Julie Wafaei now Julie Angus is a Canadian rower, adventurer and cyclist, entrepreneur, married to the explorer Colin Angus. Julie's undergraduate degree is from honours in biology and psychology, her Masters of Science is from the University of Victoria, where she specialized in molecular biology. She studied at the University of Leeds for a year. After graduation she worked in the area of venture capital, technology transfer, business development, she met Colin Angus in 2003, they were married in 2007. Julie and Colin have two sons: Leif, born September 2010, Oliver, born June 2014. Julie has completed a number of adventurers that include being the first woman to row across the Atlantic Ocean from mainland to mainland and rowing 7,000 km from Scotland to Syria and organizing a National Geographic sponsored expedition to research the history of the olive tree. Julie has received numerous awards including National Geographic Adventurer of the Year award, University of Victoria Distinguished Alumni Award, McMaster University Young Alumni Award..
Julie has written three books, Rowboat in a Hurricane, Rowed Trip and Olive Odyssey, is a professional speaker. Julie’s pursued multiple entrepreneurial activities and is the CEO and co-founder of Open Ocean Robotics, a company she founded with her husband Colin Angus to develop autonomous energy-harvesting boats that are equipped with sensors and communication devices for offshore research. In 2018 she was selected as one of six finalists in the Women in Cleantech Challenge and was awarded $800,000 of support.. She and Colin founded Angus Rowboats, a company that designs and produces robotically cut kits for rowboats and small sailboats. Julie is the first woman to row the Atlantic Ocean from mainland to mainland, her Atlantic row was part of an expedition with her fiance Colin Angus to circumnavigate the Northern hemisphere by human power. She accompanied Colin Angus for half of the expedition, in a bid to promote self propulsion as a fun and healthy means of travel. For her achievement Julie and Colin Angus jointly received the Adventurer of the Year Award from National Geographic Adventure.
She co-produced a documentary and wrote a book titled "Rowboat in a Hurricane: My Amazing Journey Across a Changing Atlantic Ocean", detailing her exploits. In 2008 Julie and Colin Angus, completed a trip from northernmost Scotland to Syria, covering 7,000 km of rivers and roads; each used a separate rowboat on the water sections, portaged using bicycle-trailer systems between waterways. This expedition was described in their book "Rowed Trip, From Scotland to Syria by Oar" published in 2009, as well as a film titled "Rowed Trip." In 2011, Julie and Colin Angus and their young son Leif sailed from Spain to the Middle-East, retracing the domestication of the olive tree. Their adventure is described in Julie's most recent book, "Olive Odyssey: Searching for the Secrets of the Fruit that Seduced the World" The book has received excellent reviews: " unfailingly interesting odyssey." —Philip Marchand, National Post " is an engaging mix of history, food travelog, botany lesson... There is much to enjoy here for foodies and armchair historians."
—Library Journal "It is a pleasure to try to keep up with this book. —Christopher Bakken, Wall Street Journal "Angus excels in tracing the history of the olive: any botanist or cook will walk away from Olive Odyssey well-informed on the plant and its products." —Georgia Straight "A informative biography of the olive, a versatile fruit that has played a huge role in the history and development of civilization." —Vancouver Sun "Olive Odyssey has many strengths: its contribution to scientific and historical research on olives, good food and travel writing, a sense of humour and an eye for detail, a sense of adventure and exploration." —Literary Review of Canada With Colin Angus Julie has launched a new company called Open Ocean Robotics. The purpose of the company is to develop autonomous boats powered by wind and/or solar power capable of deep ocean travel. Julie won a $800,000 award from Natural Resources Canada and the MaRS Discovery District for the Woman in Cleantech Challenge to develop prototypes and demonstrate feasibilty.
After two and a half years, should she be successful she may receive an additional $1,000,000. Adventurer of the Year Award 2007 from National Geographic Adventure presented to Julie and Colin Named as one of North America’s leading adventurers by Explore magazine. Listed as One of Canada Greatest Explorer by Canadian Geographic in 2015 Listed as One of Canada’s Greatest Women Explorers by Canadian Geographic in 2016 Awarded University of Victoria Distinguished Alumni Award in 2018, Awarded McMaster University Young Alumni Award Canadian Geographic Fellow John P. McGovern Lectureship Award in 2017 Angus Adventures Website National Geographic Adventure - Adventurers of the Year Award 2006
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
Pueblo is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 267th most populous city in the United States and the 9th largest in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area, totaling over 160,000 people and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor; as of 2014, Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo–Cañon City combined statistical area totaling 208,000 people, making it the 134th largest in the nation. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, 112 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver; the area is considered semi-arid desert land, with 12 inches of precipitation annually. With its location in the "Banana Belt", Pueblo tends to get less snow than the other major cities in Colorado. Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States, for which reason Pueblo is referred to as the "Steel City".
The Historic Arkansas River Project is a river walk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, shows the history of the devastating Pueblo Flood of 1921. Pueblo has the least expensive residential real estate of all major cities in Colorado; the median home price for homes on the market in Pueblo is $147,851 as of February 2013. It is the sixth most affordable place to live in America as measured by the 2014 Cost of Living Index. Costs of housing and services, transportation and health care are lower than the national average. Pueblo was listed by AARP in 2013 as one of the Best Places to Live in the USA. James Beckwourth, George Simpson, other trappers such as Mathew Kinkead, claimed to have helped construct the plaza that became known as El Pueblo around 1842. According to accounts of residents who traded at the plaza, the Fort Pueblo Massacre happened sometime between December 23 and December 25, 1854, by a war party of Utes and Jicarilla Apaches under the leadership of Tierra Blanca, a Ute chief.
They killed between fifteen and nineteen men, as well as captured two children and one woman. The trading post was abandoned after the raid, but it became important again between 1858 and 1859 during the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859; the current city of Pueblo represents the consolidation of four towns: Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo, Bessemer. Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo consolidated as the City of Pueblo between March 9 and April 6, 1886. Bessemer joined Pueblo in 1894; the consolidated city became a major economic and social center of Colorado, was home to important early Colorado families such as the Thatchers, the Ormans, the Adams. By the early 1870s the city was being hailed as a beacon of development, with newspapers like the Chicago Tribune boasting of how the region's lawless reputation was giving way to orderly agriculture with triumphalist rhetoric. One author crowed of Pueblo that "the necessity exists no longer for Sharp's revolvers; these have been supplied by the plow and the mowing-machine."Pueblo's development stretched beyond agriculture.
Steel emerged as a key industry early, in 1909 the city was considered the only steel town west of the Mississippi River. Until a series of major floods culminated in the Great Flood of 1921, Pueblo was considered the'Saddle-Making capital of the World'. One-third of Pueblo's downtown businesses were lost in this flood, along with a substantial number of buildings. Pueblo has had a resurgence in growth. Pueblo's orphanages were an influential part of the city; the transformations that have occurred throughout the three orphanages in the town of Pueblo, Colorado are important aspects of the city's history. Many people were influenced by the Orphanages of Pueblo and the homes are now all historical sites; the transformations have occurred architecturally and economically within the people from to now. The three orphanages in Pueblo were known as Sacred Heart, McClelland. Lincoln was the first black orphanage in Colorado, one of only seven in the country. Sacred Heart was run by the Catholic Welfare Bureau, while McClelland was run by the Lutheran Church.
Several children from Cuba were placed at Sacred Heart as part of "Operation Pedro Pan". Though the Orphanages in Pueblo are no longer in service, the buildings still exist and have transformed with the times. According to the Rocky Mountain News, in 1988 the Sacred Heart Orphanage was bought by the Pueblo Housing Authority and turned into 40 small-family housing units; the main industry in Pueblo for most of its history was the Colorado Fuel and Iron Steel Mill on the south side of town. For nearly a century the CF&I was the largest employer in the state of Colorado; the steel-market crash of 1982 led to the decline of the company. After several bankruptcies, the company was acquired by Oregon Steel Mills and changed its name to Rocky Mountain Steel Mills; the company was plagued with labor problems due to accusations of unfair labor practices. This culminated with a major strike in 1997. In September 2004, both United Steelworkers locals 2102 and 3267 won the strike and the unfair labor practice charges.
All of the striking steel workers returned to their jobs, the company paid them the back pay owed for the seven years they were on strike. In 2007, shortly after Oregon Steel made amends with the union and its workers, Evraz Group, one of Russia's biggest steel producers, agreed to buy the company for $2.3 bil
Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body. This article focuses on the circumnavigation of Earth; the first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522, after crossing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The word circumnavigation is a noun formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare, from circum "around" + navigare "to sail". If a person walks around either Pole, he crosses all meridians, but this is not considered a "circumnavigation"; the trajectory of a true circumnavigation forms a continuous loop on the surface of Earth separating two-halves of comparable area. A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers a great circle, in particular one which passes through at least one pair of points antipodal to each other. In practice, people use different definitions of world circumnavigation to accommodate practical constraints, depending on the method of travel.
Since the planet is quasispheroidal, a trip from one Pole to the other, back again on the other side, would technically be a circumnavigation, but practical difficulties preclude such a voyage although it was undertaken in the early 1980s by Ranulph Fiennes. The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition, it was a Castilian voyage of discovery, led by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, by the Spanish Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522. The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America where the expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan, named after the fleet's captain, it continued across the Pacific discovering a number of islands on its way, including Guam before arriving in the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, back to Spain in 1522.
Elcano and a small group of 18 men were the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation. Apart from some scholars, it is not accepted that Magellan and some crew members completed a full circumnavigation on several voyages, since Sumatra and Malacca lie southwest of Cebu. If he had been in the Moluccas islands in early 1512, he completed and exceeded an entire circumnavigation of Earth in longitude—though one circumnavigation in the strict sense implies a return to the same exact point. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia, which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage.
In September 1578, he passed through the southern tip of South America, named Drake Passage, which connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim in Alta California, known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips common; the nautical global and fastest circumnavigation record is held by a wind-powered vessel, the trimaran IDEC 3. The record was established by six sailors: Francis Joyon, Alex Pella, Clément Surtel, Gwénolé Gahinet, Sébastien Audigane and Bernard Stamm; the absolute speed sailing record around the world followed the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean route in an easterly direction.
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical, non-competitive, route for a sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals. It can be seen that the route approximates a great circle, passes through two pairs of antipodal points; this is a route followed by many cruising sailors. In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
A prime meridian is a meridian in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its anti-meridian form a great circle; this great circle divides e.g. Earth, into two hemispheres. If one uses directions of East and West from a defined prime meridian they can be called the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. A prime meridian is arbitrary, unlike an equator, determined by the axis of rotation—and various conventions have been used or advocated in different regions and throughout history; the most used modern meridian is the IERS Reference Meridian. It is derived but deviates from the Greenwich Meridian, selected as an international standard in 1884; the notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes in Alexandria, Hipparchus in Rhodes, applied to a large number of cities by the geographer Strabo. But it was Ptolemy. Ptolemy used as his basis the "Fortunate Isles", a group of islands in the Atlantic which are associated with the Canary Islands, although his maps correspond more to the Cape Verde islands.
The main point is to be comfortably west of the western tip of Africa as negative numbers were not yet in use. His prime meridian corresponds to 18° 40' west of Winchester today. At that time the chief method of determining longitude was by using the reported times of lunar eclipses in different countries. Ptolemy's Geographia was first printed with maps at Bologna in 1477, many early globes in the 16th century followed his lead, but there was still a hope. Christopher Columbus reported that the compass pointed due north somewhere in mid-Atlantic, this fact was used in the important Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 which settled the territorial dispute between Spain and Portugal over newly discovered lands; the Tordesillas line was settled at 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This is shown in Diogo Ribeiro's 1529 map. São Miguel Island in the Azores was still used for the same reason as late as 1594 by Christopher Saxton, although by it had been shown that the zero magnetic deviation line did not follow a line of longitude.
In 1541, Mercator produced his famous 41 cm terrestrial globe and drew his prime meridian through Fuerteventura in the Canaries. His maps used the Azores, following the magnetic hypothesis, but by the time that Ortelius produced the first modern atlas in 1570, other islands such as Cape Verde were coming into use. In his atlas longitudes were counted from 0° to 360°, not 180°W to 180°E as is usual today; this practice was followed by navigators well into the 18th century. In 1634, Cardinal Richelieu used the westernmost island of the Canaries, Ferro, 19° 55' west of Paris, as the choice of meridian; the geographer Delisle decided to round this off to 20°, so that it became the meridian of Paris disguised. In the early 18th century the battle was on to improve the determination of longitude at sea, leading to the development of the marine chronometer by John Harrison, but it was the development of accurate star charts, principally by the first British Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed between 1680 and 1719 and disseminated by his successor Edmund Halley, that enabled navigators to use the lunar method of determining longitude more using the octant developed by Thomas Godfrey and John Hadley.
Between 1765 and 1811, Nevil Maskelyne published 49 issues of the Nautical Almanac based on the meridian of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. "Maskelyne's tables not only made the lunar method practicable, they made the Greenwich meridian the universal reference point. The French translations of the Nautical Almanac retained Maskelyne's calculations from Greenwich—in spite of the fact that every other table in the Connaissance des Temps considered the Paris meridian as the prime." In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference in Washington, D. C. 22 countries voted to adopt the Greenwich meridian as the prime meridian of the world. The French argued for a neutral line, mentioning the Azores and the Bering Strait, but abstained and continued to use the Paris meridian until 1911. In October 1884 the Greenwich Meridian was selected by delegates to the International Meridian Conference held in Washington, D. C. United States to be the common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world.
The modern prime meridian, the IERS Reference Meridian, is placed near this meridian and is the prime meridian that has the widest use. The modern prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851; the position of the Greenwich Meridian has been defined by the location of the Airy Transit Circle since the first observation was taken with it by Sir George Airy in 1851. Prior to that, it was defined by a succession of earlier transit instruments, the first of, acquired by the second Astronomer Royal, Edmond Halley in 1721, it was set up in the extreme north-west corner of the Observatory between Flamsteed House and the Western Summer House. This spot, now subsumed into Flamsteed House, is 43 metres to the west of the Airy Transit Circle, a distance equivalent to 0.15 seconds of time. It was Airy's transit circle, adopted in principle as the Prime Meridian of th
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso; the Dalai Lama is considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, a Bodhisattva of Compassion. The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" or "big" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ meaning "master, guru"; the Dalai Lama figure is important for many reasons. Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions; the Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. While he had no formal or institutional role in any of the religious traditions, which were headed by their own high lamas, he was a unifying symbol of the Tibetan state, representing Buddhist values and traditions above any specific school.
The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the present fourteenth Dalai Lama. He has worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exiled community and has become a symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans both in Tibet and in exile. In 1793, Emperor Qianlong issued decree The 29-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet, Article One of the decree was designed to be used in the selection of rinpoches and other high offices within Tibetan Buddhism, including the Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and Mongolian lamas. For candidates of the possible reincarnated Dalai Lama, names will be deposited in a urn, only one will be picked by lottery in Jokhang. In Qianlong's article The Discourse of Lama《喇嘛说》, published in 1792, the Emperor pointed out that Golden Urn can't eliminate all the drawbacks, but this is a fairer mechanism than previous method of deciding with idea from only one person.
From 1642 until 1705, from 1750 to the 1950s, the Dalai Lamas or their regents headed the Tibetan government in Lhasa which governed all or most of the Tibetan Plateau with varying degrees of autonomy under the Qing Dynasty of China, up to complete sovereignty. This Tibetan government enjoyed the patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings of the Khoshut and Dzungar Khanates and of the emperors of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Tibet's sovereignty was rejected, however, by both the Republic of China and the current People's Republic of China. In Central Asian Buddhist countries, it has been believed for the last millennium that Avalokiteśvara, the bodhisattva of compassion, has a special relationship with the people of Tibet and intervenes in their fate by incarnating as benevolent rulers and teachers such as the Dalai Lamas; this is according to The Book of Kadam, the main text of the Kadampa school, to which the 1st Dalai Lama, Gendun Drup, first belonged. In fact, this text is said to have laid the foundation for the Tibetans' identification of the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara.
It traces the legend of the bodhisattva's incarnations as early Tibetan kings and emperors such as Songtsen Gampo and as Dromtönpa. This lineage has been extrapolated including the Dalai Lamas. Thus, according to such sources, an informal line of succession of the present Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara stretches back much further than Gendun Drub; the Book of Kadam, the compilation of Kadampa teachings composed around discussions between the Indian sage Atiśa and his Tibetan host and chief disciple Dromtönpa and ‘Tales of the Previous Incarnations of Arya Avalokiteśvara’, nominate as many as sixty persons prior to Gendun Drub who are enumerated as earlier incarnations of Avalokiteśvara and predecessors in the same lineage leading up to him. In brief, these include a mythology of 36 Indian personalities plus 10 early Tibetan kings and emperors, all said to be previous incarnations of Dromtönpa, fourteen further Nepalese and Tibetan yogis and sages in between him and the 1st Dalai Lama.
In fact, according to the "Birth to Exile" article on the 14th Dalai Lama's website, he is "the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni." According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and protect the Tibetan people and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet. First, Tsongkhapa established three great monasteries around Lhasa in the province of Ü before he died in 1419; the 1st Dalai Lama soon became Abbot of the greatest one and developed a large popular power base in Ü. He extended this to cover Tsang, where he constructed a fourth great monastery, Tashi Lhunpo, at Shigatse; the 2nd studied there before returning to Lhasa. Having reactivated the 1st's large popular followings in Tsang and Ü, the 2nd moved on to southern Tibet and gathered more followers there who helped him construct a new monastery, Chokorgyel.
He established the method by which Dalai Lama incarnations would be discovered through visions at the'oracle lake', Lhamo Lhatso. The 3rd built on his predecessors' fame by becoming Ab