Pass area and the Philippines.

Due to their lack of serial numbers, tracing ghost guns used in crimes is much harder than tracing serialized weapons. There are no manufacturer or sales records to check. California Sacramento, has been a hub of ghost gun production; the ATF speculated in 2014. Four noted crimes in California were committed with ghost guns: a murder-suicide involving college students in Walnut Creek, a shootout between hostage-taking bank robbers and Stockton police officers, a mass shooting at Santa Monica College in 2013 by a student, prohibited from owning a gun, a shooting spree at Rancho Tehama Reserve in 2017 by a man, served a restraining order that barred him from possessing guns. In addition to the manufacture of ghost guns for criminal purposes, there are people who support the principle, including gun rights activists and anarchists, they say that making weapons is the right of every American, maintains the privacy of gun owners. Individuals have organized "build parties" where equipment and expertise are shared to help create ghost guns.

Advocates say that ghost guns are used in crime despite widespread ownership. Gun rights advocates and law enforcement say that, because of the cost and effort needed to create ghost guns, criminals are more to use commercial weapons instead. U. S. Shipping companies Federal Express and United Parcel Service have refused to transport Ghost Gunner branded computer numerical control milling machines. Under U. S. federal law making and owning a ghost gun is allowed. Some U. S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives officials characterize this as a loophole; the U. S. State Department has sued to take computer files to control 3D-printers off the internet under the grounds their publication constituted export of a munition under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations. With a legal case pending United States Supreme Court action, Defense Distributed removed the files, but the censored blueprints remain accessible via The Pirate Bay's "Physibles" section and other sites; the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation reported in 2013 that it had seized hundreds of ghost guns, including a machine gun, unregistered silencers.

The FBI does not track the use of homemade firearms. ATF agents say. According to the ATF there was a run on the sales of assault rifles following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, due to gun enthusiasts' fear of their being banned. Many people were selling ghost guns, illegally,In a 2014 raid of Ares Armor, the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms confiscated 6,000 receiver blanks which they said were too close to finished units. After a lawsuit, all but 18 of the seized receivers were returned and placed for sale to purchasers in 47 states. In a similar case, EG Armory of California was raided, but agreed to forfeit 3800 lower receivers without admission of any wrongdoing. In Sacramento the owner of C&G Tool Inc. pled guilty to illegal manufacture of firearms. Prosecutors argued that he "advertised his shop as a place where people could make guns in 20 minutes by pressing a few buttons on a computerized machine", rejecting his position that buyers created their own guns. In 2014, California attempted to enact a law to require serial numbers on unfinished receivers and all othe

Multi-step flow theory

The multi-step flow theory assumes ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders before being disseminated to a wider population. This theory was first introduced by sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld et al. in 1944 and elaborated by Elihu Katz and Lazarsfeld in 1955. The multi-step flow theory states opinion leaders are affected more by “elite media” than run-of-the-mill, mass media; this is evident by political opinion leaders receiving their information from unconventional sources such as The Huffington Post, instead of Fox News or MSNBC. According to the multi-step flow theory, opinion leaders intervene between the “media’s direct message and the audience’s reaction to that message.” Opinion leaders tend to have the great effect on those they are most similar to—based on personality, demographics, or socio-economic factors. These leaders tend to influence others to change their attitudes and behaviors more than conventional media because the audience is able to better identify or relate to an opinion leader than an article in a newspaper or a news program.

This media influence theory shows that information dissemination is a social occurrence, which may explain why certain media campaigns do not alter audiences’ attitudes. An important factor of the multi-step flow theory is. Information is affected by the social norms of each new community group, it is shaped by conflicting views surrounding it. Businesses and politicians have harnessed the power of opinion leaders. An example of this phenomenon is how individuals and companies have turned to Twitter influencers and bloggers to increase hype around specific topics. During the 2008 Presidential Elections, Sean Combs became an opinion leader for voting with his "Vote or Die" campaign. Former Vice President, Al Gore utilized the multi-step flow theory to gain support for his nonprofit, The Climate Project. Gore recruited individuals who were educated on environmental issues and had the ability to be influential in their community and amongst their friends and family, he trained his opinion leaders on the information he wanted them to disseminate.

This enabled them to educate many Americans about The Climate Project and Gore’s overall ideas about climate change

Nabila Erian

Nabila M. Erian is a professor of vocal sciences at the Cairo Conservatoire, Academy of Arts, her career as a leading soprano opera singer debuted in 1960. She is an expert on the history of Coptic music, her latest research revolves around the continuity between the current practiced Coptic music and the Ancient Egyptian tradition. Erian advocates for the construction of a new modern state of the arts opera house at the New Cairo Administrative Capital. Erian obtained her PhD entitled Coptic Music: An Egyptian Tradition in 1986 from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Between 1970 and 1973 she obtained several diplomas and a fellowship from the Trinity College London. In 1965, she obtained an M. A. from the Academia di Santa Cecilia, Rome and in 1962, a B. A. in English Literature from the Faculty of Arts, Cairo University. Her school leaving certificate in 1958 was obtained from Cairo. Erian's career on the stage of the Opera spans half a century, she is known for being the first Egyptian soprano to perform a translated international opera.

In 1964, she played the role of Violetta whereby she sang Verdi's La Traviata in Arabic on the stage of the Khedivial Opera House. She was the Director of the Cairo Opera Company and the Associate Dean of the Cairo Conservatoire. In 2017, Erian delivered the introductory keynote speech at the La Traviata Met Live transmission at the American University in Cairo, her repertoire includes most international composers for whom she sang in Italian, French and Russian. Those include among others: Puccini's Madama Butterfly, Tosca and La Bohème, Verdi's La Traviata and Rigoletto, Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, Bastien und Bastienne, Don Giovanni, Bizet's Carmen, Handel's oratorios, etc. Erian sang in Arabic for many Egyptian composers including Abu Bakr Khairat, Aziz El-Shawan, Hasan Rashid and Gamal Abdel Rehim among others, she sang the first Arabic Opera Anas el-Wugood composed by Aziz El-Shawan based on the One Thousand and One Nights stories in 1994. In 1964, Nabila Erian was awarded by President Gamal Abdel Nasser on the occasion of'Id al-'Ilm".

She was the second Egyptian singer to receive this award after Umm Kalthum. Between the seventies and the nineties Erian obtained several international music awards from Japan, Budapest awards and Leinberg contests. "Speculations on the Artistic Process as Cultural Identity," Bulletin of the 25th Anniversary of the Academy of Arts, Cairo, 1985."Aida at the Pyramids", Cairo Today. Monthly Review, Cairo, 1984. Footnotes SourcesArticle at Al-Ahram Weekly On-line Article at ahram.org Nabilan Erian on SoundCloud

Roy Halee

Roy Halee is an American record producer and engineer, best known for working with Simon & Garfunkel, both as a group and for their solo projects. He grew up on New York, his father named Roy Halee, provided the singing voice for Mighty Mouse in late 1940s Terrytoons cartoons, as well as the voices of Heckle and Jeckle from 1951 through 1961. Halee started working as a cameraman for CBS Television in the 1950s, he was studying to be a classical trumpet player. He became an audio engineer for CBS Television, working on many shows and the top rated The $64,000 Question television quiz show; as television shows moved to the West Coast, he lost his job in a union dispute and layoff at CBS Television. He went to work for Columbia Records in New York as an editor and as a studio engineer, working with Bob Dylan, including the first long-format radio single, "Like a Rolling Stone". After working with the Lovin' Spoonful, the Dave Clark Five and the Yardbirds, he began his partnership with Simon & Garfunkel.

He has worked with other groups such as the Byrds, Willie Nile, Laura Nyro, Sweat & Tears, Mark Almond Band and Blue Angel. Halee was named to the TEC Awards Hall of Fame in 2001. Halee discovered that the uniqueness of Simon & Garfunkel harmonies could only be achieved by recording both voices on the same microphone at the same time; that technique did well, as the song "Mrs. Robinson", from the 1968 album The Graduate, won him a Grammy Award. Three more Grammy Awards followed for his work on the album Bookends, the song "Bridge Over Troubled Water" in 1970. Halee co-produced and engineered singer songwriter Albert Hammond's self titled 3rd solo album released in 1974. Halee is best known for producing several albums with Garfunkel, he is written by Paul Simon. He co-produced Simon's first solo album and went with Simon to South Africa in 1985 to record something new that "wasn't written yet, we were going with nothing, so it was a gamble. A lot of people thought we were nuts", Halee says, it led to the Grammy Award-winning album Graceland.

"I was having a ball recording these guys. For a guy from my background, everything was so organised generally. Here in the rawness of this, the earthiness, I was in seventh heaven." After Graceland, Roy Halee continued travelling with Simon as an engineer, to Brazil and West Africa, for the album The Rhythm of the Saints, with "all congas, bass drums, bata...everything imaginable." His son, Roy Halee, Jr. is a post-production mixer for the CBS television program 60 Minutes in New York City. 2001 interview with MIX Magazine

1920 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1920 United States House of Representatives elections, were held to select members of the United States House of Representatives in the 67th Congress of the United States. It coincided with the election of President Warren G. Harding, the first time that women in all states were allowed to vote in federal elections after the passage of the 19th Amendment; the incumbent Democratic administration of Woodrow Wilson lost popularity after the conclusion of World War I in 1918, as American voters hoped to return to isolationism and avoid military conflict in the future. Heedless of the prevailing national mood, Wilson advocated American leadership in a new international order under the League of Nations, alienated voters of German and Irish ancestry, struggled with a Congress controlled by the opposition Republican Party. Harding and the Republicans promised a new start for the nation and a disassociation from Europe's political troubles that most voters found appealing; as a result, the Republicans picked up 63 seats in the House of Representatives, with most of the gains coming from Democratic-leaning districts in the big industrial cities and the border states.

Many of these districts elected Republican representatives for the only time in decades, including the Missouri district of Democratic leader Champ Clark. Although the South remained solidly Democratic for the most part, the Republicans secured more than 90% of the seats outside the South, which gave them their largest majority of the 20th century; the 67th Congress is the most recent in which the Republican Party won greater than a two-thirds majority of seats in either chamber. Source: Election Statistics - Office of the Clerk Clerk of the House records only the winners and their totals, but partial results published in newspapers indicate that the listed Democratic candidates received reasonable numbers of votes. 1920 United States elections 1920 United States presidential election 1920 United States Senate elections 66th United States Congress 67th United States Congress "Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of November 2, 1920". Office of the Clerk, U. S. House of Representatives.

1921. Retrieved March 30, 2015. Dubin, Michael J.. United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701. Moore, John L. ed.. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U. S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967. "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015. Office of the Historian