Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned
The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Crowned is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gibraltar. It is the primary centre of Catholic worship in the Diocese of Gibraltar; the original building of the current cathedral was built during the Spanish period. Just after the reconquest of the city to the Moors, the main mosque was decreed to be stripped of its Islamic past and consecrated as the parish church. However, under the rule of the Catholic Monarchs, the old building was demolished and a new church was erected, in Gothic style; the cathedral's small courtyard is the remnant of the larger Moorish court of the mosque. The Catholic Monarchs' coat of arms was placed in the courtyard; the cathedral extended to the opposite side of. The church of St. Mary the Crowned was the only Catholic church or institution, not ransacked by the troops that took over the city in 1704, it was protected by its staunch pastor, Juan Romero, his curate, his bell-ringer. Thus, it is the only place where Catholic worship has been taken place uninterruptedly from the definite Christian re-conquest of the town.
Due to the building being damaged during the 1779–1783 Great Siege, in 1790 the Governor of Gibraltar Sir Robert Boyd offered to rebuild the cathedral in return for part of the land on which the building stood in order to re-route Main Street. The route was re-modelled in 1801; the reconstruction took place in 1810 and the opportunity was taken to widen Main Street. The clock tower was added in 1820 and in 1931 restoration work was carried out on the cathedral and the current west façade erected to replace the poorer one built in 1810. In 1881 the Church of St Mary's was the site of nearly fifty arrests as the Governor of Gibraltar sent police and reassigned soldiers to support Bishop Canilla as he attempted to enter his own church. A self-appointed "Committee of Elders" had said that they intended to take possession of the church and install their own "chief priest" against the will of the Governor and the Catholic church. Camilla was sent to his church on 2 March 1881 with police protection to install him in his church.
When the new force came to the church they found it was occupied by 200 men and the police had to make four dozen arrests to establish order. Not only did Camilla now have possession of his church but he was the owner as the governor arranged for the title deeds to be given to the new titular Bishop; until the 19th century, anyone who died in Gibraltar had the right to be buried under the cathedral floor. Bishops are buried in a crypt beneath the statue of Our Lady of Europe. In 1943, Władysław Sikorski's coffin lay in state here, after his plane crashed into the sea just off Gibraltar. San Roque, Cádiz Cathedral information and photos of interior Illustrated article
MV Aurora (2000)
MV Aurora is a cruise ship of the P&O Cruises fleet. The ship was built by Meyer Werft at their shipyard in Germany. At over 76,000 tonnes, Aurora is the sixth largest of seven ships in service with P&O Cruises, she entered service with the company in April 2000 and was named by Anne, Princess Royal in Southampton, United Kingdom. Aurora was refitted in 2014, during which the ship is the first of P&O's ships to receive an updated British Union flag design on her bow and her funnel repainted from yellow to blue. Aurora is a mid-sized cruise ship, with an overall length of 270.0 metres, moulded beam of 32.2 metres and draught of 7.90 metres. Her gross tonnage is 76,152 and her deadweight tonnage is 8,486 tonnes; the ship can accommodate up to 1,878 passengers in 939 cabins, with a maximum crew complement of 936. Aurora is powered by four MAN B&W 14V48/60 medium-speed diesel engines with a total power output of 58,800 kilowatts; these engines provide power for two STN AEG propulsion motors. The propulsion motors drive two propellers.
For manoeuvring, the ship has a stern thruster. The ship's service speed is 24 knots, though during sea trials she reached a maximum speed of 29 knots. Aurora was designed to appeal to the British market, was built as an extended and improved version of P&O Cruises' Oriana; the ship's hull and superstructure were designed to be attractive to this market with features similar to more traditional ocean liners, such as her raked, tiered stern. Aurora was built by Meyer Werft in Germany, her keel was laid in December 1998 and she was launched in January 2000. She was delivered to P&O Cruises in April 2000.. The ship was christened on 27 April 2000, by HRH Princess Anne; the champagne bottle did not shatter when it fell unopened into the sea. This type of occurrence is considered a bad omen among seafarers, this incident has been blamed for the numerous setbacks that Aurora has encountered throughout her career. Aurora departed on her maiden voyage on 1 May 2000—a 14-night cruise to various Mediterranean destinations.
The ship's crew identified a major technical problem, the cruise was abandoned after 16 hours at sea. The cause was a propeller shaft bearing, damaged by overheating and required urgent repair while the ship was out of service. On 3 May 2000, the ship returned to Southampton. Passengers expressed disappointment about the incident but reported that they were satisfied with P&O Cruises' response to the situation. P&O Cruises offered all passengers a full refund and compensation package, worth about GBP£6 million. Aurora sailed to Blohm + Voss in Germany; the ship returned to service on 15 May 2000, to undertake her second scheduled cruise to the Canary Islands. In March 2001, Aurora was sailing through the Taiwan Strait on her first world cruise when she was called to assist Pamela Dream, a Cambodian registered ship crewed by Russian officers and crew which had capsized in rough seas. Aurora launched her fast rescue boats to retrieve survivors from the water; the crew were able to retrieve three survivors.
A crewmember described the sea state as "very rough, with waves of about 5 m". One of Aurora's propellers was damaged by flotsam, an inspection of the propeller was carried out in Singapore where it was polished by divers; the damaged propeller was replaced in dry dock in Southampton in December 2002. On the morning of 11 September 2001, Aurora was positioned 80 miles south of New York City and 20 miles east of Atlantic City, New Jersey while a conference of IT executives and vendors was occurring on board; the ship had embarked from Pier 88 in New York City on the evening of 9 September. Following the attacks on the World Trade Center that morning, there were concerns for the safety of the British-owned ship. U. S. Coast Guard helicopters and vessels protected the Aurora until it was determined that the vessel was not in danger; the ship was planned to return to Manhattan on 12 September but due to the closure of New York Harbour the ship instead travelled at full speed to Boston to disembark its passengers before the Port of Boston shut also.
The U. S. Coast Guard requested that Aurora left US waters, with so many New York citizens aboard special dispensation was made to allow the ship into Boston to disembark US passengers. Many of the executives on board were from the banking and financial services industries, it was estimated that as many as 50 executives worked in Tower 1 and Tower 2 of the World Trade Center and adjacent buildings. Reports from conference attendees were that several executives on board were in communication via cell phones with their staffs in both Towers 1 and 2 who perished in the collapse of those buildings. During a cruise around the eastern Mediterranean in October 2003, over 500 passengers suffered stomach infections caused by the contagious Norovirus. During the outbreak, the ship's passengers were denied the right to land at Piraeus, Greece, as the ship was held in quarantine. Aurora departed from Piraeus on 31 October having loaded medical supplies. On arrival in Dubrovnik, Croatia, a health inspector boarded the vessel and ordered the sick passengers to remain in their cabins "as a precautionary measure".
Those unaffected by the virus were allowed to leave the ship. There was uncertainty as to whether the ship would be allowed to dock in Gibraltar, the next scheduled port. Aurora was allowed to dock in Gibraltar on 3 November. A small number of passengers who were still recovering were required to stay o
History of the Genoese in Gibraltar
A Genoese community has existed in Gibraltar since the 16th century and became an important part of the population. There is much evidence of a community of emigrants from Genoa, who moved to Gibraltar in the 16th century and that were more than a third of the Gibraltar population in the first half of the 18th century. Although labeled as "Genoese", they were not only from the city of Genoa but from all of Liguria, a northern Italian region, the center of the maritime Republic of Genoa. After the conquest of Gibraltar from Spain in 1704, nearly all the original Spanish population moved away. Among those who stayed there were 30 Genoese families, most of them forming a group resident in Catalan Bay which worked as fishermen, their main activities in the years following the conquest of Gibraltar and its formal transfer to Great Britain were not only related to fishing, but to craftsmanship and commerce. According to the 1725 census, on a total civilian population of 1113 there were 414 Genoese, 400 Spaniards, 137 Jews, 113 Britons and 49 others.
In the 1753 census the Genoese were the biggest group of civilian residents in the Gibraltar and up until 1830 Italian was spoken together with English and Spanish and used in official announcements. Many Genoese in the late 18th century arrived to work for the garrison and went on to form the basis of Gibraltar's civilian police force - the Genoese Guard. "In 1740, English Law was introduced in Gibraltar and in 1753 the first Justices of the Peace were appointed.... During this period the Military Authorities were experiencing great difficulties with Army deserters going into the Kingdom of Spain and thus a group of inhabitants were recruited to act as Frontier Guards; this group became known as the Genoese Guard and in time came to serve as a rudimentary Police Force when they were called upon to support the Military Authorities when dealing with civilians. Sergeants were appointed within the Genoese Guard and their titles "Jews Sergeant" and "Spanish Sergeant" reflected their role within the sectors of the community.
The Genoese Guard were subsequently disbanded sometime after the Seven Year War." After Napoleonic times many Sicilians and some Tuscans migrated to Gibraltar, but the Genoese and Ligurians remained the majority of the Italian group. Indeed, the Genoese dialect was spoken in Catalan Bay well into the 20th century, dying out in the 1970s. Today, the descendants of the Genoese community of Gibraltar consider themselves Gibraltarians and most of them promote the autonomy of Gibraltar, their most renowned representatives are: Joe Bossano, Adolfo Canepa and Kaiane Aldorino. Catalan Bay had been populated by Genoese fishermen who were part of a much larger settlement pattern along the eastern coast of The Rock during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 18th century the Genoese dialect was so spoken in Gibraltar that Government notices were published in Italian. Genoese was spoken by most people in La Caleta well into the 19th century, dying out in the late decades of the 20th century. There has been some discussion that the British may have mixed up Catalans with Genoese but it is by no means clear why they would suffer such a confusion since there is other evidence which demonstrates that the British were aware that the residents of La Caleta were Genoese: the orders for the siege of 1727 refer to this bay as the Genoese Cove and the numerous 18th and 19th century census record large numbers of people born in Genoa, not in Catalonia.
It is possible a confusion between the letters of "Calata" and "Catala" in the early English pronunciation of the Bay. During the 19th century only fishermen were permitted to live in Catalan Bay; the families who live in the village today are descendants of these Genoese fishermen and are colloquially known as caleteños. Genoese heritage is evident throughout Gibraltar but in the architecture of the town's older buildings which are influenced by traditional Genoese housing styles featuring internal courtyards; until the 1980s, most Gibraltarians lived densely packed around these communal patios. A prominent feature of Gibraltar's architecture is the traditional Genoese wooden window shutters. Many of the Gibraltarian cuisine's roots lie in Genoa; the most notable dish of Genoese origin is calentita. It is a chickpea flour-based flatbread similar to the Italian farinata; the Gibraltarian panissa, a bread-like dish similar to the calentita, shares its Italian origins: it is a descendant of the Genoese dish with the same name "panissa".
Other important Gibraltarian dishes such as rosto and meat in a tomato sauce, is of Genoese origin. Genoese heritage is present in the upper strata of Gibraltarian society: this class consists of a few families of Genoese origin. While the upper middle class consists of Catholic and Hindu merchants and lawyers, the working class is made up of families of Spanish and Italian origin; the present-day descendants of the Genoese settlers in Gibraltar are integrated as Gibraltarians. Today, Gibraltarians with Genoese surnames make up 20% of the total population; this group is integrated in the Gibraltarian society and there it is no association related to them. The Genoese in Gibraltar have left their presence in the Llanito, the local Gibraltarian dialect used by most of the descendants of these Ligurians
A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed barge used to transfer goods and passengers to and from moored ships. Lighters were traditionally unpowered and were moved and steered using long oars called "sweeps" and the motive power of water currents, they were operated by skilled workers called lightermen and were a characteristic sight in London's docks until about the 1960s, when technological changes made this form of lightering redundant. Unpowered lighters continue to be moved by powered tugs and lighters may now themselves be powered; the term is used in the Lighter Aboard Ship system. The name itself is of uncertain origin, but is believed to derive from an old Dutch or German word, lichten. In Dutch, the word lichter is still used for smaller ships; the lighter barge gave rise to the "lighter tug", a maneuverable type of harbour tug. Lighter tugs—or "lighters"—are designed for towing lighter barges; as such, they are smaller than traditional harbour tugs and lack the power or equipment to handle large ships.
Lighters, albeit powered ones, were proposed to be used in 2007 at Port Lincoln and Whyalla in South Australia to load Capesize ships which are too big for the shallower waters close to shore. Hong Kong uses lighters in midstream operations where lighters transport cargo containers, between oceangoing vessels or to and from terminals. Lighters in Hong Kong are equipped with cranes of 40-60 tonnes capacity, the largest ones can carry up to 300 TEU containers. Lighters are not fitted with engines but are towed or pushed by tugboats. In 2007, midstream operators handled about 2 million TEUs and 5 million TEUs were transported as river trade cargo which are dependent on lighters. Car float
Timeline of the history of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar portrays how The Rock gained an importance and a reputation far exceeding its size and shaping the people who came to reside here over the centuries. Evidence of hominid inhabitation of the Rock dates back to the Neanderthals. A Neanderthal skull was discovered in Forbes' Quarry in 1848, prior to the "original" discovery in the Neander Valley. In 1926, the skull of a Neanderthal child was found in Devil's Tower. Mousterian deposits found at Gorham's Cave, which are associated with Neanderthals in Europe, have been dated to as as 28,000 to 24,000 BP, leading to suggestions that Gibraltar was one of the last places of Neanderthal habitation. Modern humans visited the Gibraltar area in prehistoric times after the Neanderthal occupancy. While the rest of Europe was cooling, the area around Gibraltar back resembled a European Serengeti. Leopards, lynxes and bears lived among wild cattle, deer, ibexes and rhinos – all surrounded by olive trees and stone pines, with partridges and ducks overhead, tortoises in the underbrush and mussels and other shellfish in the waters.
Clive Finlayson, evolutionary biologist at the Gibraltar Museum said "this natural richness of wildlife and plants in the nearby sandy plains, shrublands, wetlands and coastline helped the Neanderthals to persist." Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals of Gibraltar used it as a shelter "for 100,000 years." Cro-Magnon man took over Gibraltar around 24,000 BCE. The Phoenicians are known to have visited the Rock circa 950 BC and named the Rock "Calpe"; the Carthaginians visited. However, neither group appears to have settled permanently. Plato refers to Gibraltar as one of the Pillars of Hercules along with Jebel Musa or Monte Hacho on the other side of the Strait; the Romans visited Gibraltar. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar was occupied by the Vandals and the Goths kingdoms; the Vandals did not remain for long although the Visigoths remained on the Iberian peninsula from 414 to 711. The Gibraltar area and the rest of the South Iberian Peninsula was part of the Byzantine Empire during the second part of the 6th century reverting to the Visigoth Kingdom.
711 30 April – The Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta. He first failed. Upon his failure, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain, it was here. Coming from the Arabian words Gabal-Al-Tariq. Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control. 1160 – The Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath. On completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to inspect the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months; the Tower of Homage of the castle remains standing today. 1231 – After the collapse of the Almohad Empire, Gibraltar was taken by Ibn Hud, Taifa emir of Murcia. 1237 – Following the death of Ibn Hud, his domains were handed over to Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar, the founder of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. Therefore, Gibraltar changed hands again. 1274 – The second Nasrid king, Muhammed II al-Faqih, gave Gibraltar over to the Marinids, as payment for their help against the Christian kingdoms.
1309 – While the King Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege on Algeciras, Alonso Pérez de Guzmán was sent to capture the town. This was the First Siege of Gibraltar; the Castilians took the Upper Rock from. The garrison surrendered after one month. Gibraltar had about 1,500 inhabitants. 1310 31 January – Gibraltar was granted its first Charter by the king Ferdinand IV of Castile. Being considered a high risk town, the charter included incentives to settle there such as the offering of freedom from justice to anyone who lived in Gibraltar for one year and one day; this fact marked the establishment of the Gibraltar council.1316 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Nasrid caid Yahya. 1333 June – A Marinid army, led by Abd al-Malik, the son of Abul Hassan, the Marinid sultan, recovered Gibraltar, after a five-month siege. King Alfonso XI of Castile attempted to retake Gibraltar aided by the fleet of the Castilian Admiral Alonso Jofre Tenorio. A ditch was dug across the isthmus. While laying the siege, the king was attacked by a Nasrid army from Granada.
Therefore, the siege ended in a truce, allowing the Marinids to keep Gibraltar.1344 March – After the two-year Siege of Algeciras, Algeciras was taken over by the Castilian forces. Therefore, Gibraltar became the main Marinid port in the Iberian Peninsula. During the siege, Gibraltar played a key role as the supply base of the besieged. 1349 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Castilian forces led by the king Alfonso XI. 1350 – The siege was resumed by Alfonso XI. It was again unsuccessful due to the arrival of the Black Death, which decimated the besiegers, causing the death of the king. 1369 – As the Civil War in Castile came to an end, with the murder of king Peter I by the pretender Henry, the Nasrid king of Granada, Muhammad V, former ally of Peter, took over Algeciras after the 3-day Siege of Algeciras. Ten years the city was razed out to the ground, its harbour made unusable; this fact increased again the importance of Gibraltar, yet in Marinid hands, i