Java is an island of Indonesia. With a population of over 141 million or 145 million as of 2015 Census released in December 2015, the Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java and it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s, Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Formed mostly as the result of eruptions, Java is the 13th largest island in the world. A chain of mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island, Sundanese, of these, Javanese is the dominant, it is the native language of about 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian as their first or second language, while the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.
Java is divided into four provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, the origins of the name Java are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time. There are other sources, the word jaú and its variations mean beyond or distant. And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous, Yawadvipa is mentioned in Indias earliest epic, the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Ramas army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa and it was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name yāvaka dvīpa. Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram, another source states that the Java word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning home. The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemys Geographia composed around 150 CE Roman Empire, Iabadiu is said to mean barley island, to be rich in gold, and have a silver town called Argyra at the west end.
The name indicate Java, and seems to be derived from Hindu name Java-dvipa, Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south and it is the worlds 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes
A worlds fair, world fair, world exposition, or universal exposition is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in varying parts of the world, the next world Expo is Expo 2020 and is to be held in Dubai, UAE. Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, bIE-approved fairs are of three types, universal and horticultural. They usually last from three weeks to six months, Worlds fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris. This fair was followed by other exhibitions in continental Europe. The best-known first World Expo was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations. The Great Exhibition, as it is called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victorias husband. It influenced the development of aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations.
This expo was the most obvious precedent for the international exhibitions, called worlds fairs. Since their inception in 1851, the character of world expositions has evolved, three eras can be distinguished, the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, and the era of nation branding. The first era could be called the era of industrialization and covered, roughly, in these days, world expositions were especially focused on trade, and were famous for the display of technological inventions and advancements. World expositions were the platforms where the state-of-the-art in science and technology from around the world were brought together, inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era. An important part of the image of worlds fairs stems from this first era, the 1939–40 New York Worlds Fair diverged from the original focus of the worlds fair expositions. From on, worlds fairs adopted specific cultural themes, they forecasted a future for society. Technological innovations were no longer the primary exhibits at fairs, the fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication for the exchange of innovation.
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67, event organizers retired the term worlds fair in favor of expo. From Expo 88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use world expositions more widely, Japan, Canada and Spain are cases in point. A large study by Tjaco Walvis called Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers showed that improving national image was the primary goal for 73% of the countries at Expo 2000
Annie Oakley was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Her amazing talent first came to light when the then-15-year-old won a match with traveling-show marksman Frank E. Butler. The couple joined Buffalo Bills Wild West show a few years later, Oakley became a renowned international star, performing before royalty and heads of state. Oakley was known as Miss Annie Oakley, Little Sure Shot, Little Miss Sure Shot, Watanya Cicilla, Phoebe Anne Oakley, Mrs. Annie Oakley, Mrs. Annie Butler. Her death certificate gives her name as Annie Oakley Butler, Annie Oakley was born Phoebe Ann Mosey on August 13,1860, in a cabin less than two miles northwest of Woodland, now Willowdell, in Darke County, Ohio, a rural western border county of Ohio. Her birthplace log cabin site is five miles east of North Star. There is a plaque in the vicinity of the cabin site. Annies parents were Quakers of English descent from Hollidaysburg, Blair County, Susan Wise, age 18 and they moved to a rented farm in Patterson Township, Darke County, sometime around 1855.
Born in 1860, Annie was the sixth of Jacob and Susans nine children, and her siblings were Mary Jane, Elizabeth, Sarah Ellen, John, Hulda and a stillborn infant brother in 1865. Annies father, who had fought in the War of 1812, became an invalid from overexposure during a blizzard in late 1865 and her mother married Daniel Brumbaugh, had one more child and was widowed for a second time. Because of poverty following the death of her father, Annie did not regularly attend school as a child, although she did in childhood. On March 15,1870, at age nine, Annie was admitted to the Darke County Infirmary, according to her autobiography, she was put in the care of the infirmarys superintendent, Samuel Crawford Edington, and his wife Nancy, who taught her to sew and decorate. Beginning in the spring of 1870, she was out to a local family to help care for their infant son, on the false promise of fifty cents a week. The couple had wanted someone who could pump water, cook. She spent about two years in near-slavery to them where she endured mental and physical abuse and she would often have to do boys work.
One time, the wife put Annie out in the cold, without shoes. Annie referred to them as the wolves, even in her autobiography, she kindly never revealed the couples real name. According to biographer Glenda Riley, the wolves could have been the Studabaker family, the 1870 U. S. Census suggests that the wolves were the Abram Boose family of neighboring Preble County
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. The two most frequently staged are Manon and Werther and he composed oratorios, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces and other music. While still a schoolboy, Massenet was admitted to Frances principal music college, there he studied under Ambroise Thomas, whom he greatly admired. After winning the top musical prize, the Prix de Rome, in 1863, he composed prolifically in many genres. Massenet had a sense of the theatre and of what would succeed with the Parisian public. Despite some miscalculations, he produced a series of successes that made him the composer of opera in France in the late 19th. Like many prominent French composers of the period, Massenet became a professor at the Conservatoire and he taught composition there from 1878 until 1896, when he resigned after the death of the director, Ambroise Thomas. Among his students were Gustave Charpentier, Ernest Chausson, Reynaldo Hahn, by the time of his death, Massenet was regarded by many critics as old-fashioned and unadventurous although his two best-known operas remained popular in France and abroad.
After a few decades of neglect, his works began to be favourably reassessed during the mid-20th century, Massenet was born at Montaud, an outlying hamlet and now a part of the city of Saint-Étienne, in the Loire. He was the youngest of the four children of Alexis Massenet and his second wife Eléonore-Adelaïde née Royer de Marancour, Massenet senior was a prosperous ironmonger, his wife was a talented amateur musician who gave Jules his first piano lessons. By early 1848 the family had moved to Paris, where settled in a flat in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Massenet was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and, from either 1851 or 1853 and his biographer Demar Irvine dates the audition and admission as January 1853. Both sources agree that Massenet continued his education at the lycée in tandem with his musical studies. At the Conservatoire Massenet studied solfège with Augustin Savard and the piano with François Laurent and he pursued his studies, with modest distinction, until the beginning of 1855, when family concerns disrupted his education.
Alexis Massenets health was poor, and on advice he moved from Paris to Chambéry in the south of France. On his return he lodged with relations in Montmartre and resumed his studies, the familys finances were no longer comfortable, and to support himself Massenet took private piano students and played as a percussionist in theatre orchestras. His work in the pit gave him a good working knowledge of the operas of Gounod and other composers, classic. He gained some work as a piano accompanist, in the course of which he met Wagner who, in 1861 Massenets music was published for the first time, the Grande Fantasie de Concert sur le Pardon de Ploërmel de Meyerbeer, a virtuoso piano work in nine sections
Chemins de Fer du Calvados
The Chemins de Fer du Calvados was a 600 mm narrow gauge railway in the département of Calvados. The Chemins de Fer du Calvados was originally planned as a 1,000 mm metre gauge line, paul Decauville was approached following his success at the Paris Exhibition. In October 1890 he was asked to build a line on a basis to that already under construction at Royan. Initially, two lines were envisaged. A29 kilometres line between Dives and Luc-sur-Mer and a 10 kilometres line between Isigny and Grandcamp-le-Château, Ouistreham – Luc-sur-Mer opened to traffic on 15 August 1891, with an official opening date of 15 October. Dives – Sallenelles opened to traffic on 15 July 1892 and Sallenelles – Ouistreham opened on 24 August, the former was designed by Gustave Eiffel. The latter was to become famous as Pegasus Bridge, Bénouville – Caen opened to traffic on 4 July 1893, having been held up by the financial situation of the Société Decauville. The construction of the Isigny – Grandcamp line was delayed for this reason too, with the demise of Decauville, the Société Anonyme des Chemins de Fer Du Calvados took over the lines on 1 August 1895.
The CFC used rails laid on wooden sleepers, and Westinghouse continuous braking, Decauville referred to the line as the Tramway du Calvados but the new company were quite sure that they were running a railway, offering 1st, 2nd and 3rd class accommodation on its trains. Isigny – Grandcamp-les-Bains opened to traffic on 27 July 1896 and these lines opened between 1899 and 1902. On 18 January 1904, an extension opened between Falaise-Château and Falaise Gare, connecting with the standard gauge main line. Between 1904 and 1906 further extensions were added, a 9.5 kilometres line between Molay de Littry and Balleroy, and a 40.5 kilometres line between Bayeux and St. Martin-les-Besaces and this link opened to traffic on 1 July 1900. The CFC had an extent of 234 kilometres. There were plans to add a further 369 kilometres of lines, but these plans were abandoned due to improvements in the system in the département. The CFC hoped to benefit from transporting coal, Mines at Littry had been in operation from 1743 to 1880, when they were closed due to flooding.
There were frequent proposals to reopen the mine, but it was not until 1941 that a pit was opened by the Société Métallurgique de Normandie. Full production started in 1945, by time the CFC had closed and finished in 1950. Another source of traffic for the CFC was iron ore deposits between Caen and Falaise, Three thousand tonnes of ore were required per day, which the CFC handled, would have meant thirty trains per day
Human zoos, called ethnological expositions, were 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century public exhibitions of humans, usually in a so-called natural or primitive state. The displays often emphasized the differences between Europeans of Western civilization and non-European peoples or other Europeans with a lifestyle deemed primitive. Some of them placed indigenous Africans in a continuum somewhere between the apes and the White man. Ethnological expositions have since been criticized and ascertained as highly degrading, the notion of the human curiosity has a history at least as long as colonialism. During the Renaissance, the Medici developed a large menagerie in the Vatican, in the 16th century, Cardinal Hippolytus Medici had a collection of people of different races as well as exotic animals. He is reported as having a troupe of so-called Savages, speaking over twenty languages, there were Moors, Indians, one of the first modern public human exhibitions was P. T. Barnums exhibition of Joice Heth on February 25,1835 and and these exhibitions were common in freak shows.
Columbus brought indigenous Americans from his voyages in the New World to the Spanish court in 1493, another famous example was that of Saartjie Baartman of the Namaqua, often referred to as the Hottentot Venus, who was displayed in London and France until her death in 1815. During the 1850s, Maximo and Bartola, two children from El Salvador, were exhibited in the US and Europe under the names Aztec Children. However, human zoos would become common only in the 1870s in the midst of the New Imperialism period, in the 1870s, exhibitions of exotic populations became popular in various countries. Human zoos could be found in Paris, Antwerp, London, carl Hagenbeck, a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos, decided in 1874 to exhibit Samoan and Sami people as purely natural populations. In 1876, he sent a collaborator to the Egyptian Sudan to bring back some wild beasts, the Nubian exhibit was very successful in Europe and toured Paris and Berlin. In 1880, he dispatched an agent to Labrador to secure a number of Esquimaux from the moravian mission of Hebron.
Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, director of the Jardin dacclimatation, decided in 1877 to organize two ethnological spectacles that presented Nubians and Inuit and that year, the audience of the Jardin dacclimatation doubled to one million. Between 1877 and 1912, approximately thirty ethnological exhibitions were presented at the Jardin zoologique dacclimatation, both the 1878 and the 1889 Parisian Worlds Fair presented a Negro Village. Visited by 28 million people, the 1889 Worlds Fair displayed 400 indigenous people as the major attraction, the 1900 Worlds Fair presented the famous diorama living in Madagascar, while the Colonial Exhibitions in Marseilles and in Paris displayed humans in cages, often nude or semi-nude. Nomadic Senegalese Villages were presented, in 1883, native people of Suriname were displayed in the International Colonial and Export Exhibition in Amsterdam, held behind the Rijksmuseum. In the late 1800s, Hagenbeck organized exhibitions of indigenous populations from various parts of the globe and he staged a public display in 1886 of Sinhalese autochthones from the Sri Lanka
Champ de Mars
The Champ de Mars is a large public greenspace in Paris, located in the seventh arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. The park is named after the Campus Martius in Rome, a tribute to the Latin name of the Roman God of war, the name alludes to the fact that the lawns here were formerly used as drilling and marching grounds by the French military. The nearest Métro stations are La Motte-Picquet–Grenelle, École Militaire, and Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel, a disused station, Champ de Mars is nearby. Originally, the Champ de Mars was part of a flat open area called Grenelle. Citizens would claim small plots and exploit them by growing fruits, however, the plain of Grenelle was not an especially fertile place for farming. The construction, in 1765, of the École Militaire designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, was the first step toward the Champ de Mars in its present form. Grounds for military drills were originally planned for an area south of the school, the choice to build an esplanade to the north of the school led to the erection of the noble facade which today encloses the Champ de Mars.
The planners leveled the ground, surrounded it with a ditch and a long avenue of elms, and, as a final touch. The Isle of Swans, formerly a riverine islet at the location of the foot of the Eiffel Tower, for the sake of symmetry and pleasing perspectives. Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers launched the worlds first hydrogen-filled balloon from the Champ-de-Mars on 27 August 1783 and this place witnessed the spectacle and pageantry of some of the best-remembered festivals of the French Revolution. On 14 July 1790 the first Federation Day celebration, now known as Bastille Day, was held on the Champ de Mars, the following year, on 17 July 1791, the massacre on the Champ de Mars took place. Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first mayor of Paris, became a victim of his own revolution and was guillotined there on 12 November 1793, the Champ de Mars was the site of the Festival of the Supreme Being on 8 June 1794. With a design by the painter Jacques-Louis David, a massive Altar of the Nation was built atop an artificial mountain, the festival is regarded as the most successful of its type in the Revolution.
The Champ de Mars was the site of Expositions Universelles in 1867,1878,1889,1900, in 2012 the United Buddy Bears exhibit was held on the Champ de Mars, an international art exhibition with more than 140 two-meter-tall bears representing individual countries. They promote peace, love and international understanding and are displayed across the planet and they stand at Champ de Mars in Paris, fronting the Eiffel Tower. List of worlds fairs Champ de Mars Massacre Fête de la Concorde
Alexandra of Denmark
Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII. At the age of sixteen, she was chosen as the wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. They married eighteen months in 1863, the year her father became king of Denmark as Christian IX. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has held that title. Largely excluded from wielding any political power, she attempted to sway the opinion of British ministers and her husbands family to favour Greek. Her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work, on the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became king-emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as queen-empress. She held the status until Edwards death in 1910 and she greatly distrusted her nephew, German Emperor Wilhelm II, and supported her son during World War I, in which Britain and its allies fought Germany. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, although she was of royal blood, her family lived a comparatively normal life.
They did not possess great wealth, her fathers income from a commission was about £800 per year and their house was a rent-free grace. Occasionally, Hans Christian Andersen was invited to call and tell the stories before bedtime. In 1848, King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son, Frederick was childless, had been through two unsuccessful marriages, and was assumed to be infertile. A succession crisis arose as Frederick ruled in both Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein, and the rules of each territory differed. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, being predominantly German, proclaimed independence and called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the great powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession, Prince Christian was given the title Prince of Denmark and his family moved into a new official residence, Bernstorff Palace. Alexandra shared a draughty attic bedroom with her sister, made her own clothes and Dagmar were given swimming lessons by the Swedish pioneer of womens swimming, Nancy Edberg.
At Bernstorff, Alexandra grew into a woman, she was taught English by the English chaplain at Copenhagen and was confirmed in Christiansborg Palace. She was devout throughout her life, and followed High Church practice, Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert, were already concerned with finding a bride for their son and heir, Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales. They enlisted the aid of their daughter, Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, Alexandra was not their first choice, since the Danes were at loggerheads with the Prussians over the Schleswig-Holstein Question and most of the British royal familys relations were German
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second
William Frederick Buffalo Bill Cody was an American scout, bison hunter, and showman. Buffalo Bill started working at the age of eleven, after his fathers death, during the American Civil War, he served the Union from 1863 to the end of the war in 1865. Later he served as a scout for the US Army during the Indian Wars. One of the most colorful figures of the American Old West, shortly thereafter he started performing in shows that displayed cowboy themes and episodes from the frontier and Indian Wars. He founded Buffalo Bills Wild West in 1883, taking his company on tours in the United States and, beginning in 1887, in Great Britain. Cody was born on February 26,1846, on a farm just outside Le Claire and his father, Isaac Cody, was born on September 5,1811, in Toronto Township, Upper Canada, now part of Mississauga, directly west of Toronto. Mary Ann Bonsell Laycock, Bills mother, was born about 1817 in New Jersey and she moved to Cincinnati to teach school, and there she met and married Isaac.
She was a descendant of Josiah Bunting, a Quaker who had settled in Pennsylvania, there is no evidence to indicate Buffalo Bill was raised as a Quaker. In 1847 the couple moved to Ontario, having their son baptized in 1847, as William Cody, at the Dixie Union Chapel in Peel County, the chapel was built with Cody money, and the land was donated by Philip Cody of Toronto Township. They lived in Ontario for several years, in 1853, Isaac Cody sold his land in rural Scott County, for $2000, and the family moved to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. In the years before the Civil War, Kansas was overtaken by political and physical conflict over the slavery question and he was invited to speak at Rivelys store, a local trading post where pro-slavery men often held meetings. His antislavery speech so angered the crowd that they threatened to kill him if he didnt step down, a man jumped up and stabbed him twice with a Bowie knife. Rively, the owner, rushed Cody to get treatment. In Kansas, the family was persecuted by pro-slavery supporters.
Codys father spent time away from home for his safety and his enemies learned of a planned visit to his family and plotted to kill him on the way. Bill, despite his youth and being ill at the time, Isaac Cody went to Cleveland, Ohio, to organize a group of thirty families to bring back to Kansas, in order to add to the antislavery population. During his return trip he caught an infection which, compounded by the lingering effects of his stabbing and complications from kidney disease. After his death, the family suffered financially, at age 11, Bill took a job with a freight carrier as a boy extra