An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to
German battleship Bismarck
Bismarck was the first of two Bismarck-class battleships built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Named after Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the ship was laid down at the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg in July 1936 and launched in February 1939. Work was completed in August 1940, when she was commissioned into the German fleet. Bismarck and her sister ship Tirpitz were the largest battleships built by Germany, two of the largest built by any European power. In the course of the warship's eight-month career under its sole commanding officer, Captain Ernst Lindemann, Bismarck conducted only one offensive operation, lasting 8 days in May 1941, codenamed Rheinübung; the ship, along with the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen, was to break into the Atlantic Ocean and raid Allied shipping from North America to Great Britain. The two ships were detected several times off Scandinavia, British naval units were deployed to block their route. At the Battle of the Denmark Strait, the battlecruiser HMS Hood engaged Prinz Eugen by mistake, while HMS Prince of Wales engaged Bismarck.
In the ensuing battle Hood was destroyed by the combined fire of Bismarck and Prinz Eugen, who damaged Prince of Wales and forced her retreat. Bismarck suffered sufficient damage from three hits to force an end to the raiding mission; the destruction of Hood spurred a relentless pursuit by the Royal Navy involving dozens of warships. Two days heading for occupied France to effect repairs, Bismarck was attacked by 16 obsolescent Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. In her final battle the following morning, the already-crippled Bismarck was damaged during a sustained engagement with two British battleships and two heavy cruisers, was scuttled by her crew, sank with heavy loss of life. Most experts agree; the wreck was located in June 1989 by Robert Ballard, has since been further surveyed by several other expeditions. The two Bismarck-class battleships were designed in the mid-1930s by the German Kriegsmarine as a counter to French naval expansion the two Richelieu-class battleships France had started in 1935.
Laid down after the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935, Bismarck and her sister Tirpitz were nominally within the 35,000-long-ton limit imposed by the Washington regime that governed battleship construction in the interwar period. The ships secretly exceeded the figure by a wide margin, though before either vessel was completed, the international treaty system had fallen apart following Japan's withdrawal in 1937, allowing signatories to invoke an "escalator clause" that permitted displacements as high as 45,000 long tons. Bismarck displaced 41,700 t as built and 50,300 t loaded, with an overall length of 251 m, a beam of 36 m and a maximum draft of 9.9 m. The battleship was Germany's largest warship, displaced more than any other European battleship, with the exception of HMS Vanguard, commissioned after the end of the war. Bismarck was powered by three Blohm & Voss geared steam turbines and twelve oil-fired Wagner superheated boilers, which developed a total of 148,116 shp and yielded a maximum speed of 30.01 knots on speed trials.
The ship had a cruising range of 8,870 nautical miles at 19 knots. Bismarck was equipped with three FuMO 23 search radar sets, mounted on the forward and stern rangefinders and foretop; the standard crew numbered 1,962 enlisted men. The crew was divided into twelve divisions of between 220 men; the first six divisions were assigned to the ship's armament, divisions one to four for the main and secondary batteries and five and six manning anti-aircraft guns. The seventh division consisted of specialists, including cooks and carpenters, the eighth division consisted of ammunition handlers; the radio operators and quartermasters were assigned to the ninth division. The last three divisions were the engine room personnel; when Bismarck left port, fleet staff, prize crews, war correspondents increased the crew complement to over 2,200 men. 200 of the engine room personnel came from the light cruiser Karlsruhe, lost during Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Norway. Bismarck's crew published.
Bismarck was armed with eight 38 cm SK C/34 guns arranged in four twin gun turrets: two super-firing turrets forward—"Anton" and "Bruno"—and two aft—"Caesar" and "Dora". Secondary armament consisted of twelve 15 cm L/55 guns, sixteen 10.5 cm L/65 and sixteen 3.7 cm L/83, twelve 2 cm anti-aircraft guns. Bismarck carried four Arado Ar 196 reconnaissance floatplanes, with a single large hangar and a double-ended catapult; the ship's main belt was 320 mm thick and was covered by a pair of upper and main armoured decks that were 50 mm and 100 to 120 mm thick, respectively. The 38 cm turrets were protected by 220 mm thick sides. Bismarck was ordered under the name Ersatz Hannover, a replacement for the old pre-dreadnought SMS Hannover, under contract "F"; the contract was awarded to the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg, where the keel was laid on 1 July 1936 at Helgen IX. The ship was launched on 14 February 1939 and during the elaborate ceremonies was c
James Francis Cameron is a Canadian filmmaker, environmentalist and philanthropist who lives in the United States. After working in special effects, he found major success after directing and writing the science fiction action film The Terminator, he became a popular Hollywood director and was hired to write and direct Aliens. He found further critical acclaim for his use of special effects in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. After his film True Lies, Cameron took on his biggest film at the time, which earned him Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Film Editing. After Titanic, Cameron began a project that took 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar, in particular a landmark for 3D technology, for which he received nominations for the same three Academy Awards. Despite Avatar being his only movie made to date in 3D, Cameron is the most successful 3D film-maker in terms of box-office revenue. In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System.
Described by a biographer as part scientist and part artist, Cameron has contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible, he is the first person to do this in a solo descent, is only the third person to do so ever. In 2010, Time magazine listed Cameron among the 100 most influential people in the world. In total, Cameron's directorial efforts have grossed US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron's Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. Cameron holds the distinction of having directed the first two of the four films in history to gross over $2 billion worldwide. In March 2011, he was named Hollywood's top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million. In October 2013, a new species of frog Pristimantis jamescameroni from Venezuela was named after him in recognition of his efforts in environmental awareness, in addition to his public promotion of veganism.
Cameron was born in 1954 in Kapuskasing, Canada, the son of Shirley, an artist and nurse, Phillip Cameron, an electrical engineer. His paternal great-great-great-grandfather emigrated from Balquhidder, Scotland, in 1825. Cameron grew up in Chippawa and attended Stamford Collegiate School in Niagara Falls, Ontario, his family moved to California in 1971, when Cameron was 17 years old. He dropped out of Sonora High School attended Brea Olinda High School to further his secondary education. Cameron enrolled at a two-year community college, in 1973 to study physics, he switched to English dropped out before the start of the fall 1974 semester. Next, he worked several jobs, including as a truck driver, writing. During this period he taught himself about special effects: "I'd go down to the USC library and pull any thesis that graduate students had written about optical printing, or front screen projection, or dye transfers, anything that related to film technology; that way I could sit down and read it, if they'd let me photocopy it, I would.
If not, I'd make notes."Cameron quit his job as a truck driver to enter the film industry after seeing Star Wars in 1977. When Cameron read Syd Field's book Screenplay, it occurred to him that integrating science and art was possible, he wrote a 10-minute science-fiction script with two friends, titled Xenogenesis, they raised money, rented camera, film stock and studio shot it in 35 mm. They dismantled the camera to understand how to operate it and spent the first half-day of the shoot trying to figure out how to get it running, he was the director, writer and production designer for Xenogenesis. He became an uncredited production assistant on Rock and Roll High School in 1979. While continuing to educate himself in filmmaking techniques, Cameron started working as a miniature model maker at Roger Corman Studios. Making produced, low-budget productions taught Cameron to work efficiently, he soon found employment as an art director in the sci-fi movie Battle Beyond the Stars. He did special effects work design and direction on John Carpenter's Escape from New York, acted as production designer on Galaxy of Terror, consulted on the design of Android.
Cameron was hired as the special effects director for the sequel to Piranha, entitled Piranha II: The Spawning in 1982. The original director, Miller Drake, left the project due to creative differences with producer Ovidio Assonitis, who gave Cameron his first job as director; the interior scenes were filmed in Rome, while the underwater sequences were shot at Grand Cayman Island. The movie was to be produced in Jamaica. On location, production slowed due to adverse weather. James Cameron was fired after failing to get a close up of Carole Davis in her opening scene. Ovidio ordered Cameron to do the close-up the next day. Cameron spent the entire day sailing around the resort, reproducing the lighting but still failed to get the close-up. After he was fired, Ovidio invited Cameron to assist in the shooting. Once in Rome, Ovidio took over the editing. During his illness, Camer
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of modern history's deadliest commercial marine disasters during peacetime. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, she was built by the Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster. Titanic was under the command of Capt. Edward Smith, who went down with the ship; the ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins.
A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, it only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—about half the number on board, one third of her total capacity—due to outdated maritime safety regulations; the ship carried 16 lifeboat davits. However, Titanic carried only a total of 20 lifeboats, four of which were collapsible and proved hard to launch during the sinking. After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea. Meanwhile and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only loaded.
A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats. At 2:20 a.m. she foundered with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived and brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors; the disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, which still governs maritime safety. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers; the wreck of Titanic was discovered in 1985 during a US military mission, it remains on the seabed.
The ship was split in two and is disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet. Thousands of artefacts have been displayed at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest sunk, although she holds the record as the largest sunk while in service as a liner due to Britannic being used as a hospital ship at the time of her sinking; the final survivor of the sinking, Millvina Dean, aged two months at the time, died in 2009 at the age of 97. The name Titanic derives from the Titan of Greek mythology. Built in Belfast, Ireland, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the RMS Titanic was the second of the three Olympic-class ocean liners—the first was the RMS Olympic and the third was the HMHS Britannic. Britannic was to be called Gigantic and was to be over 1,000 feet long, they were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912.
The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, the American financier J. P. Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co.. The White Star Line faced an increasing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had launched the Lusitania and the Mauretania—the fastest passenger ships in service—and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd. Ismay preferred to compete on size rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be larger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury; the company sought an upgrade in their fleet in response to the Cunard giants but to replace their oldest pair of passenger ships still in service, being the SS Teutonic of 1889 and SS Majestic of 1890. Teutonic was replaced by Olympic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss.
The ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long-established relati
Lance James Henriksen is an American actor, voice actor and artist, best known for his roles in science fiction and horror films such as Bishop in the Alien film franchise, Frank Black in Fox television series Millennium. Henriksen is a voice actor who has voiced Kerchak the gorilla in the 1999 Walt Disney Feature Animation film Tarzan and Fleet Admiral Steven Hackett in BioWare's Mass Effect video game trilogy. Henriksen was born in Manhattan, his father, James Henriksen, was a Norwegian merchant sailor and boxer nicknamed "Icewater" who spent most of his life at sea. His mother, Margueritte Werner, struggled to find work as a dance instructor and model, his parents divorced when he was two years old, only his mother raised him and his brother. As he grew up, Henriksen developed a reputation for getting into trouble at various schools, spent time in a children's home, his last completed grade in school was first grade. He attained the rank of Petty Officer Third Class. Henriksen found work as a laborer on ships.
For a time, he worked in Europe. His first job in the theater world was as a designer of theatrical sets, it was around this time that Henriksen taught himself to read, as he was illiterate up to age 30. For his first role, he put the entire script to tape with the help of a friend, learning everyone's part in addition to his own. In his early 30s, Henriksen began acting in New York City. In film, Henriksen first appeared in It Ain't Easy in 1972; this was followed with a variety of supporting roles in films including Dog Day Afternoon, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Damien: Omen II. He played Police Chief Steve Kimbrough in Piranha Part Two: The Spawning, the astronaut Walter Schirra in The Right Stuff, actor Charles Bronson in the television film Reason for Living: The Jill Ireland Story; when James Cameron was writing The Terminator, he had envisioned Henriksen, with whom he had worked on Piranha II: The Spawning, playing the title role, a cyborg. However, the role went to Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Henriksen does appear in the supporting role of Sergeant Hal Vukovich. Henriksen played the android Bishop, an artificial life-form, in Aliens and Alien 3, as the unnamed designer of the Bishop android. Henriksen played Charles Bishop Weyland in Alien vs. Predator, he played the vampire leader Jesse Hooker in Kathryn Bigelow's cult film Near Dark. Henriksen portrays gunfighters in Westerns Dead Man and The Quick and the Dead and appears alongside British actor Bruce Payne in Aurora: Operation Intercept in 1995, he would appear alongside Payne again in Face the Evil in 1997 and the dystopian classic Paranoia 1.0 in 2004. That same year, he played the role of Sheriff Doug Barnum in the film Powder. In 1996, Henriksen starred in the television series Millennium and produced by Chris Carter, the creator of The X-Files. Henriksen played Frank Black, a former FBI agent who possessed a unique ability to see into the minds of killers. Carter created the role for the actor, his performances on Millennium earned him critical acclaim, a People's Choice Award nomination for Favorite New Male TV Star, three consecutive Golden Globe nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a TV Series.
The series was cancelled in 1999. On television, Henriksen appeared in the ensemble of Into the West, a miniseries executive-produced by Steven Spielberg, he appeared in a Brazilian soap opera, Caminhos do Coração from Rede Record, aired in 2007–2008. Henriksen guest-starred on a Season 6 episode of NCIS playing an Arizona sheriff, appeared in a recurring role as The Major on NBC's The Blacklist. In the years after Millennium, Henriksen has become an active voice actor, lending his distinctive voice to a number of animated features and video game titles. In Disney's Tarzan and its direct-to-video followup, he is Kerchak, the ape who serves as Tarzan's surrogate father, he provided the voice for the alien supervillain Brainiac in Superman: Brainiac Attacks and for the character Mulciber in Godkiller. Henriksen is the voice of the character Molov in the video game Red Faction II and has contributed to GUN, Run Like Hell, the canceled title Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, the role-playing game Mass Effect as Admiral Hackett of the Human Systems Alliance.
Henriksen was the voice behind PlayStation 3's internet promotional videos. In 2005, Henriksen was the voice of Andrei Rublev in Cartoon Network's IGPX; the actor lent his voice to the animated television series Transformers: Animated as the character Lockdown. In 2009, Henriksen voiced Lieutenant General Shepherd in the award-winning game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, he would voice Karl Bishop Weyland in Aliens vs. Predator. Henriksen voiced Master Gnost-Dural in Star Wars: The Old Republic, he reprised his role as Admiral Hackett in Mass Effect 3, he is the narrator of the recent Verizon Droid commercials. Henriksen reprised his role as Bishop in Aliens: Colonial Marines. Henriksen maintains a prominent role in live action television, he has starred in a 2003 series of Australian television commercials for Visa, titled Unexplained and Big Cats. In these commercials, Henriksen speaks as a Frank Black-type character about
Robert Duane Ballard is a retired United States Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island, most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks. He is most known for the discoveries of the wrecks of the RMS Titanic in 1985, the battleship Bismarck in 1989, the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown in 1998, he discovered the wreck of John F. Kennedy's PT-109 in 2002 and visited Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana, who saved its crew, he leads ocean exploration on E/V Nautilus. Ballard grew up in Pacific Beach, San Diego, California to a mother of German heritage and a father of British heritage, he has attributed his early interest in underwater exploration to reading the novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, living by the ocean in San Diego, his fascination with the groundbreaking expeditions of the bathyscaphe Trieste. Ballard began working for Andreas Rechnitzer's Ocean Systems Group at North American Aviation in 1962 when his father, the chief engineer at North American Aviation's Minuteman missile program, helped him get a part-time job.
At North American, he worked on North American's failed proposal to build the submersible Alvin for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In 1965, Ballard graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara, earning undergraduate degrees in chemistry and geology. While a student in Santa Barbara, California, he joined Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, completed the US Army's ROTC program, giving him an Army officer's commission in Army Intelligence, his first graduate degree was in geophysics from the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics where he trained porpoises and whales. Subsequently, he returned to Andreas Rechnitzer's Ocean Systems Group at North American Aviation. Ballard was working towards a Ph. D. in marine geology at the University of Southern California in 1967 when he was called to active duty. Upon his request, he was transferred from the Army into the US Navy as an oceanographer; the Navy assigned him as a liaison between the Office of Naval Research and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
After leaving active duty and entering into the Naval Reserve in 1970, Ballard continued working at Woods Hole persuading organizations and people scientists, to fund and use Alvin for undersea research. Four years he received a Ph. D. in marine geology and geophysics at the University of Rhode Island. Ballard's first dive in a submersible was in the Ben Franklin in 1969 off the coast of Florida during a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution expedition. In summer 1970, he began a field mapping project of the Gulf of Maine for his doctoral dissertation, it used an air gun that sent sound waves underwater to determine the underlying structure of the ocean floor and the submersible Alvin, used to find and recover a sample from the bedrock. During the summer of 1975, Ballard participated in a joint French-American expedition called Phere searching for hydrothermal vents over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but the expedition did not find any active vents. A 1979 expedition was aided by deep-towed still camera sleds that were able to take pictures of the ocean floor, making it easier to find the vent locations.
When Alvin inspected one of the sites they located, the scientists observed black smoke billowing out of the vents, something not observed at the Galápagos Rift. Ballard and geophysicist Jean Francheteau went down in Alvin the day after the black smokers were first observed, they were able to take an accurate temperature reading of the active vent, recorded 350 °C. They continued searching for more vents along the East Pacific Rise between 1980 and 1982. Ballard joined the United States Army in 1965 through the Army's Reserve Officers Training program, he was designated as an intelligence officer and received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve. When called to active duty in 1967, he asked to fulfill his obligation in the United States Navy, his request was approved, he was transferred to the Navy Reserve on the reserve active duty list. After completing his active duty obligation in 1970, he was returned to reserve status, where he remained for much of his military career, being called up only for mandatory training and special assignments.
He retired from the Navy as a commander in 1995 after reaching the statutory service limit. While Ballard had been interested in the sea since an early age, his work at Woods Hole and his scuba diving experiences off Massachusetts spurred his interest in shipwrecks and their exploration, his work in the Navy had involved assisting in the development of small, unmanned submersibles that could be tethered to and controlled from a surface ship, were outfitted with lighting and manipulator arms. As early as 1973, he saw this as way of searching for the wreck of the Titanic. In 1977, he led his first expedition, unsuccessful. In summer 1985, Ballard was aboard the French research ship Le Suroît, using the side scan sonar SAR to search for the Titanic's wreck; when the French ship was recalled, he transferred onto a ship from the R/V Knorr. Unbeknownst to some, this trip was financed by the U. S. Navy for secret reconnaissance of the wreckage of two Navy nuclear powered attack submarines, the USS Scorpion and the USS Thresher, which sank in the 1960s, not for the Titanic.
Back in 1982, he approached the Navy about his new deep sea underwater robot craft, the Argo, his search for the Titanic. The Navy was not interested in financing it. However, they were interested in finding out what happened to their missing submarines and concluded that Argo was their
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany. Located in a sheltered bay not far from the western tip of the peninsula, the western extremity of metropolitan France, Brest is an important harbour and the second French military port after Toulon; the city is located on the western edge of continental Europe. With 142,722 inhabitants in a 2007 census, Brest is at the centre of Western Brittany's largest metropolitan area, ranking third behind only Nantes and Rennes in the whole of historic Brittany, the 19th most populous city in France. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper. During the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Richelieu made it a military harbour. Brest grew around its arsenal until the second part of the 20th century. Damaged by the Allies' bombing raids during World War II, the city centre was rebuilt after the war. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector.
Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students. Besides a multidisciplinary university, the University of Western Brittany and its surrounding area possess several prestigious French elite schools such as École Navale, Télécom Bretagne and the Superior National School of Advanced Techniques of Brittany. Brest is an important research centre focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest's history has always been linked to the sea: the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city; the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there. Every four years, Brest hosts the international festival of the sea and sailors: it is a meeting of old riggings from around the world; the name of the town is first recorded as Bresta. In 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397; the importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to give rise to the saying, "He is not the Duke of Brittany, not the Lord of Brest."
With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the definitive overlordship of Brest – together with the rest of the duchy – passed to the French crown. The advantages of Brest's situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbour with wooden wharves; this soon became a base for the French Navy. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688; these fortifications, with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley was soundly defeated in its attack on Brest. In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the disembarking port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes.
The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. In the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. Despite being within range of RAF bombers, it was a base for some of the German surface fleet, giving repair facilities and direct access to the Atlantic Ocean. For much of 1941, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen were under repair in the dockyards; the repair yard facilities for both submarines and surface vessels were staffed by both German and French workers, with the latter forming the major part of the workforce. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standing. After the war, the West German government paid several billion Deutschmarks in reparations to the homeless and destitute civilians of Brest in compensation for the destruction of their city. Large parts of today's rebuilt city consist of utilitarian concrete buildings; the French naval base now houses the Brest Naval Training Centre.
A wartime German navy memorandum suggested that the town should serve as a German enclave after the war. In 1972, the French Navy opened its nuclear weapon-submarine base at Île Longue in the Rade de Brest; this continues to be an important base for the French nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines. The meaning of the coat of arms of Brest is half France, half Brittany; these arms were used for the first time in a register of deliberations of the city council dated the 15 July 1683. Brest is best known for the military arsenal and the rue de Siam; the castle and the Tanguy tower are the oldest monuments of Brest