The Kitzsteinhorn is a mountain in the High Tauern range of the Central Eastern Alps in Austria. It is part of the Glockner Group and reaches a height of 3,203 m AA, the Kitzsteinhorn glaciers are a popular ski area. The mountain is located north of the Alpine crest within the area of Kaprun. It was first climbed in 1828 by local mountaineer Johann Entacher, there is a restaurant and a panoramic terrace on the roof of the upper station, at 3,029 m above sea level. Skiing on Mt Kitzsteinhorn already began in the early 20th century, the first cable car was put into operation in December 1965, and opened up the Schmiedingerkees and Maurerkees glaciers, making it the first glacier ski slope in the Austrian Alps. Nevertheless, the resort has to deal with environmental impacts and the retreat of glaciers since 1850. An underground funicular railway was opened in 1974, after two and a years of building works to create the 3, 295-metre long tunnel, to run in parallel with the cable car. This funicular was the location of the Kaprun disaster in which 155 people died on 11 November 2000, to replace the funicular, Gletscherjet I, a 24-person funitel, was brought into service on 23 December 2001.
Gletscherjet II, a lift, followed in the next year
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning White Mountain, is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia after the Caucasus peaks. It rises 4,808 m above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence, the mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, skiing, the three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics, a cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11.6 km Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major transport route.
The first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and this climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first woman to reach the summit was Marie Paradis in 1808, nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone who is well-trained and acclimatized to the altitude, from lAiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. Some routes require knowledge of mountaineering, a guide. All routes are long and arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche, climbers may suffer altitude sickness, occasionally life threatening, particularly if they do not acclimatize to it. Since the French Revolution, the issue of the ownership of the summit has been debated, from 1416 to 1792, the entire mountain was within the Duchy of Savoy.
In 1723 the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, acquired the Kingdom of Sardinia, the resulting state of Sardinia was to become preeminent in the Italian unification. In September 1792, the French revolutionary Army of the Alps under Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac seized Savoy without much resistance, in a treaty of 15 May 1796, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This act further states that the border should be visible from the town of Chamonix, neither the peak of the Mont Blanc is visible from Courmayeur nor the peak of the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is visible from Chamonix because part of the mountains lower down obscure them. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna restored the King of Sardinia in Savoy and Piedmont, his traditional territories, forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on 24 March 1860 by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, a demarcation agreement, signed on 7 March 1861, defined the new border.
With the formation of Italy, for the first time Mont Blanc was located on the border of France, the 1860 act and attached maps are still legally valid for both the French and Italian governments
The peaks and mountain passes are lower compared to the Western Alps, while the range itself is broader and less arched. In the south the range is bound by the Italian Padan Plain, in the north the valley of the Danube river separates it from the Bohemian Massif. The easternmost spur is formed by the Vienna Woods range, with the Leopoldsberg overlooking the Danube and the Vienna basin, the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina at 4,049 m in the Bernina Group of the Western Rhaetian Alps in Switzerland. The sole four-thousander of the range, its name is taken from the Bernina Pass and was given in 1850 by Johann Coaz, the rocks composing Piz Bernina are diorites and gabbros, while the massif in general is composed of granites. Excepting other peaks in the Bernina range, the next highest is the Ortler at 3,905 m in Italian South Tyrol and third the Großglockner at 3,798 m, the highest mountain of Austria. The region around the Großglockner and the adjacent Pasterze Glacier has been a special protection area within the High Tauern National Park since 1986, mount Sulzfluh is well frequented by climbers and is situated in the Rätikon range of the Alps, on the border between Austria and Switzerland.
On the eastern side is a path, of grade T4. There are six caves in the limestone mountain, with lengths between 800 and 3000 or more yards, all with entrances on the Eastern side, in Switzerland. Mount Grauspitz is the highest summit of the Rätikon, located on the border between Liechtenstein and Switzerland, the Rätikon mountain range, in the Central Eastern Alps, derives its name from Raetia. Only about 30% of Graubünden is commonly regarded as productive land, the canton is entirely mountainous, comprising the highlands of the Rhine and Inn river valleys. In its southeastern part lies the only official Swiss National Park, in its northern part the mountains were formed as part of the thrust fault that was declared a geologic UNESCO World Heritage Site, under the name Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona, in 2008. Another Biosphere Reserve is the Biosfera Val Müstair adjacent to the Swiss National Park whereas Ela Nature Park is one of the regionally supported parks. The ranges are subdivided by several deeply indented river valleys, mostly running east-west, including the Inn, Enns, Drava, the Swiss Alpine Club has a slightly different classififcation of the ranges, based on the political borders in the canton of Graubünden.
In Italy the 1926 Partizione delle Alpi concept is quite common, other specific, especially hydrographical arrangements are in use. The Alps comprise four main systems, The Helvetic nappes. They consist primarily of Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary rocks in multiple folds, the Penninic nappes, Jurassic sediments of the Tethys Ocean stretching from the Eurasian to the Apulian Plate, pushed together during the Alpine orogeny. They comprise a Flysch zone and several rocks in geological windows, such as the Engadin window. The South Alpine system south of the Periadriatic Seam and they mainly consist of Mesozoic and Paleozoic formations with little faults, whose nappes and folds are oriented towards the south
The Schesaplana is the highest mountain in the Rätikon mountain range at the border between Vorarlberg and Graubuenden, Switzerland. It has an elevation of 2,964.3 m, on the north side of the Schesaplana is a glacier called Brandner Gletscher. To the east is the Lünersee and it is possible to reach the summit on various routes during a hike, making it useful for a multiday trek between the mountain huts in the area. A more horizontal trek is following the whole of the Rätikon chain along its southern face, list of most isolated mountains of Switzerland Schesaplana on Summitpost
The Jungfrau at 4,158 metres is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Berne and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch. Together with the Eiger and Mönch, the Jungfrau forms a wall overlooking the Bernese Oberland. The summit was first reached on August 3,1811 by the Meyer brothers of Aarau, the ascent followed a long expedition over the glaciers and high passes of the Bernese Alps. It was not until 1865 that a direct route on the northern side was opened. Along with the Aletsch Glacier to the south, the Jungfrau is part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, the Jungfrau is split between the municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Fieschertal. It is the third-highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the nearby Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn and this, and the extreme steepness of the north face, secured for it an early reputation for inaccessibility. The Jungfrau is the westernmost and highest point of a gigantic 10 km wall dominating the valleys of Lauterbrunnen, the Jungfrau is approximately 6 km from the Eiger, with the summit of the Mönch between the two mountains,3.5 km from the Jungfrau.
The wall is extended to the east by the Fiescherwand and to the west by the Lauterbrunnen Wall, the difference of altitude between the deep valley of Lauterbrunnen and the summit is particularly visible from the area of Mürren. From the valley floor, west of the massif, the gain is more than 3 km for a horizontal distance of 4 km. The landscapes around the Jungfrau are extremely contrasted, instead of the vertiginous precipices of the north-west, the south-east side emerges from the upper snows of the Aletsch Glacier at around 3,500 metres. The 20 km long valley of Aletsch on the south-east is completely uninhabited, the whole area constitutes the largest glaciated area in the Alps as well as in Europe. After the Guttannen porter was sent back alone over the Lötschenlücke and they recrossed the two passes named to their point of departure in Valais, and went home again over the Grimsel. The journey was a most extraordinary one for the time, to settle these another expedition was undertaken in 1812.
In this the two sons and Gottlieb, of Johann Rudolf Meyer, played the chief parts. Next day the party attempted the ascent of the Finsteraarhorn from the Studer névé on the east by way of the southeast ridge. The following day the party crossed the Grünhornlücke to the Aletsch Glacier, at a bivouac, probably just opposite the present Konkordia Hut, the rest of the party, having come over the Oberaarjoch and the Grünhornlücke, joined the Finsteraarhorn party. Gottlieb, Rudolfs younger brother, had more patience than the rest and remained longer at the huts near the Märjelensee, where the adventurers had taken refuge. He could make the ascent of the Jungfrau, the Rottalsattel being reached from the east side as is now usual
The Ankogel Group is a sub-group of the Central Eastern Alps. The Ankogel Group is located in the Austrian federal states of Salzburg and its highest peak is the Hochalmspitze,3,360 m. The Ankogel Group is the easternmost mountain group of the High Tauern, the Lower Tauern begin further east. The range gets its name from the Ankogel mountain, the Ankogel Group can be further divided into the sub-groups of the Ankogel Massif, the Hochalmspitze Group, the Hafner Group and the Reißeck Group south of the Möll Valley. It comprises the picturesque Maltatal with the Fallbach Waterfall and the Kölnbrein Dam, all the named three-thousanders in the Ankogel Group, Liselotte Buchenauer, Peter Holl, Alpenvereinsführer Ankogel- und Goldberggruppe
Sir Alfred Wills PC was a judge of the High Court of England and Wales and a well-known mountaineer. He was the third President of the Alpine Club from 1863 to 1865, Wills was the second son of William Wills, JP, of Edgbaston, and of his wife Sarah Wills, a daughter of Jeremiah Ridout. He was educated at a school in Edgbaston and at University College London, Wills became a barrister from Middle Temple in 1851 and was appointed Queens Counsel in 1872. During his career as a judge, his most notable achievement was presiding over the trial in which Oscar Wilde was convicted for committing acts of indecency with other male persons. Willis sentenced Wilde to two years hard labour, the judge described the sentence, the maximum allowed, as totally inadequate for a case such as this, and that the case was the worst case I have ever tried. May I say nothing, my Lord, was drowned out in cries of Shame in the courtroom. With his father William Wills, he co-authored An essay on the principles of evidence, illustrated by numerous cases.
The ascent of the Wetterhorn by Wills and his party during 1854, from that time on, climbing mountains as sport became fashionable. He was the third President of the Alpine Club from 1863 to 1865, a mountain refuge near Chamonix still bears his name. She died in 1860, and in 1861 he married Bertha, daughter of Thomas Lombe Taylor, of Starston and his second wife died in 1906. He had three sons and two daughters, Refuge Alfred Wills WILLS, Rt Hon. Sir Alfred at Who Was Who 1897-2006 online at Credo Reference A good explanation of An essay on the principles of circumstantial evidence and its importance Refuge Alfred Wills
Ortler is, at 3,905 m above sea level, the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range. It is the peak of the Ortler Range. It is the highest point of the Southern Limestone Alps, of the Italian province of South Tyrol, of Tyrol overall, in German the mountain is commonly referred to as König Ortler, like in the unofficial hymn of South Tyrol, the Bozner Bergsteigerlied. The massive mountain is capped by a glacier on the northwest flank and has a long ridge that ends at the village of Gomagoi and separates the valleys of Trafoi. The South ridge leads to the Hochjoch on the ridge of the Ortler Alps that forms the border of the Province of Sondrio. Going west on this ridge are the Thurwieserspitze and Trafoier Wall, while to the Southeast are the Monte Zebrù. From nearby mountains in the northeast the impressive lineup of Königspitze, the Ortler was first climbed by Josef Pichler, a chamois hunter from St. Leonhard in Passeier, and his companions Johann Leitner and Johann Klausner from Zell am Ziller on 27 September 1804.
The archduke ordered Johannes Nepomuk Gebhard, a official and topographer from Salzburg. The first five attempts failed and Gebhard was ready to give up, Pichler and his friends took a difficult, and because of avalanche danger until recently disused, route over the northwest face from Trafoi. Upon their return, the men were not believed on their words alone, Gebhard sent Pichler onto the mountain twice more, first in August 1805 with a flag that could be observed with a telescope from the valley, and again in September 1805 with a huge torch. Only after the torch had been seen burning at night was the accomplishment acknowledged, the route Pichler and his men took in 1805 was the currently still popular East ridge route. In 1834, at the age of 70, Pichler would make his fifth and final ascent, the first time the Ortler was climbed via the easiest and currently normal route, the North ridge, was more recently, in July 1865, as the approach is rather lengthy. In 1875 a hut was erected 3, 029m high on the North ridge and it was named the Payer house, after Julius von Payer, who had mapped the Ortler Alps between 1865–1868 and had climbed 50 of its peaks with Johann Pinggera as his guide.
Members of the Pinggera family were involved in most of these ascents. The 1,200 m high ice route on the Ortler north face, longest in the Eastern Alps, was first climbed in June 1931 by Hans Ertl and Franz Schmid and the remote Southwest face in 1934. The North face was soloed first in 1963 by Dieter Drescher who had added some first winter ascents to his name, including a traverse of Königspitze, Monte Zebrù. On August 31,1981, Reinhard Patscheider achieved the feat of climbing the north faces of Königspitze, Zebrù. Extreme skiing started early in the Ortler mountains, with Heini Holzer descending the Schück couloir in 1971, on June 24,1983, Andreas Orgler skied down the North face
The Hochvogel is a 2,592 m high mountain in the Allgäu Alps. The national border between Germany and Austria runs over the summit, experienced climbers can ascend the summit on two marked routes. The Hochvogel consists of main dolomite, the highest and most striking mountains in the Allgäu Alps are all made of this rock. Tectonically the Hochvogel and its main dolomite formation belong to the so-called Lech Valley Nappe and this rock package was overthrust over younger layers of rock during the course of Alpine mountain folding. The main dolomite is brittle in places, but forms striking rock formations in places in conjunction with the forces of erosion. The hut diary of the Prinz Luitpold Haus reports a mighty landslide on 27 May 1935 when thousands of metres of rock from the southwest face crashed down into the valley. Although only the thirteenth highest summit in the Allgäu Alps, the Hochvogel dominates other parts of Allgäu Alps and this is due to the fact that the majority of the higher peaks are concentrated in the central and western part of the Allgäu Alps.
The Hochvogel stands on its own in the part of the mountain group. The older, now out-of-print editions of the Alpine Club Guide for the Allgäu Alps state that the mountain was first climbed a long time ago, a shepherds boy from Hinterhornbach is said to have already climbed it in 1767. In 1818, the surveyors found a ruined cairn at the top. The first ascent was at least as long ago as 1818, when the Allgäu Alps were surveyed and the Hochvogel summit was used as a triangulation point. However, when a man named Trobitius from Kempten climbed the peak in 1832, one of the most notable touristic climbs was by Hermann von Barth, who stayed overnight at the summit in 1869. On 19 July that year he started off from Sonthofen in the morning and reached Hinterstein, travelling exclusively on foot, passing the Bärgündlealpe alps, the Balkenscharte saddle and the Kalter Winkel he reached the summit of the Hochvogel at around 8 oclock in the evening. On the next day he climbed south on the side of the south-southwestern arête into the Rosskar cirque.
On that day he arrived at the confluence of the Schwarzwasserbach and the Lech, the next day he walked via Weißenbach and the Gaicht Pass to Nesselwängle, climbed the Aggenstein and overnighted in Schattwald. On the fourth day of his tour he returned to Sonthofen in the morning. The side of the Hochvogel lying on German territory, including the neighbouring mountains, on the Austrian side there is no nature reserve near the summit. It has an area of 41.38 km2, Hinterhornbach is the valley settlement on the southern side