Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
1939 New York World's Fair
The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the 1,216 acres of Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St. Louis's Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. Many countries around the world participated in it, over 44 million people attended its exhibits in two seasons, it was the first exposition to be based on the future, with an opening slogan of "Dawn of a New Day", it allowed all visitors to take a look at "the world of tomorrow". According to the official pamphlet: The eyes of the Fair are on the future—not in the sense of peering toward the unknown nor attempting to foretell the events of tomorrow and the shape of things to come, but in the sense of presenting a new and clearer view of today in preparation for tomorrow. To its visitors the Fair will say: "Here are the materials and forces at work in our world; these are the tools. They are all interesting and much effort has been expended to lay them before you in an interesting way.
Familiarity with today is the best preparation for the future. Within six months of the Fair's opening, World War II began, a war that lasted six years and resulted in the deaths of 70-85 million people. In 1935, at the height of the Great Depression, a group of New York City businessmen decided to create an international exposition to lift the city and the country out of its economic woes. Not long after, these men formed the New York World's Fair Corporation, whose office was placed on one of the higher floors in the Empire State Building; the NYWFC, which elected former chief of police Grover Whalen as president included Winthrop Aldrich, Mortimer Buckner, Floyd Carlisle, Ashley T. Cole, John J. Dunnigan, Harvey Dow Gibson, Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, Percy S. Straus, many other business leaders. Over the next four years, the committee planned and organized the fair and its exhibits, with countries around the world taking part in creating the biggest international event since World War I.
Working with the Fair's committee was New York City Parks Commissioner Robert Moses, who saw great value to the City in having the World's Fair Corporation remove a vast ash dump in Queens, to be the site for the exposition. This event turned the area into a City park. Edward Bernays directed public relations of the fair in 1939, which he called "democracity." Grover Whalen, a public relations innovator, saw the Fair as an opportunity for corporations to present consumer products, rather than as an exercise in presenting science and the scientific way of thinking in its own right, as Harold Urey, Albert Einstein, other scientists wished to see the project. "As events transpired," reported Carl Sagan, whose own interest in science was sparked by the Fair's gadgetry, "almost no real science was tacked on to the Fair's exhibits, despite the scientists' protests and their appeals to high principles." Promotion of the Fair took many forms. During the 1938 Major League Baseball season, the Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Giants, New York Yankees promoted the event by wearing patches on the left sleeve of their jerseys featuring the Trylon, "1939."
The same year, Howard Hughes flew a special World's Fair flight around the world to promote the fair. While the main purpose of the fair was to lift the spirits of the United States and drive much-needed business to New York City, it was felt that there should be a cultural or historical association, it was therefore decided for the opening to correspond to the 150th anniversary of George Washington's first inauguration as President of the United States, WPA artists painted murals which appeared in the New York Times Magazine. On April 30, 1939, a hot Sunday, the fair had its grand opening, with 206,000 people in attendance; the April 30 date coincided with the 150th anniversary of George Washington's inauguration, in Lower Manhattan, as the first President of the United States. Although many of the pavilions and other facilities were not quite ready for this opening, it was put on with pomp and great celebration. David Sarnoff president of RCA and a strong advocate of television, chose to introduce television to the mass public at the RCA pavilion.
As a reflection of the wide range of technological innovation on parade at the fair, Franklin D. Roosevelt's speech was not only broadcast over the various radio networks but was televised along with other parts of the opening ceremony and other events at the fair. On April 30, 1939, the opening ceremony and President Roosevelt's speech were seen on black and white television sets with 5 to 12-inch tubes. NBC used the event to inaugurate scheduled television broadcasts in New York City over their station W2XBS. An estimated 1,000 people viewed the Roosevelt telecast on about 200 television sets scattered throughout the New York metropolitan area. In order to convince skeptical visitors that the television sets were not a trick, one set was made with a transparent case so that the internal components could be seen; as part of the exhibit at the RCA pavilion, visitors could see themselves on television. There were television demonstrations at the General Electric and Westinghouse pavilions. During this formal introduction at the fair, television sets became available for public purchase at various stores in the New York City area.
After Albert Einstein gave a speech discussed cosmic rays, the fair's lights were ceremonially lit. Dignitaries received a special Opening Day Program. 1939 World's Fair ephemera One of
Expo'70 was a world's fair held in Suita, Japan, between March 15 and September 13, 1970. The theme of the Expo was "Progress and Harmony for Mankind." In Japanese, Expo'70 is referred to as Osaka Banpaku. This was the first world's fair held in Japan; the master plan for the Expo was designed by the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange helped by 12 other Japanese architects who designed elements within it. Bridging the site along a north/south axis was the Symbol Zone. Planned on three levels it was a social space which had a unifying space frame roof. Osaka was chosen as the site for the 1970 World Exposition by the Bureau International des Expositions in 1965. 330 hectares in the Senri Hills outside Osaka had been earmarked for the site and a Theme Committee under the chairmanship of Seiji Kaya was formed. Kenzo Tange and Uzo Nishiyama were appointed to produce the master plan for the Expo; the main theme would be Harmony for Mankind. Tange invited 12 other architects to elucidate designs for elements within the master plan.
These architects included: Arata Isozaki for the Festival Plaza mechanical and electronic installations. Two main principles informed the master plan; the first was the idea that the wisdom of all the peoples of the world would come together in this place and stimulate ideas. The designers thought that unlike previous expositions they wished to produce a central, Festival Plaza where people could meet and socialise, they called this the Symbol Zone and covered it and the themed pavilions with a giant space frame roof. The designers liked the idea that like the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, the roof of the Symbol Zone could be a unifying entity for the expo, they did not want the constraint imposed by the London Exhibition of having everything contained under one roof, so the space frame contained only the Festival Plaza and themed pavilions. Tange compared the concept to a tree; the idea was that although the national pavilions were like individual flowers they needed to be connected to the whole via branches and a trunk.
Thus the Symbol Zone became the trunk and the moving pedestrian walkways and sub-plazas became the branches. These elements were reinforced with colour, with the trunk and branches in plain white and the pavilions in their own colours that were determined by the national architects; the Symbol Zone ran north/south across the site. The Festival Plaza had the main gate on its southern end. To the north of the main gate and central to the Festival Plaza was the Tower of the Sun from which visitors could join pedestrian walkways that travelled out towards the north, south and west gates; the Theme Space under the space frame was divided into three levels, each designed by the artist Tarō Okamoto, The underground level represented the past and was a symbol of the source of humanity. The surface level represented the present; the space frame represented a world where humanity and technology would be joined. Tange envisioned that the exhibition for the future would be like an aerial city and he asked Fumihiko Maki, Noboru Kawazoe, Koji Kamiya and Noriaki Kurokawa to design it.
The Theme Space was punctuated by three towers: the Tower of the Sun, the Tower of Maternity and the Tower of Youth. To the north of the Theme Space was the Festival Plaza; this was a flexible space that stepped terrace. The plaza could be rearranged to provide for different requirements for seating capacity, from 1500 to 10000; the flexibility extended to the lighting and audio visual equipment allowing for a range of musical performances and electronic presentations. Festival Plaza was covered by the world's first transparent membrane roof, it was designed by Tange and structural engineer Yoshikatsu Tsuboi + Kawaguchi & Engineers. Measuring 75.6 m in width and 108 m in length, it was 30 m high and supported by only six lattice columns. Seventy-seven countries participated in the event, within six months the number of visitors reached 64,218,770, making Expo'70 one of the largest and best attended expositions in history, it held the record for most visitors at an Expo until it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Expo in 2010.
The Canadian Pavilion, designed by architect Arthur Erickson, featured two National Film Board of Canada productions: The Land, a look at Canada from coast to coast, filmed for the most part from a low-flying aircraft, as well as the animated short The City, directed by Kaj Pindal. Montreal artist and architect Melvin Charney had submitted a radically different design for the Canadian pavilion, fashioned from construction cranes and scaffolding, rejected; the West German pavilion, designed by Fritz Bornemann, featured the world's first spherical concert hall, based on artistic concepts by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The pavilion theme was "gardens of music", in keeping with which Bornemann "planted" the exhibition halls beneath a broad lawn, with the connected auditorium "sprouting" above ground. Inside, the audience was surrounded by 50 loudspeaker groups in seven rings at different "latitudes" around the interior walls of the sphere. Sound was sent around the space in three dimensions using either a spherical controller designed by Fritz Winckel of the Electronic Music Studio at the Technical University of Berlin, or a ten-channel "rotation mill" constructed to Stockhausen's design.
Works by Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, Boris Blacher were played from multi-track tape. As the main fea
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, it was a much anticipated event; the Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and by Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria. Famous people of the time attended, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, Alfred Tennyson and William Makepeace Thackeray; the Exposition des produits de l'industrie française organized in Paris, from 1798 to 1849 were precursors to the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design.
It was arguably a response to the effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader". Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority; the British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in every field where strength, durability and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology its own, was the key to a better future. Sophie Forgan says of the Exhibition that "Large, piled-up ‘trophy’ exhibits in the central avenue revealed the organisers’ priorities.
Technology and moving machinery were popular working exhibits." She notes that visitors "could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments were found in class X, included electric telegraphs, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical and surgical instruments."A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar", was built to house the show. It was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months; the building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with statues.
The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area, renamed Crystal Palace, it was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936. Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition; the average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000, used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum, they were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; the Exhibition caused controversy. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob, whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of a capitalist fetishism of commodities.
King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, shortly before his death, wrote to Lord Strangford about it: The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea... must shock every well-meaning Englishman. But it seems. In modern times, the Great Exhibition is a symbol of the Victorian Age, its thick catalogue, illustrated with steel engravings, is a primary source for High Victorian design. A memorial to the exhibition, crowned with a statue of Prince Albert, is locate
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was known, was a general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967. It is considered to be the most successful World's Fair of the 20th century with the most attendees to that date and 62 nations participating, it set the single-day attendance record for a world's fair, with 569,500 visitors on its third day. Expo 67 was Canada's main celebration during its centennial year; the fair had been intended to be held in Moscow, to help the Soviet Union celebrate the Russian Revolution's 50th anniversary. The project was not well supported in Canada at first, it took the determination of Montreal's mayor, Jean Drapeau, a new team of managers to guide it past political and temporal hurdles. Defying a computer analysis that said it could not be done, the fair opened on time. After Expo 67 ended in October 1967, the site and most of the pavilions continued on as an exhibition called Man and His World, open during the summer months from 1968 until 1984.
By that time, most of the buildings—which had not been designed to last beyond the original exhibition—had deteriorated and were dismantled. Today, the islands that hosted the world exhibition are used as parkland and for recreational use, with only a few remaining structures from Expo 67 to show that the event was held there; the idea of hosting the 1967 World Exhibition dates back to 1957. "I believe it was Colonel Sevigny who first asked me to do what I could to bring Canada's selection as the site for the international exposition in 1967." Montreal's mayor, Sarto Fournier, backed the proposal, allowing Canada to make a bid to the Bureau International des Expositions. At the BIE's May 5, 1960 meeting in Paris, Moscow was awarded the fair after five rounds of voting that eliminated Austria's and Canada's bids. In April 1962, the Soviets scrapped plans to host the fair because of financial constraints and security concerns. Montreal's new mayor, Jean Drapeau, lobbied the Canadian government to try again for the fair, which they did.
On November 13, 1962, the BIE changed the location of the World Exhibition to Canada, Expo 67 went on to become the second-best attended BIE-sanctioned world exposition, after the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. Several sites were proposed as the main Expo grounds. One location, considered was Mount Royal Park, to the north of the downtown core, but it was Drapeau's idea to create new islands in the St. Lawrence river, to enlarge the existing Saint Helen's Island; the choice overcame opposition from Montreal's surrounding municipalities, prevented land speculation. Expo did not get off to a smooth start; the main reason for the resignations was Mayor Drapeau's choice of the site on new islands to be created around the existing St. Helen's Island and that a computer program predicted that the event could not be constructed in time. Another more reason for the mass resignations was that on April 22, 1963, the federal Liberal government of Prime Minister Lester Pearson took power; this meant that former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservative government appointees to the board of directors of the Canadian Corporation for the 1967 World Exhibition were forced to resign.
Canadian diplomat Pierre Dupuy was named Commissioner General, after Diefenbaker appointee Paul Bienvenu resigned from the post in 1963. One of the main responsibilities of the Commissioner General was to attract other nations to build pavilions at Expo. Dupuy would spend most of 1964 and 1965 soliciting 125 countries, spending more time abroad than in Canada. Dupuy's'right-hand' man was Robert Fletcher Shaw, the deputy commissioner general and vice-president of the corporation, he replaced a Diefenbaker appointee, C. F. Carsley, Deputy Commissioner General. Shaw was a professional engineer and builder, is credited for the total building of the Exhibition. Dupuy hired Andrew Kniewasser as the general manager; the management group became known as Les Durs—the tough guys—and they were in charge of creating and managing Expo. Les Durs consisted of: Jean-Claude Delorme, Legal Counsel and Secretary of the Corporation. To this group the chief architect Édouard Fiset was added. All ten were honoured by the Canadian government as recipients of the Order of Canada, Companions for Dupuy and Shaw, Officers for the others.
Jasmin wrote a book, in French, La petite histoire d'Expo 67, about his 45-month experience at Expo and created the Expo 67 Foundation to commemorate the event for future generations. As historian Pierre Berton put it, the cooperation between Canada's French- and English-speaking communities "was the secret of Expo's success—'the Québécois flair, the English-Canadian pragmatism.'" However, Berton points out that this is an over-simplification of national stereotypes. Arguably Expo did, for a short period anyway, bridge the'Two Solitudes.' In May 1963, a group of prominent Canadian thinkers—including Alan Jarvis, director of the National Gallery of Canada.
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, the fair's long-lasting impact on intellectuals in the fields of history, art history and anthropology. From the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a World's Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase; the idea for such a commemorative event seems to have emerged early in 1898, with Kansas City and St. Louis presented as potential hosts for a fair based on their central location within the territory encompassed by the 1803 land annexation.
The exhibition was grand in scale and lengthy in preparation, with an initial $5 million committed by the city of St. Louis through the sale of city bonds was authorized by the Missouri state legislature in April 1899. An additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901; the final installment of $5 million of the exposition's $15 million capitalization came in the form of earmarked funds that were part of a congressional appropriations bill passed at the end of May 1900. The fundraising mission was aided by the active support of President of the United States William McKinley, won by organizers in a February 1899 White House visit. While conceived as a centennial celebration to be held in 1903, the actual opening of the St. Louis exposition was delayed until April 30, 1904, to allow for full-scale participation by more states and foreign countries; the exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1, 1904.
During the year of the fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition supplanted the annual St. Louis Exposition of agricultural and scientific exhibitions, held in the city since the 1880s; the fair's 1,200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of walkways, it was said to be impossible to give a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres. Exhibits were staged by 50 foreign nations, the United States government, 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, music schools. There were over 50 concession-type amusements found on "The Pike". Over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S. Post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase.
The 1-cent value portrayed Robert Livingston, the ambassador who negotiated the purchase with France, the 2-cent value depicts Thomas Jefferson, who executed the purchase, the 3-cent honors James Monroe, who participated in negotiations with the French, the 5-cent memorializes William McKinley, involved with early plans for the Exposition and the 10-cent presents a map of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many urban parks in Texas and the Midwest, created the master design for the Fair. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park and fair grounds. There are several reasons for this confusion. First, Kessler in his twenties had worked for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener. Second, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park. Olmsted's sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street.
In 1901 the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Corporation selected prominent St. Louis architect Isaac S. Taylor as the Chairman of the Architectural Commission and Director of Works for the fair, supervising the overall design and construction. Taylor appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design. In the position for three years, Masqueray designed the following Fair buildings: Palace of Agriculture, the Cascades and Colonnades, Palace of Forestry and Game, Palace of Horticulture and Palace of Transportation, all of which were emulated in civic projects across the United States as part of the City Beautiful movement. Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery. According to a claim in a 1923 edition of The Colored Citizen of Pensacola, the majority of work in building the fair was done by African Americans, including all the engineering calculations for the layout of the park.
Many African Americans were not credited. Florence Hayward, a successful freelance writer in St. Lo
Panama–Pacific International Exposition
The Panama–Pacific International Exposition was a world's fair held in San Francisco, California, U. S. from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Its stated purpose was to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal, but it was seen in the city as an opportunity to showcase its recovery from the 1906 earthquake; the fair was constructed on a 636 acre site along the northern shore, between the Presidio and Fort Mason, now known as the Marina District. Among the exhibits at the Exposition was the C. P. Huntington, the first steam locomotive purchased by Southern Pacific Railroad. A telephone line was established to New York City so people across the continent could hear the Pacific Ocean; the Liberty Bell traveled by train on a nationwide tour from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to attend the exposition. The 1915 American Grand Prize and Vanderbilt Cup auto races were held February 27 and March 6 on a 3.84-mile circuit set up around the Exposition grounds. The Smithsonian Institution had an exhibition at the Exposition.
Yumian, meaning fish-noodle in Chinese, is a noodle made with flour and fish from the Fu River in Yunmeng, China. Yunmeng Yumian was awarded silver medal of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition; the centerpiece was the Tower of Jewels, which rose to 435 feet and was covered with over 100,000 cut glass Novagems. The 3⁄4 to 2 inch colored "gems" sparkled in sunlight throughout the day and were illuminated by over 50 powerful electrical searchlights at night. In front of the Tower, the Fountain of Energy flowed at the center of the South Gardens, flanked by the Palace of Horticulture on the west and the Festival Hall to the east; the arch of the Tower served as the gateway to the Court of the Universe, leading to the Court of the Four Seasons to the west and the Court of Abundance to the east. These courts formed the primary exhibit area for the fair, which included the Food Products Palace, the Education and Social Economy Palace, the Agriculture Palace, the Liberal Arts Palace, the Transportation Palace, the Manufacturers Palace, the Mines and Metallurgy Palace, the Varied Industries Palace.
The Machinery Palace, the largest hall, dominated the east end of the central court. At the west end of central court group was the Palace of Fine Arts. Further west toward the bay down The Avenue of the Nations were national and states' buildings, displaying customs and products unique to the area represented. At the opposite end of the Fair, near Fort Mason was "The Zone", an avenue of popular amusements and concessions stands. Constructed from temporary materials all the fair's various buildings and attractions were pulled down in late 1915. Intended to fall into pieces at the close of the fair, the only surviving building on the Exposition grounds, Bernard Maybeck's Palace of Fine Arts, remained in place falling into disrepair; the Palace, including the colonnade with its signature weeping women and rotunda dome, was reconstructed in the 1960s and a seismic retrofit was completed in early 2009. The Exploratorium, an interactive science museum, occupied the northern 2/3 of the Palace from 1969 to 2013.
Buildings from the Exposition that still stand today include what is now called the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium at Civic Center Plaza and the Japanese Tea house, barged down the Bay to Belmont and operates as a restaurant. Surviving are the one-third scale steam locomotives of the Overfair Railroad that operated at the Exposition, they are maintained in working order at the Swanton Pacific Railroad Society located on Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's Swanton Ranch just north of Santa Cruz. The Legion of Honor Museum, in Lincoln Park, was the gift of Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, wife of the sugar magnate and thoroughbred racehorse owner/breeder Adolph B. Spreckels; the building is a full-scale replica of the French Pavilion from the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition, which in turn was a three-quarter-scale version of the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur known as the Hôtel de Salm in Paris by George Applegarth and H. Guillaume. At the close of the exposition, the French government granted Spreckels permission to construct a permanent replica of the French Pavilion, but World War I delayed the groundbreaking until 1921.
The US Post Office issued a set of four postage stamps to commemorate the exposition, with designs depicting a profile of Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the Pedro Miguel Locks of the Panama Canal, the Golden Gate, the discovery of San Francisco Bay. The stamps were first put on sale in 1913, to promote the coming event, perforated 12, reissued in 1914 and 1915, perforated 10, their prices today range widely. The United States Congress authorized the San Francisco Mint to issue a series of five commemorative coins. Said coins were four gold coins; the denominations of the gold coins were $1, $2 1⁄2 and $50. The Panama-Pacific coins have the distinction of being the first commemorative coins to bear the