West Adams, Los Angeles
West Adams is a historic neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The area is known for its large number of historic buildings and notable houses and mansions throughout Los Angeles, it is a youthful, densely populated area with a high percentage of African American and Latino residents. The neighborhood has several private schools. West Adams is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city of Los Angeles, with most of its buildings erected between 1880 and 1925, including the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. West Adams was developed by railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington and wealthy industrialist Hulett C. Merritt of Pasadena, it was once the wealthiest district in the city, with its Victorian mansions and sturdy Craftsman bungalows, a home to Downtown businessmen and professors and academicians at USC. Several historic areas of West Adams, Harvard Heights, Lafayette Square, Pico-Union, West Adams Terrace, were designated as Historic Preservation Overlay Zones by the city of Los Angeles, in recognition of their outstanding architectural heritage.
Menlo Avenue-West Twenty-ninth Street Historic District, North University Park Historic District, Twentieth Street Historic District, Van Buren Place Historic District and St. James Park Historic District, all with houses of architectural significance, are located in West Adams; the development of the West Side, Beverly Hills and Hollywood, beginning in the 1910s, siphoned away much of West Adams' upper-class white population. One symbol of the area's emergence as a center of black wealth at this time is the landmark 1949 headquarters building of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, a late-period Moderne structure at Adams and Western designed by renowned black architect Paul Williams, it housed. West Adams' transformation into an affluent black area was sped by the Supreme Court's 1948 invalidation of segregationist covenants on property ownership; the area was a favorite among black celebrities in the 1950s. Singer Ray Charles's business headquarters, including his RPM studio, is located at 2107 Washington Boulevard.
The intersection of Washington Boulevard and Westmoreland Boulevard, at the studio, is named "Ray Charles Square" in his honor. Many African-American gays have moved into the neighborhood, it has become the center of black gay life in Los Angeles earning the nickname of "the black West Hollywood" or "the black Silver Lake" Many of the neighborhoods are experiencing a renaissance of sorts with their historic houses being restored to their previous elegance. In total, more than 70 sites in West Adams have received recognition as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, a California Historical Landmark, or listing on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, a total of 21,764 people lived in West Adams's 1.48 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 14,686 people per square mile, among the highest population densities in the city as a whole. Population was estimated at 22,857 in 2008; the median age was 28, considered young.
The percentages of residents aged birth to 18 were among the county's highest. Latinos made up 56.2% of the population, with black people at 37.6%, white people 2.4%, Asian 1.7%, other 2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 36.9% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The $38,209 median household income in 2008 dollars was considered low for the county; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.1 people was about average for the city. Renters occupied 62.8% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. In 2000, there were 1,078 families headed by single parents, or 21.8%, a rate, high for the county and the city. The percentages of never-married women and divorced women were among the county's highest. According to the "Mapping L. A." project of the Los Angeles Times, West Adams is flanked by Mid-City to the north—across the Santa Monica Freeway—Jefferson Park to the east, Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw to the south and Palms to the west.
The neighborhood's street boundaries are the Santa Monica Freeway on the north, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and Jefferson Boulevards on the south and the Culver City line on the west. Project leader Doug Smith reported that, in response by the public to advance posting of the proposed maps, "Among the bitter rifts we encountered were the competing claims to the name West Adams." Historical purists would reserve the designation West Adams for the once-upper-crust district of Victorian mansions now falling in the shadow of USC. But residents farther west have appropriated the name for that hard-to-define area between the 10 Freeway and Baldwin Hills. To bolster their case, the area's Neighborhood Empowerment Zone bears that name; the discussion has taken on powerful emotional content in recent years as part of a larger debate over gentrification and changing demographics in that part of the city. We resolved the argument as best we could, using the West Adams label for the region west of Crenshaw Boulevard and including the old mansions east of Ve
The Pacific Electric Railway Company, nicknamed the Red Cars, was a owned mass transit system in Southern California consisting of electrically powered streetcars, interurban cars, buses and was the largest electric railway system in the world in the 1920s. Organized around the city centers of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, it connected cities in Los Angeles County, Orange County, San Bernardino County and Riverside County; the system shared dual gauge track with the 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge Los Angeles Railway, "Yellow Car," or "LARy" system on Main Street in downtown Los Angeles, on 4th Street, along Hawthorne Boulevard south of downtown Los Angeles toward the cities of Hawthorne and Torrance. The system had four districts: Northern District: San Gabriel Valley, including Pasadena, Mount Lowe, South Pasadena, Alhambra, El Monte, Duarte, Azusa, Sierra Madre, Monrovia. Eastern District: Pomona, San Bernardino, Arrowhead Springs, Riverside and Redlands in the Inland Empire. Southern District: Long Beach, Newport Beach, Huntington Beach, San Pedro via Dominguez, Santa Ana, El Segundo, Redondo Beach via Gardena, San Pedro Via Torrance.
Western District: Hollywood, Glendale/Burbank, San Fernando Valley, Beverly Hills, Santa Monica, Manhattan/Redondo/Hermosa Beaches, Playa Del Rey. Electric trolleys first appeared in Los Angeles in 1887. In 1895 the Pasadena & Pacific Railway was created from a merger of the Pasadena and Los Angeles Railway and the Los Angeles Pacific Railway The Pasadena & Pacific Railway boosted Southern California tourism, living up to its motto "from the mountains to the sea." The Pacific Electric Railway was created in 1901 by railroad executive Henry E. Huntington and banker Isaias W. Hellman; as a Vice President of the Southern Pacific Railroad, operated by his uncle, Collis P. Huntington, Huntington had a background in electric trolley lines in San Francisco where he oversaw SP's effort to consolidate many smaller street railroads into one organized network. Hellman, the President of the Nevada Bank, San Francisco's largest, became one of the largest bond holders for these lines and he and the younger Huntington developed a close business relationship.
The success of their San Francisco trolley adventure and Hellman's experience in financing some early Los Angeles trolley lines led them to invest in the purchase of some existing downtown Los Angeles lines which they began to standardize and organize into one network called the Los Angeles Railway. When uncle Collis died, Henry lost a boardroom battle for control of the Southern Pacific to Union Pacific President E. H. Harriman. Huntington decided to focus his energies on Southern California. In May 1901, Southern California's leading banker for three decades, wrote Huntington that "the time is at hand when we should commence building suburban railroads out of the city." Hellman added that he had tasked engineer Epes Randolph to survey and lay out the company's first line which would be to Long Beach. In that same year and Hellman incorporated a new entity, the Pacific Electric Railway of California, formed to construct new electric rail lines to connect Los Angeles with surrounding cities.
Hellman and his group of investors owned the controlling majority of stock and the newspapers of the time referred to it as the Huntington-Hellman syndicate. Using surrogates, the syndicate began rights-of-ways; the new company's first main project, the line to Long Beach, opened July 4, 1902. Huntington experienced periods of opposition from organized labor with the construction of the new railways. Tensions between union leaders and like-minded Los Angeles businessmen were high from the early 1900s up through the 1920s. Strikes and boycotts troubled the Pacific Electric throughout those years until they reached the height of violence in the 1919 Streetcar Strike of Los Angeles; the efforts of organized labor simmered with the onset of World War I. Railroads were one part of the enterprise. Revenue from passenger traffic generated a profit, unlike freight; the real money for the investors was in supplying electric power to new communities and in developing and selling real estate. To get the railways and electricity to their towns, local groups offered the Huntington interests opportunities in local land.
Soon Huntington and his partners had significant holdings in the land companies developing Naples, Bay City, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach and Redondo Beach. Harriman, who controlled the powerful Southern Pacific Railroad, was concerned with the competition that these new electric lines gave his steam railroad traffic, had been prodding Huntington for joint ownership of the lines but Huntington refused to negotiate. In early 1903, Harriman proposed a franchise plan with three-cent fare plan to the Los Angeles City Council, a plan which, if accepted, would have handicapped the other railways severely. Huntington countered with a ticket book which gave the rider 500 miles of travel for $6.25, which undercut the Harriman strategy. The Council vetoed the franchise idea, unable to believe adequate service could be provided for such a low fare. On April 14, 1903, Harriman bought Hook’s Los Angeles Traction Company, which ran lines within the downtown area and, through its California Pacific subsidiary, was constructing a line from Los Angeles to San Pedro.
The final confrontation came over a bidding war for the 6th Street franchise, in which the franchise went to the top bidder for $110,000, with Harriman the secret winner. In May 1903, Huntington made an overnight
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County is the largest natural and historical museum in the western United States. Its collections include nearly 35 million specimens and artifacts and cover 4.5 billion years of history. This large collection is comprised not only of specimens for exhibition, but of vast research collections housed on and offsite; the museum is an association of three Los Angeles area museums: The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, The Page Museum at The La Brea Tar Pits in Hancock Park and The William S. Hart Ranch and Museum in Newhall, Santa Clarita, California; the three museums work together to achieve their common mission: "to inspire wonder and responsibility for our natural and cultural worlds." NHM opened in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, United States in 1913 as The Museum of History and Art. The moving force behind it was a museum association founded in 1910, its distinctive main building, with fitted marble walls and domed and colonnaded rotunda, is on The National Register of Historic Places.
Additional wings opened in 1925, 1930, 1960, 1976. The museum was divided in 1961 into The Los Angeles County Museum of History and Science and The Los Angeles County Museum of Art. LACMA moved to new quarters on Wilshire Boulevard in 1965, the Museum of History and Science was renamed The Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History; the museum renamed itself again, becoming The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. In 2003, the museum began a campaign to transform its visitor experience; the museum reopened its seismically retrofitted renovated 1913 rotunda, along with the new Age of Mammals exhibition. In 2010, its Dinosaur Hall opened in July 2011. A new Los Angeles history exhibition, Becoming Los Angeles, opened in 2013; the outdoor Nature Gardens and Nature Lab, which explore L. A. wildlife opened in 2013. The museum maintains research and collections in the following fields: Annelida Anthropology and Archaeology Ethnology Crustacea Echinoderms Entomology Herpetology History Ichthyology Invertebrate paleontology Malacology Mammalogy Mineralogy Ornithology Vertebrate paleontologyThe museum has three floors of permanent exhibits.
Among the most popular museum displays are those devoted to animal habitats, pre-Columbian cultures, The Ralph M. Parsons Discovery Center and Insect Zoo, the new Nature Lab, which explores urban wildlife in Southern California; the museum's collections are strong in many fields, but the mineralogy and Pleistocene paleontology are the most esteemed, the latter thanks to the wealth of specimens collected from The La Brea Tar Pits. The museum has 30 million specimens representing marine zoology; these include one of the largest collections of marine mammal remains in the world, housed in a warehouse off site, which at over 5,000 specimens is second in size only to that of The Smithsonian. The museum's collection of historical documents is held in The Seaver Center for Western History Research; the museum hosts regular special exhibitions which advance its mission. Recent special exhibits have included Pterosaurs; the museum hosts a butterfly pavilion outside every spring and summer and a spider pavilion on the same site in the fall.
Over the years, the museum has built additions onto its original building. Dedicated when The Natural History Museum opened its doors in 1913, the rotunda is one of the museum's most elegant and popular spaces. Lined with marble columns and crowned by a stained glass dome, the room is the home of the first piece of public art funded by Los Angeles County, a Beaux Arts statue by Julia Bracken Wendt entitled Three Muses, or History and Art; this hall is among the most distinctive locales in Los Angeles and has been used as a filming location. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County official website William S. Hart Ranch and Museum George C. Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits Review of the Museum's new Dinosaur Hall at the New York Times, July 19, 2011Slide show of exhibit
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
Expo Park/USC station
Expo Park/USC is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Exposition Boulevard and Trousdale Parkway, directly between the USC campus and Exposition Park, in the University Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, it serves the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and Banc of California Stadium. This station is served by the Expo Line. Expo Line service hours are from 4 AM to 12:30 AM daily. Service resumed Saturday, April 28, 2012. Regular scheduled service resumed Monday, April 30, 2012. Expo Park/USC Station is located in the median of Exposition Boulevard, on the east side of Trousdale/Exposition, midway between Vermont Avenue and Figueroa Street; the station's entrance is on the east side of Trousdale/Exposition Blvd. The station's platforms slope down toward the east, in order to accommodate the line's descent into a tunnel which passes under Figueroa Street; the station's art was created by artist Robbert Flick. The untitled installation includes sequences of photographs taken on the boulevards near the station, creating a document of the local people and places as they were when the station was built.
The USC main campus occupies the area to the north of the station. To the south is Exposition Park, which includes several popular L. A. attractions, including: USC main campus the L. A. Memorial Coliseum the Banc of California Stadium the California African American Museum the Lucas Museum of Narrative Art the California Science Center the Expo Center the Natural History Museum the Rose Garden Expo Park/USC Station was proposed by Metro staff, with input from the public, during the Environmental Impact Report process. Many stakeholders cited the importance of the station, citing the convenient access it would provide the USC students/employees and Exposition Park guests. Moreover, the station would be crucial for a temporary NFL venue at the current Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the MLS Banc of California Stadium that replaced the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena, as well as for the 2028 Summer Olympics; the administration of USC opposed at-grade light-rail along Exposition Boulevard, claiming that light-rail would separate the campus from Exposition Park.
USC President Steven Sample, in particular, was opposed to the project. Dr. Sample said he feared the line would create physical and psychological barriers between USC, Exposition Park, the local community, would be dangerous for pedestrians. However, general sentiment of students and neighbors was in support of the line; the Coliseum Commission took a strong position in support of this station, the USC Student Senate passed a resolution. In the end, Metro staff included the possibility of building the Expo Park/USC station by including it as a design option in the Final EIR, that would only be built if funds for the station could be found and if local support were present; the report recommended a short tunnel segment under the impacted intersections of Exposition/Figueroa and Exposition/Flower. Once the FEIR had been approved, Expo worked to secure the funds for this station and to negotiate its design. One other issue remaining to be resolved was USC's request for special architecture for the three stations serving the campus.
USC did not contribute toward the cost of the station. Expo abandoned any considerations for special architecture requested by USC. On September 19, 2007, the board of Metro approved funding for the cost of the station; this allowed the station to be built along with the rest of Phase 1. A stop on the Los Angeles and Independence and Pacific Electric railroads, it closed on September 30, 1953 with closure of the Santa Monica Air Line and remained out of service until re-opening on Saturday, April 28, 2012, it was rebuilt for the opening of the Expo Line from little more than a station stop marker. Regular scheduled service resumed Monday, April 30, 2012, it is the last former station stop of the Santa Monica Air Line to be re-opened. The Expo line travels north on a new right-of-way along Flower street from this stop; the original Air line right-of-way remains owned by Metro and continues east to the Blue line tracks, however no plans are in place for its use. Media related to Expo Park / USC at Wikimedia Commons Metro Expo Line Construction Authority Project Website, Metro Rail Expo Corridor, Phase 1 to Culver City
7th Street/Metro Center station
7th Street/Metro Center 7th Street/Metro Center/Julian Dixon, is a metro station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system located in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles at the intersection of 7th Street and Flower Street. The station is served by the light rail Blue Line and Expo Line, heavy rail Red Line and Purple Line, by the bus rapid transit Silver Line; the Blue Line and Expo Line have their downtown terminus at this station. Many bus routes serve the station; this is one of only two stations in the entire system that has an underground side platform, the other being the Wilshire/Vermont station. The station was the first underground station in the Metro system, consists of three underground levels; the main concourse is on the first level down, the light rail side platforms are on the second level down, while the heavy rail island platform is on the third level down. A small first level mezzanine connects the light rail side platforms; the Metro Silver Line stops at the street level next to the station's entrances.
The station has direct access to The Bloc Shopping Mall with a pedestrian-friendly entrance from the mall directly to the subway station. Metro spent nearly $2 million worth of enhancements to 7th Street/Metro Center station as part of the Expo Line project, completed weeks before the Metro Expo Line began service to La Cienega/Jefferson Station; this enhancement included improved signage in the station. Blue Line hours are from 4:00 AM until 1:00 AM daily. Red and Purple Line hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:00 AM daily. Expo Line hours are from 4:00 AM until 2:00 AM daily. Silver Line operates 24 hours a day. Metro Bus lines 20, 51, 52, 60, 351, 442, 460, 487, 489, 720 and 760 stop near the station entrances at 7th and Hope streets, 7th and Flower streets and 7th and Figueroa Streets. Santa Monica's Big Blue Bus express Line 10, LADOT Dash shuttles Routes D, E, F stops at the 7th Street/Metro Center Station. Foothill Transit Commuter Express lines 493, 495, 497, 498, 499, 699 serve stops adjacent to the station on 7th and Figueroa Streets.
California Shuttle Bus provides service to San Francisco and San Jose from a bus stop at the corner of Figueroa and 7th streets. The under construction Regional Connector Transit Corridor will result in the Blue Line and Expo Line continuing north from this station terminus through Downtown Los Angeles to connect with the Little Tokyo/Arts District Station on the Gold Line, which will become an underground subway station and move across the street; the Expo Line will be defunct upon opening of the tunnel, with the Gold Line using its route from 7th Street to Santa Monica, proceeding through the tunnel to its normal route to Atlantic station, while the Blue Line will follow the Gold Line's old route from APU to Little Tokyo proceed through the tunnel to 7th Street and run along its normal route to Long Beach. Station connections overview OpenStreetMap relation for the station