Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions. Experimental compositional practice is defined broadly by exploratory sensibilities radically opposed to, questioning of, institutionalized compositional and aesthetic conventions in music. Elements of experimental music include indeterminate music, in which the composer introduces the elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either the composition or its performance. Artists may approach a hybrid of disparate styles or incorporate unorthodox and unique elements; the practice became prominent in the mid-20th century in Europe and North America. John Cage was one of the earliest composers to use the term and one of experimental music's primary innovators, utilizing indeterminacy techniques and seeking unknown outcomes. In France, as early as 1953, Pierre Schaeffer had begun using the term musique expérimentale to describe compositional activities that incorporated tape music, musique concrète, elektronische Musik.
In America, a quite distinct sense of the term was used in the late 1950s to describe computer-controlled composition associated with composers such as Lejaren Hiller. Harry Partch as well as Ivor Darreg worked with other tuning scales based on the physical laws for harmonic music. For this music they both developed a group of experimental musical instruments. Musique concrète, is a form of electroacoustic music that utilises acousmatic sound as a compositional resource. Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician involved; the Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrète, under the leadership of Pierre Schaeffer, organized the First International Decade of Experimental Music between 8 and 18 June 1953. This appears to have been an attempt by Schaeffer to reverse the assimilation of musique concrète into the German elektronische Musik, instead tried to subsume musique concrète, elektronische Musik, tape music, world music under the rubric "musique experimentale".
Publication of Schaeffer's manifesto was delayed by four years, by which time Schaeffer was favoring the term "recherche musicale", though he never wholly abandoned "musique expérimentale". John Cage was using the term as early as 1955. According to Cage's definition, "an experimental action is one the outcome of, not foreseen", he was interested in completed works that performed an unpredictable action. In Germany, the publication of Cage's article was anticipated by several months in a lecture delivered by Wolfgang Edward Rebner at the Darmstädter Ferienkurse on 13 August 1954, titled “Amerikanische Experimentalmusik". Rebner's lecture extended the concept back in time to include Charles Ives, Edgard Varèse, Henry Cowell, as well as Cage, due to their focus on sound as such rather than compositional method. Composer and critic Michael Nyman starts from Cage's definition, develops the term "experimental" to describe the work of other American composers, as well as composers such as Gavin Bryars, John Cale, Toshi Ichiyanagi, Cornelius Cardew, John Tilbury, Frederic Rzewski, Keith Rowe.
Nyman opposes experimental music to the European avant-garde of the time, for whom "The identity of a composition is of paramount importance". The word "experimental" in the former cases "is apt, providing it is understood not as descriptive of an act to be judged in terms of success or failure, but as of an act the outcome of, unknown". David Cope distinguishes between experimental and avant garde, describing experimental music as that "which represents a refusal to accept the status quo". David Nicholls, makes this distinction, saying that "...very avant-garde music can be viewed as occupying an extreme position within the tradition, while experimental music lies outside it". Warren Burt cautions that, as "a combination of leading-edge techniques and a certain exploratory attitude", experimental music requires a broad and inclusive definition, "a series of ands, if you will", encompassing such areas as "Cageian influences and work with low technology and improvisation and sound poetry and linguistics and new instrument building and multimedia and music theatre and work with high technology and community music, among others, when these activities are done with the aim of finding those musics'we don't like, yet,' in a'problem-seeking environment' ”.
Benjamin Piekut argues that this "consensus view of experimentalism" is based on an a priori "grouping", rather than asking the question "How have these composers been collected together in the first place, that they can now be the subject of a description?" That is, "for the most part, experimental music studies describes a category without explaining it". He finds laudable exceptions in the work of David Nicholls and Amy Beal, concludes from their work that "The fundamental ontological shift that marks experimentalism as an achievement is tha
The Takoradi Harbour is in the Western region of Ghana. It is the oldest harbour in Ghana; the Takoradi harbour and the Tema Harbour are the only harbours in Ghana. The idea for the construction of the port was first advocated in 1895 by consulting engineers of the British government; the engineers proposed that the harbour when constructed could serve both as a terminal port for the Tarkwa railway project and a naval port to serve the British empire in war times. The site for the harbour was proposed at the Amanful village which sat in the bay of the harbour today; the construction of the port begun in 1921 by governor of the Gold Coast, Sir Gordon Guggisberg and was completed in 1928. The Takoradi harbour is 230 kilometres from the capital of Ghana; the port exports high volumes of cargo. The management of the harbour is the responsibility of the Ghana Harbours Authority; the harbour serves as the main export port for Ghana. It handles 65% of total export with about 600 vessels visiting it; the main exports from the harbour are Cocoa Timber Bauxite ManganeseThe harbour serves the international trade purposes of land locked countries in the Sahel region of Africa.
Some of the countries are Burkina Faso and Niger. The harbour transits large volumes of cargo for these countries; the harbour handles 37 % 62 % of national exports. It receives 20 % all the imports. In July 2004 it was announced that a 250 million dollar modernization project, to upgrade the harbour was to begin; the project included the dredging of wharf and construction of container berths to increase the volume of cargo the harbour could handle. The Authority constructed a 14-metre high wall around the port; the wall was to prevent the incidence of stowaways. Again, in July 2009 the Authority announced a 700 million dollar project to rehabilitate and upgrade the harbour; this was to make the harbour ready for the country's new gas industry. The project was to include the reclamation and redevelopment of the old log pond into an oil services facility; the oil service facility was to support the country’s offshore oil production. Other works that were to be included in the project were: dredging paving works in the harbour the construction of quay walls of 500 metres construction of cocoa shed outside the harbour premises construction of an oil berth of depth 650 metresIn September 2013 a harbour expansion project commenced.
The aim was to extend the breakwater northward by 1.75 kilometres, the construction of bulk oil service terminal, the reclamation of a land area of 53,000 hectares, an open area for oil pipe and machinery, as well as an access road to the port. The project was undertaken by Jan De Nul of Belgium. Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority Tema Harbour Tema Fishing Harbour Albert Bosomtwi-Sam Fishing Harbour
EMotorWerks, an Enel Group Company, is an electric vehicle infrastructure company, based in San Carlos, California. EMotorWerks was founded in 2010 by Val Miftakhov, who wasalso is its CEO until it merged with Enel X. eMotorWerks was acquired by Enel through its EnerNOC, is part of the Enel X group. The company started as a developer of Electric Vehicle conversion kits in 2010, by 2012 had a product.. The Modular Mechanical Conversion System was designed "to hold all the EV components and attach them to the donor vehicle; the system is adaptable with minor modifications to many types of passenger vehicles." EMotorWerks started development of its JuiceBox as a DIY kit, funding it via Kickstarter in 2013. JuiceNet enabled Charging stations pay the user back in average EV driver $133/year for consuming cleaner electricity. "the average EV owner returning about that amount over 3 years. 2018 Global Cleantech 100 2018 Silver Edison Awards on Energy & Sustainability, Vehicle Advancements 2017 Inc. America's 500 highest growth companies 2017 Grid Edge Awards 2016 Energy Productivity Innovation Challenge Award at the World Business Council for Sustainable Development side event at the UN Climate Summit Charging station Plug-in vehicle Plug-in hybrid vehicle Official website