Exposition Universelle (1878)
The third Paris World's Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French, was held from 1 May through to 10 November 1878. It celebrated the recovery of France after the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War; the buildings and the fairgrounds were somewhat unfinished on opening day, as political complications had prevented the French government from paying much attention to the exhibition until six months before it was due to open. However, efforts made in April were prodigious, by 1 June, a month after the formal opening, the exhibition was completed; this exposition was on a far larger scale than any held anywhere in the world. It covered over 66 acres, the main building in the Champ de Mars and the hill of Chaillot, occupying 54 acres; the Gare du Champ de Mars was rebuilt with four tracks to receive rail traffic occasioned by the exposition. The Pont d'Iéna linked the two exhibition sites along the central allée; the French exhibits filled one-half of the entire space, with the remaining exhibition space divided among the other nations of the world.
Germany was the only major country, not represented, but there were a few German paintings being exhibited. The United States exhibition was headed by a series of commissioners, which included Pierce M. B. Young, a former United States Congressman and major general in the Confederate States Army and Floyd Perry Baker, a Kansas newspaper editor, as well as other generals and celebrities; the United Kingdom, British India, Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Cape Colony and some of the British crown colonies occupied nearly one-third of the space set aside for nations outside France. The United Kingdom's expenditure was defrayed out of the consolidated revenue; the UK display was under the control of a royal commission, of which the Prince of Wales was president. The exhibition of fine arts and new machinery was on a large and comprehensive scale, the Avenue des Nations, a street 730 metres in length, was devoted to examples of the domestic architecture of nearly every country in Europe and several in Asia and America.
The "Gallery of Machines" was a metallic building, an industrial showcase of low transverse arches, designed by the engineer Henri de Dion. Many of the buildings and statues were made of staff, a low-cost temporary building material invented in Paris in 1876, which consisted of jute fiber, plaster of Paris, cement. On the northern bank of the Seine River, an elaborate palace was constructed for the exhibition at the tip of the Place du Trocadéro, it was a handsome "Moorish" structure, with towers 76 metres in flanked by two galleries. It had a Cavaillé-Coll organ, inaugurated with a concert in which Charles Marie Widor played the premiere of his Symphony for Organ No. 6. The building stood until 1937. On 30 June 1878, the completed head of the Statue of Liberty was showcased in the garden of the Trocadéro palace, while other pieces were on display in the Champs de Mars. Among the many inventions on display was Alexander Graham Bell's telephone. Electric arc lighting had been installed all along the Avenue de l'Opera and the Place de l'Opera, in June, a switch was thrown and the area was lit by electric Yablochkov arc lamps, powered by Zénobe Gramme dynamos.
Thomas Edison had on display a phonograph. International juries judged the various exhibits, awarding medals of gold and bronze. One popular feature was a human zoo, called a "negro village", composed of 400 "indigenous people", and Augustin Mouchot's Solar powered engine converting solar energy into mechanical steam power, he won a Gold Medal in Class 54 for his works, most notably the production of ice using concentrated solar heat. Henry E. Steinway exhibited a grand piano which "attracted extraordinary attention". Gold award for painting: Jan Matejko, for The Hanging of the Sigismund Bell, Union of Lublin and Wacław Wilczek. Gold award for photography: Aimé Dupont Over 13 million people paid to attend the exposition, making it a financial success; the cost of the enterprise to the French government, which supplied all the construction and operating funds, was a little less than a million British Pounds, after allowing for the value of the permanent buildings and the Trocadero Palace, which were sold to the city of Paris.
The total number of persons who visited Paris during the time the exhibition was open was 571,792, or 308,974 more than came to the French metropolis during 1877, 46,021 in excess of the visitors during the previous exhibition of 1867. In addition to the general impetus given to French trade, the revenue from customs and duties from the foreign visitors increased by nearly three million sterling compared with the previous year. Concurrent with the exposition, a number of meetings and conferences were held to gain consensus on international standards. French writer Victor Hugo led the Congress for the Protection of Literary Property, which led to the eventual formulation of international copyright laws. Other meetings led to efforts to standardize the flow of mail from country to country; the International Congress for the Amelioration of the Condition of Blind People led to the worldwide adoption of the Braille System of touch-reading. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau's time travel novel El Anacronópete starts with a lecture in the Exposition.
Eoin Colfer's novel Airman begins with its protagonists birth at the Exposition. The Paris firm of Gruel and Engelmann was known for its deluxe bookbindings; the Book of Hours is a Gothic Revival example, the celebrated Paris jeweler Alexis Falize has created a relief showing the Adoration of the Magi, surrounded by fantastic animals derived from the amusing, margina
The ILIS 1936 was an international aviation exhibition held at Lindarängen airport in the Swedish capital Stockholm between 15 May 1936 and 1 June 1936. It was the first specialised exhibition recognised by the Bureau International des Expositions; the exposition was held to celebrate the opening of Bromma airport, Europe's first with paved runways. Bromma was inaugurated on 23 May 1936, with the finish of an air race across Sweden that started the day before. At Bromma, some airshows took place on 24 and 25 May 1936. Visitors were transported between Bromma by autogiro; the indoor and static exhibition was held at Lindarängen a flying boat facility just east of the city centre used as ferry terminal. During the ILIS, visitors to Lindarängen could board a Swedish flying boat to fly over Stockholm. Official website of the BIE
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered, most to provide food for humans. Slaughterhouses supply meat, which becomes the responsibility of a packaging facility. Slaughterhouses that produce meat, not intended to be eaten by humans are sometimes referred to as knacker's yards or knackeries; this is where animals are slaughtered that are not fit for human consumption or that can no longer work on a farm, such as retired work horses. Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant problems in terms of logistics, animal welfare, the environment, the process must meet public health requirements. Due to public aversion in many cultures, determining where to build slaughterhouses is a matter of some consideration. Groups representing animal welfare and rights raise concerns about the methods of transport to and from slaughterhouses, preparation prior to slaughter, animal herding, the killing itself; until modern times, the slaughter of animals took place in a haphazard and unregulated manner in diverse places.
Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouses was shambles, there are streets named "The Shambles" in some English and Irish towns which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption. Fishamble Street, Dublin was a fish-shambles; the slaughterhouse emerged as a coherent institution in the nineteenth century. A combination of health and social concerns, exacerbated by the rapid urbanisation experienced during the Industrial Revolution, led social reformers to call for the isolation and regulation of animal slaughter; as well as the concerns raised regarding hygiene and disease, there were criticisms of the practice on the grounds that the effect that killing had, both on the butchers and the observers, "educate the men in the practice of violence and cruelty, so that they seem to have no restraint on the use of it." An additional motivation for eliminating private slaughter was to impose a careful system of regulation for the "morally dangerous" task of putting animals to death.
As a result of this tension, meat markets within the city were closed and abattoirs built outside city limits. An early framework for the establishment of public slaughterhouses was put in place in Paris in 1810, under the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. Five areas were set aside on the outskirts of the city and the feudal privileges of the guilds were curtailed; as the meat requirements of the growing number of residents in London expanded, the meat markets both within the city and beyond attracted increasing levels of public disapproval. Meat had been traded at Smithfield Market as early as the 10th century. By 1726, it was regarded as "by Daniel Defoe. By the middle of the 19th century, in the course of a single year 220,000 head of cattle and 1,500,000 sheep would be "violently forced into an area of five acres, in the heart of London, through its narrowest and most crowded thoroughfares". By the early 19th century, pamphlets were being circulated arguing in favour of the removal of the livestock market and its relocation outside of the city due to the poor hygienic conditions as well as the brutal treatment of the cattle.
In 1843, the Farmer's Magazine published a petition signed by bankers, aldermen and local residents against the expansion of the livestock market. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1852. Under its provisions, a new cattle-market was constructed in Islington; the new Metropolitan Cattle Market was opened in 1855, West Smithfield was left as waste ground for about a decade, until the construction of the new market began in the 1860s under the authority of the 1860 Metropolitan Meat and Poultry Market Act. The market was designed by architect Sir Horace Jones and was completed in 1868. A cut and cover railway tunnel was constructed beneath the market to create a triangular junction with the railway between Blackfriars and Kings Cross; this allowed animals to be transported into the slaughterhouse by train and the subsequent transfer of animal carcasses to the Cold Store building, or direct to the meat market via lifts. At the same time, the first large and centralized slaughterhouse in Paris was constructed in 1867 under the orders of Napoleon III at the Parc de la Villette and influenced the subsequent development of the institution throughout Europe.
These slaughterhouses were regulated by law to ensure good standards of hygiene, the prevention of the spread of disease and the minimization of needless animal cruelty. The slaughterhouse had to be equipped with a specialized water supply system to clean the operating area of blood and offal. Veterinary scientists, notably George Fleming and John Gamgee, campaigned for stringent levels of inspection to ensure that epizootics such as rinderpest would not be able to spread. By 1874, three meat inspectors were appointed for the London area, the Public Health Act 1875 required local authorities to provide central slaughterhouses, yet the appointment of slaughterhouse inspectors and the establishment of centralised abattoirs took place much earlier in the British colonies, such as the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. In Victoria, for example, the Melbourne Abattoirs Act 1850 "confined the slaughtering of animals to prescribed public abattoirs, while at the same t
Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne
The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne was held from 25 May to 25 November 1937 in Paris, France. Both the Palais de Chaillot, housing the Musée de l'Homme, the Palais de Tokyo, which houses the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, were created for this exhibition, sanctioned by the Bureau International des Expositions. At first the centerpiece of the exposition was to be a 2,300-foot tower, to have a spiraling road to a parking garage located at the top and a hotel and restaurant located above that; the idea was abandoned as far too expensive. The Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux was a tent pavilion designed by Pierre Jeanneret. Fitting in the architectural master-plan of the master architect Jacques Gréber at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, inspired by the shape of a grain elevator, the Canadian pavilion included Joseph-Émile Brunet's 28-foot sculpture of a buffalo. Paintings by Brunet, sculpted panels on the outside of the structure, several thematic stands inside the Canadian pavilion depicted aspects of Canadian culture.
The Spanish pavilion attracted attention. The Spanish pavilion was built by the Spanish architect Josep Lluis Sert; the pavilion, set up by the Republican government, included Pablo Picasso's famous painting Guernica, a depiction of the horrors of war, Alexander Calder's sculpture Mercury Fountain and Joan Miró's painting Catalan peasant in revolt. Two of the other notable pavilions were those of the Soviet Union; the organization of the world exhibition had placed the German and the Soviet pavilions directly across from each other. Hitler had desired to withdraw from participation, but his architect Albert Speer convinced him to participate after all, showing Hitler his plans for the German pavilion. Speer revealed in his autobiographies that he had had a clandestine look at the plans for the Soviet pavilion, had designed the German pavilion to represent a bulwark against Communism; the preparation and construction of the exhibits were plagued by delay. On the opening day of the exhibition, only the German and the Soviet pavilions had been completed.
This, as well as the fact that the two pavilions faced each other, turned the exhibition into a competition between the two great ideological rivals. Speer's pavilion was culminated by a tall tower crowned with the symbols of the Nazi state: an eagle and the swastika; the pavilion was conceived as a monument to "German pride and achievement". It was to broadcast to the world that a new and powerful Germany had a restored sense of national pride. At night, the pavilion was illuminated by floodlights. Josef Thorak's sculpture Comradeship stood outside the pavilion, depicting two enormous nude males, clasping hands and standing defiantly side by side, in a pose of mutual defense and "racial camaraderie"; the architect of the Soviet pavilion was Boris Iofan. Vera Mukhina designed the large figurative sculpture on the pavilion; the grand building was topped by Worker and Kolkhoz Woman, a large momentum-exerting statue, of a male worker and a female peasant, their hands together, thrusting a hammer and a sickle.
The statue was meant to symbolize the union of peasants. Italy was vying for attention as one of three totalitarian nations: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia presented themselves as great forces to be reckoned with. Italy was the benevolent dictatorship: sunny and Mediterranean it was founded on discipline and unity. Marcello Piacentini was given the job of designing the pavilion exterior, he used a modern reinforced concrete frame combined with traditional elements such as colonnades, terraces and galleries, the tower form, Classical rhythms and the use of Mediterranean marble and stucco. The pavilion was nestled under the Eiffel tower looking out over the Seine to the main part of the Exposition site. Giuseppe Pagano was responsible for the overall co-ordination of the exhibtis and was the first impact on entering the building, its large courtyard garden and its hall of honour; the main entry was through the Court of Honour that showcased life size examples of Italy’s most important contribution to the history of technology.
Arturo Martini’s Victory of the Air presided over the space, her dark bronze form standing out against a infinite backdrop of blue-grey Venetian mosaic tiles. From there visitors could visit the Colonial Exhibits by Mario Sironi and the Gallery of Tourism before enjoying a plate of real spaghetti on the restaurant terrace; the courtyard garden was designed a respite from the exhibits with a symphony of green grass and green-glazed tiles set against red flowers and burgundy porphyry. The Hall of Honour was the pavilion's most evocative space, it ‘repurposed’ an existing artwork: Mario Sironi’s Corporative Italy mosaic from the 1936 Triennale that had now been completed with numerous figures engaged in different types of work and the figure of the imperial Roman eagle flying in from the right hand side. The 8m x 12 m work towered over the two-storey height space that occupied the top of the pavilion’s tower, making it the centre piece of the pavilion’s decorative and propaganda program; the enthroned figure of Italy represented Corporatism – the successful economic policy that merged the best of Capitalism and the best of Communism – and that had, up until proved a success.
The room was a celebration of all those aspects of Fascist society that Pagano wholeheartedly believed in: social harmony, government input to generate industrial innovation and support for artists and craftsmen as well as worker
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. and St. Louis for the honor of hosting the fair; the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image, American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles B. Atwood, it was the prototype of what his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor; the color of the material used to cover the buildings façades gave the fairgrounds its nickname, the White City.
Many prominent architects designed its 14 "great buildings". Artists and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition; the exposition covered 690 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, people and cultures from 46 countries. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run, its scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world's fairs, it became a symbol of the emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds were not opened to the public until May 1, 1893; the fair continued until October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Europeans, the fair served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire, which had destroyed much of the city in 1871.
On October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a world record for outdoor event attendance, drawing 751,026 people. The debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair with one of the stars on its municipal flag. Many prominent civic and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing and management of the Fair, including Chicago shoe company owner Charles H. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, Connecticut banking and iron products magnate Milo Barnum Richardson, among many others; the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. World's fairs, such as London's 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines; the first American attempt at a world's fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure.
Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing started in the late 1880s. Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, promote their cities. Congress was called on to decide the location. New York's financiers J. P. Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Waldorf Astor, among others, pledged $15 million to finance the fair if Congress awarded it to New York, while Chicagoans Charles T. Yerkes, Marshall Field, Philip Armour, Gustavus Swift, Cyrus McCormick, offered to finance a Chicago fair. What persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million additional dollars in a 24-hour period and above New York's final offer. Chicago representatives not only fought for the world's fair on monetary reasons, but on practicality reasons. On a Senate hearing held in January 1890, representative Thomas B. Bryan argued that the most important qualities for a world's fair were'abundant supplies of good air and pure water... ample space and transportation for all exhibits and visitors...
" He argued that New York had too many obstructions, Chicago would be able to use large amounts of land around the city where there was "not a house to buy and not a rock to blast.." and that it would be so located that "the artisan and the farmer and the shopkeeper and the man of humble means" would be able to access the fair. Bryan continued to say that the fair was of'vital interest' to the West, that the West wanted the location to be Chicago; the city spokesmen would continue to stress the essentials of a successful Exposition and that only Chicago was fitted to fill these exposition requirements. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park and an area around it as the fair site. Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the period's top talent to design the buildings and grounds including Frederick Law Olmsted for the grounds.
The temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the "White City". The Exposition's offices set up shop in the upper floors of the Rand McNally Building on Adams Street, the world's first all-steel-fram
Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, the second largest municipality in Belgium, after Antwerp; the city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a university city; the municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the surrounding suburbs of Afsnee, Drongen, Ledeberg, Mendonk, Sint-Amandsberg, Sint-Denijs-Westrem, Sint-Kruis-Winkel and Zwijnaarde. With 260,467 inhabitants in the beginning of 2018, Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants; the metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,205 km2 and has a total population of 594,582 as of 1 January 2008, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium. The current mayor of Ghent, Mathias De Clercq is from the liberal & democratic party Open VLD.
The ten-day-long Ghent Festival is attended by about 1 -- 1.5 million visitors. Archaeological evidence shows human presence in the region of the confluence of Scheldt and Leie going back as far as the Stone Age and the Iron Age. Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent,'Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word ganda which means confluence. Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named Gontia. There are no written records of the Roman period, but archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited; when the Franks invaded the Roman territories from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century, they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch. Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: Saint Bavo's Abbey; the city grew from the abbeys and a commercial centre. Around 800, Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, appointed Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 851 and 879, the city was however plundered twice by the Vikings.
Within the protection of the County of Flanders, the city recovered and flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city in Europe north of the Alps after Paris. Within the city walls lived up to 65,000 people; the belfry and the towers of the Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church are just a few examples of the skyline of the period. The rivers flowed in an area; these rich grass'meersen' were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of, used for making cloth. During the Middle Ages Ghent was the leading city for cloth; the wool industry established at Bruges, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High Middle Ages. The mercantile zone was so developed that wool had to be imported from Scotland and England; this was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with England. Ghent was the birthplace of John of Duke of Lancaster. Trade with England suffered during the Hundred Years' War.
The city recovered in the 15th century, when Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the Dukes of Burgundy. High taxes led to a rebellion and the Battle of Gavere in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of Philip the Good. Around this time the centre of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders to Brabant, although Ghent continued to play an important role. With Bruges, the city led two revolts against Maximilian of Austria, the first monarch of the House of Habsburg to rule Flanders. In 1500, Juana of Castile gave birth to Charles V, who became Holy Roman King of Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 Revolt of Ghent and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the Emperor barefoot with a noose around the neck. Saint Bavo Abbey was abolished, torn down, replaced with a fortress for Royal Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition; the late 16th and the 17th centuries brought devastation because of the Eighty Years' War.
The war ended the role of Ghent as a centre of international importance. In 1745, the city was captured by French forces during the War of the Austrian Succession before being returned to the Empire of Austria under the House of Habsburg following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when this part of Flanders became known as the Austrian Netherlands until 1815, the exile of the French Emperor Napoleon I, the end of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and the peace treaties arrived at by the Congress of Vienna. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the textile industry flourished again in Ghent. Lieven Bauwens, having smuggled the industrial and factory machine plans out of England, introduced the first mechanical weaving machine on the European continent in 1800; the Treaty of Ghent, negotiated here and adopted on Christmas Eve 1814, formally ended the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States. After the Battle of Waterloo and Flanders ruled from the House of Habs
Century 21 Exposition
The Century 21 Exposition was a world's fair held April 21, 1962, to October 21, 1962, in Seattle, Washington. Nearly 10 million people attended the fair. Unlike some other world's fairs of its era, Century 21 made a profit; as planned, the exposition left behind numerous public buildings and public works. The fair saw the construction of the Space Needle and Alweg monorail, as well as several sports venues and performing arts buildings, most of which have since been replaced or remodeled; the site expanded since the fair, is now called Seattle Center. Another notable Seattle Center building, the Museum of Pop Culture, was built nearly 40 years and designed to fit in with the fairground atmosphere. Seattle mayor Allan Pomeroy is credited with bringing the World's Fair to the city, he recruited community and business leaders, as well as running a petition campaign, in the early 1950s to convince the city council to approve an $8.5 million bond issue to build the opera house and sports center needed to attract the fair.
The council approved a $7.5 million bond issue with the state of Washington matching that amount. The fair was conceived in 1955 to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1909 Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition, but it soon became clear that that date was too ambitious. With the Space Race underway and Boeing having "put Seattle on the map" as "an aerospace city", a major theme of the fair was to show that "the United States was not really'behind' the Soviet Union in the realms of science and space"; as a result, the themes of space and the future trumped the earlier conception of a "Festival of the West". In June 1960, the Bureau International des Expositions certified Century 21 as a world's fair. Project manager Ewen Dingwall was turned down. Neither the People's Republic of China, Vietnam nor North Korea were invited; as it happened, the Cold War had an additional effect on the fair. President John F. Kennedy was supposed to attend the closing ceremony of the fair on October 21, 1962, he bowed out, pleading a "heavy cold".
The fair's vision of the future displayed a technologically based optimism that did not anticipate any dramatic social change, one rooted in the 1950s rather than in the cultural tides that would emerge in the 1960s. Affluence, automation and American power would grow. In contrast, 12 years later—even in far more conservative Spokane, Washington—Expo'74 took environmentalism as its central theme; the theme of Spokane's Expo'74 was "Celebrating Tomorrow's Fresh New Environment.". Once the fair idea was conceived, several sites were considered. Among the sites considered within Seattle were Duwamish Head in West Seattle. Two sites south of the city proper were considered—Midway, near Des Moines, the Army Depot in Auburn—as was a site east of the city on the south shore of Lake Sammamish; the site selected for the Century 21 Exposition had been contemplated for a civic center. The idea of using it for the world's fair came and brought in federal money for the United States Science Pavilion and state money for the Washington State Coliseum.
Some of the land had been donated to the city by James Osborne in 1881 and by David and Louisa Denny in 1889. Two lots at Third Avenue N. and John Street were purchased from St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church, planning to build a new church building there; the Warren Avenue School, a public elementary school with several programs for physically handicapped students, was torn down, its programs dispersed, provided most of the site of the Coliseum. Near the school, some of the city's oldest houses and commercial buildings were torn down; the old Fire Station No. 4 was sacrificed. As early as the 1909 Bogue plan, this part of Lower Queen Anne had been considered for a civic center; the Civic Auditorium, the ice arena, the Civic Field, all built in 1927 had been placed there based on that plan, as was an armory. The fair planners sought two other properties near the southwest corner of the grounds, they failed to make any inroads with the Seattle Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, who had built Sacred Heart Church there.
It served as the site of the Century 21 Club. This membership organization, formed for the fair, charged $250 for membership and offered lounge, dining room, other club facilities, as well as a gate pass for the duration of the fair