A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical
The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān in the Punjab region to serve as a homeland for Sikhs. The territorial definition of the proposed country Khalistan consists of both the Punjab, India along with Punjab and includes parts of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Rajasthan; the Khalistan movement began as an expatriate venture. In 1971, the first explicit call for Khalistan was made in an advertisement published in the New York Times by an expat Jagjit Singh Chohan. With financial and political support of the Sikh diaspora the movement flourished in the Indian state of Punjab, which has a Sikh-majority population and reached its zenith in the late 1970s and 1980s, when the secessionist movement caused large-scale violence among the local population including assassination of PM Indira Gandhi and bombing of Air India plane killing 328 passengers. Various pro-Khalistan outfits have been involved in a separatist movement against the Government of India since.
In the 1990s the insurgency petered out, the movement failed to reach its objective due to multiple reasons including a heavy police crackdown on separatists, divisions among the Sikhs and loss of support from the Sikh population. The extremist violence had started with targeting of the Nirankaris and followed by attack on the government machinery and the Hindus; the Sikh terrorists targeted other Sikhs with opposing viewpoints. This led to further loss of public support and the militants were brought under control of law enforcement agencies by 1993. In early 2018, some militant groups were arrested by police in Punjab. Chief Minister of Punjab Amarinder Singh claimed the recent extremism is backed by Pakistan's ISI and "Khalistani sympathisers" in Canada and the UK. There is some support from fringe groups abroad in Canada but the Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has declared that his country would not support the revival of the separatist movement. With the rise of Sikh nationalism in British India, the idea of a separate Sikh state first came up in the early 20th century.
As a result of the British policy of divide and rule many religious nationalist movement emerged among the Hindus and the Sikhs. The process involved creating communal boundaries. According to evidence by Harjot Oberoi, the belief that Punjab is the "homeland" of the Sikh community is a recent formulation. Despite the Sikh historical linkages with Punjab, territory was never a major element of Sikh self-definition; the attachment of Punjab with Sikhism was recent and made in 1940s. Sikhism was pan-Indian, with the main Sikh scriptures Guru Granth Sahib drawing from works of saints in North as well as South India, the several of its major seats outside of Punjab. Before its conquest by the British, the region around Punjab had been ruled by the confederacy of Sikh Misls founded by Banda Bahadur ruled over the entire Punjab from 1767 to 1799, until their confederacy was unified into the Sikh Empire by Maharajah Ranjit Singh from 1799 to 1849; the Sikhs have traditionally been concentrated in Punjab region of undivided India although not in a majority.
Before the partition of India in 1947, Sikhs were not in majority in any of the districts of pre-partition British Punjab Province other than Ludhiana. The districts in the region had a majority of either the Hindus or Muslims depending on its location in the British province. Among the three major religions, Sikhs formed the largest group only in the Ludhiana district; when the Muslims proposed the creation of an Islamic-majority Pakistan, many Sikhs staunchly opposed the concept. In late 1930s and 1940s the Sikh leaders realized that Muslim Pakistan and a Hindu India were imminent. To make a case for a separate Sikh state within the Punjab, Sikh leaders started mobilizing meta-commentaries and signs to argue that Punjab belonged to Sikhs and Sikhs belong to Punjab; this began the territorialization of the Sikh community. The Muslim League's Lahore Resolution demanded a separate country for Muslims. A section of Sikh leaders grew concerned that their community would be left without any homeland following the partition of India between the Hindus and the Muslims.
They put forward the idea of Sikhistan, envisaging it as a theocratic state covering a small part of the greater Punjab region. The country which he proposed would include parts of present-day Indian Punjab, Pakistani Punjab, the Simla Hill States, it was imagined as a theocratic state led by the Maharaja of Patiala with the aid of a cabinet consisting of the representatives of other units. The idea was unviable due to lack of sufficient Sikh population as compared to other religions in Punjab. According to Oberoi, the territorialization of the Sikh community was formalized when Sikh political party Akali Dal in March 1946, passed a resolution proclaiming the natural association of Punjab and Sikh religious community. British India was partitioned on a religious basis in 1947 and Punjab province was divided between India and newly created Pakistan. A majority of the Sikhs along with the Hindus migrated from the Pakistani province of Punjab to the Indian province of Punjab, which included present-day Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
The Sikh population that in 1941 was as high as 19.8% in some districts of Pakistan, dropped to 0.1% in all of them, it rose in the districts assigned to India. They were still a minority in the Punjab province of India, which remained a Hindu-majority province. Despite the first mentions of the movement in e
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Banal nationalism refers to the everyday representations of the nation which build a shared sense of national belonging amongst humans. The term is derived from English academic, Michael Billig's 1995 book of the same name and is intended to be understood critically; the concept has been influential within the discipline of political geography, with continued academic interest since its publication in the 1990s. Today the term is used in academic discussion of identity formation and geopolitics. Examples of banal nationalism include the use of flags in everyday contexts, sporting events, national songs, symbols on money, popular expressions and turns of phrase, patriotic clubs, the use of implied togetherness in the national press, for example, the use of terms such as the prime minister, the weather, our team, divisions into "domestic" and "international" news. Many of these symbols are most effective because of their constant repetition, subliminal nature. Banal nationalism is created via state institutions such as schools.
Michael Billig's primary purpose in coining the term was to differentiate everyday, endemic nationalism from extremist variants. He argued that the academic and journalistic focus on extreme nationalists, independence movements, xenophobes in the 1980s and 1990s obscured the modern strength and the most common strain of contemporary nationalism, by implying that it was a fringe ideology, he noted the unspoken assumption of the utmost importance of the nation in political discourse of the time, for example in the calls to protect Kuwait during the 1991 Gulf War, or the Falkland Islands in 1982. He argues that the "hidden" nature of modern nationalism makes it a powerful ideology because it remains unexamined and unchallenged, yet remains the basis for powerful political movements, most political violence in the world today. Banal nationalism should not be thought of as a weak form of nationalism, but the basis for "dangerous nationalisms" However, in earlier times calls to the "nation" were not as important, when religion, monarchy or family might have been invoked more to mobilize action.
He uses the concept to dispute post-modernist claims that the nation-state is in decline, noting the continued hegemonic power of American nationalism. Extracts from Billig's Banal Nationalism http://www.nationalismproject.org/what.htm Billig, M.. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publications
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past. Such myths serve as an important national symbol and affirm a set of national values. A national myth may sometimes take the form of a national epic or be incorporated into a civil religion. A group of related myths about a nation may be referred to as the national mythos, from μῦθος, the original Greek word for "myth". A national myth is a legend or fictionalized narrative, elevated to a serious mythological and esteemed level so as to be true to the nation, it might over-dramatize true incidents, omit important historical details, or add details for which there is no evidence. The national folklore of many nations includes a founding myth, which may involve a struggle against colonialism or a war of independence. In many cases, the meaning of the national myth is disputed among different parts of the population. In some places, the national myth may be spiritual in tone and refer to stories of the nation's founding at the hands of a God, several gods, leaders favored by gods, or other supernatural beings.
National myths serve many political purposes. National myths exist only for the purpose of state-sponsored propaganda. In totalitarian dictatorships, the leader might be given, for example, a mythical supernatural life history in order to make him or her seem god-like and supra-powerful. However, national myths exist in every society. In liberal regimes they can serve the purpose of inspiring civic virtue and self-sacrifice, or of consolidating the power of dominant groups and legitimizing their rule. National myths have been created and propagated by national intellectuals, who have used them as instruments of political mobilization on demographic bases such as ethnicity; the concept of national identity is inescapably connected with myths. A complex of myths is at the core of every ethnic identity; some scholars believe that national identities, supported by invented histories, were constructed only after national movements and national ideologies emerged. All modern national identities were preceded by nationalist movements.
Although the term "nation" was used in the Middle Ages, it had different meaning than in the age of nationalism, where it was linked to the efforts aimed to creation of the nation-states. Besides their social background, nationalist myths have a psychological explanation, connected with nationalist myth of stable homeland community; the complexity of relations with the modern external world and incoherence of the inner psychological world can result with anxiety, reduced by static self-labelling and self-construction and gaining an imaginary emotion of stability. Two of nationalism's primary myths are connected with beliefs in: community's permanence, based on its national character and institutions and on its continuity across many generations, community's common ancestry; the nationalist myths portray the nation as sleeping and waiting to be awakened, but scholarly discourse avoids such images because national identity either exists or not and can not be asleep and awakened. Nationalist myths sometimes have a tendency to stimulate conflicts between nations, to magnify distinctive characteristics of the national group and to overstate the threat to the nation posed by other groups propagating militant fulfilment of their goals.
Civil religion Euromyth Folk epics Founding myth Historiography and nationalism Mythomoteur Nation branding National monument National mysticism Noble lie Political myth Ernst Renan What is a Nation? Renan, Ernest. Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?. Birch, Anthony and national integration, London. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. Geoffrey Hosking. J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11481-1, OCLC 47182376 Abizadeh, Arash. "Historical Truth, National Myths, Liberal Democracy". Journal of Political Philosophy. 12: 291–313. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-9760.2004.00201.x
The alt-right, or alternative right, is a loosely connected far-right, white nationalist movement. The term is ill-defined, having been used in different ways by various individuals. A online movement, the alt-right is found in the United States, where it originated, although alt-rightists are present elsewhere in the world. Constituent groups that associate with the "alt-right" label have been characterised as hate groups. In 2010, the American white nationalist Richard B. Spencer launched. Spencer's "alternative right" was influenced by earlier forms of American white nationalism, as well as paleoconservatism, the Dark Enlightenment, the Nouvelle Droite, his term was shortened to "alt-right" and popularised by far-right participants of /pol/, the politics board of web forum 4chan. It came to be associated with other white nationalist websites and groups, including Andrew Anglin's Daily Stormer, Brad Griffin's Occidental Dissent, Matthew Heimbach's Traditionalist Worker Party. Following the 2013 Gamergate controversy, the alt-right made increasing use of trolling and online harassment as a tactic to raise its profile.
In 2015 it attracted broader public attention through Steve Bannon's Breitbart News—which Bannon described as "the platform for the alt-right"—due to alt-rightist support for Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign. On being elected, Trump disavowed the movement. Alt-rightists organised the 2017 Unite the Right rally, after which their movement began to decline amid anti-fascist opposition; the alt-right is a white racist movement. Part of its membership supports anti-immigrationist policies to ensure a continued white majority in the United States. Others call for the breakup of the country to form a white separatist ethno-state in North America; some alt-rightists seek to make white nationalism respectable in the U. S. while others—known as the "1488" scene—adopt white supremacist and neo-Nazi stances. Some alt-rightists are anti-semitic, promoting a conspiracy theory that there is a Jewish plot to bring about white genocide; the alt-right is anti-feminist, advocates for a more patriarchal society, intersects with the men's rights movement and other sectors of the online manosphere.
Alt-rightists support anti-interventionist and isolationist foreign policies alongside economic protectionism and thus criticise mainstream U. S. conservatism. Attitudes to social issues like homosexuality and abortion vary within the movement. Individuals aligned with many of the alt-right's ideas but not its white nationalism have been termed "alt-lite"; the alt-right distinguished itself from earlier forms of white nationalism through its online presence and its heavy use of irony and humor through the promotion of internet memes like Pepe the Frog. Membership was overwhelmingly white and male, with academic and anti-fascist observers linking its growth to deteriorating living standards and prospects, anxieties about the place of white masculinity, anger at visible left-wing forms of identity politics like the Black Lives Matter movement. Alt-right online material has been identified as a contributing factor in the radicalization of young white men and linked to a range of far-right murders and terrorist attacks in the United States since 2014.
Opposition to the alt-right came from both conservatives. The term "alt-right" is a neologism first used in November 2008 by self-described paleoconservative philosopher Paul Gottfried, addressing the H. L. Mencken Club about what he called "the alternative right"; this talk was published in December under the title "The Decline and Rise of the Alternative Right" in the conservative Taki's Magazine, becoming the earliest published usage of the phrase in its current context according to Slate. In 2009, two more posts at Taki's Magazine further discussed the alternative right. Since 2016, the term has been attributed to Richard B. Spencer, president of the National Policy Institute and founder of Alternative Right. A white supremacist, Spencer coined the term in 2010 in reference to a movement centered on white nationalism and has been accused by some media publications of doing so to excuse overt racism, white supremacism and neo-Nazism; the term "alt-right" is sometimes ill-defined. This has been complicated by the various contradictory ways in which self-described "alt-rightists" have defined the movement and by the tendency among some of its political opponents to apply the term "alt-right" liberally to a broad range of right-wing groups and viewpoints.
For instance, the conservative writer Ben Shapiro claims that the American Left has attempted "to lump in the Right with the alt-right by accepting a broader, false definition of the alt-right that could include traditional conservatism". The anti-fascist researcher Matthew N. Lyons defined the alt-right as "a loosely organized far-right movement that shares a contempt for both liberal multiculturalism and mainstream conservatism; the academic Tom Pollard referred to the alt-right as a "socio/political movement" comprising "a loose amalgam of rightist groups and causes" who "shun egalitarianism, feminism, multiculturalism, free trade and all forms of gun control". The journalist Mike Wendling termed it "an loose set of ideologies held together by what they oppose: feminism, the Black Lives Matter movement, politic
The idea of national treasure, like national epics and national anthems, is part of the language of romantic nationalism, which arose in the late 18th century and 19th centuries. Nationalism is an ideology which supports the nation as the fundamental unit of human social life, which includes shared language and culture, thus national treasure, part of the ideology of nationalism, is shared culture. A national treasure can be a shared cultural asset, which may not have monetary value. Or it may refer to a rare cultural object, such as the medieval manuscript Plan of St. Gall in Switzerland; the government of Japan designates the most famous of the nation's cultural properties as National Treasures of Japan. The National Treasures of Korea are a set of artifacts and buildings which are recognised by South Korea as having exceptional cultural value. There are thousands of national treasures around the world. Listed here are samples of the different types of things that can be national treasure: Examples of people who have been described as national treasures include the following: Certain countries designate individuals or groups as Living National Treasures.
See, for example, Living National Treasures of Japan. American actress, television presenter and producer Betty White, working in television since 1939, is referred to as a national treasure in the United States. Comedian, actor and director Stephen Fry and naturalist Sir David Attenborough, racing driver Stirling Moss have in several high-brow non-industry-specific publications been referred to as national treasures of the United Kingdom. After the Brazil national football team won the 1962 FIFA World Cup, wealthy European clubs offered massive fees to sign their young star player, Pelé, but the government of Brazil declared him an official national treasure to prevent him from being transferred out of the country; the late German humorist Vicco von Bülow alias Loriot had the status of a national treasure in Germany. In 2013 the British satirical magazine Private Eye began running a column poking fun at an exponential increase in references in the press to "national treasures". Namdaemun in South Korea.
Grand Canyon in the United States of America. The Fairy Queen locomotive in India; the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights for the United States. Stonehenge and the Magna Carta in the United Kingdom; the National Treasure for Public Life is called The Magna Carta Award. Chinese bronze tripod cauldrons dating back to the Shang Dynasty Moon rock collected in the lunar space missions by NASA's Apollo missions The Book of Kells in Ireland The Constitution of Greece of 2001 declared that the Greek coastline is a national treasure; the United States natural and cultural resources that collectively comprise the National Park System are considered to be a national treasure. In 1997, the United States Library of Congress recognized the song Truckin' by the rock band Grateful Dead as a national treasure of the United States. Andy Williams's voice was one described as a national treasure by U. S. President Ronald Reagan. Bald eagle in United States Odd-eyed cat in Turkey Panda in China Raja elephant of Sri Lanka Monument List of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad National Treasures of Japan National Treasures of North Korea National Treasures of South Korea National Treasures of Taiwan National Treasures of Vietnam World Heritage Site Media related to National Treasures at Wikimedia Commons