Collectivization in the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union implemented the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin. It was part of the first five-year plan; the policy aimed to integrate individual landholdings and labour into collective farms: kolkhozy and sovkhozy. The Soviet leadership confidently expected that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would increase the food supply for the urban population, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, agricultural exports. Planners regarded collectivization as the solution to the crisis of agricultural distribution that had developed from 1927; this problem became more acute as the Soviet Union pressed ahead with its ambitious industrialization program, meaning that more food needed to be produced to keep up with urban demand. In the early 1930s over 91% of agricultural land became collectivized as rural households entered collective farms with their land and other assets; the collectivization era saw several famines, many due to the technological backwardness of the USSR at the time, but critics have cited deliberate action on the government's part.
The death toll cited by experts has ranged from 7 million to 14 million. After the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, peasants gained control of about half of the land they had cultivated, began to ask for the redistribution of all land; the Stolypin agricultural reforms between 1905 and 1914 gave incentives for the creation of large farms, but these ended during World War I. The Russian Provisional Government accomplished little during the difficult World War I months, though Russian leaders continued to promise redistribution. Peasants began to turn against the Provisional Government and organized themselves into land committees, which together with the traditional peasant communes became a powerful force of opposition; when Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia on April 16, 1917, he promised the people "Peace and Bread," the latter two appearing as a promise to the peasants for the redistribution of confiscated land and a fair share of food for every worker respectively. During the period of war communism, the policy of Prodrazvyorstka meant that the peasantry was obligated to surrender the surpluses of agricultural produce for a fixed price.
When the Russian Civil War ended, the economy changed with the New Economic Policy and the policy of prodnalog or "food tax." This new policy was designed to re-build morale among embittered farmers and lead to increased production. The pre-existing communes, which periodically redistributed land, did little to encourage improvement in technique, formed a source of power beyond the control of the Soviet government. Although the income gap between wealthy and poor farmers did grow under the NEP, it remained quite small, but the Bolsheviks began to take aim at the wealthy kulaks, who withheld surpluses of agricultural produce. Identifying this group was difficult, since only about 1% of the peasantry employed laborers, 82% of the country's population were peasants; the small shares of most of the peasants resulted in food shortages in the cities. Although grain had nearly returned to pre-war production levels, the large estates which had produced it for urban markets had been divided up. Not interested in acquiring money to purchase overpriced manufactured goods, the peasants chose to consume their produce rather than sell it.
As a result, city dwellers only saw half the grain, available before the war. Before the revolution, peasants controlled only 2,100,000 km² divided into 16 million holdings, producing 50% of the food grown in Russia and consuming 60% of total food production. After the revolution, the peasants controlled 3,140,000 km² divided into 25 million holdings, producing 85% of the food, but consuming 80% of what they grew; the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had never been happy with private agriculture and saw collectivization as the best remedy for the problem. Lenin claimed "Small-scale production gives birth to capitalism and the bourgeoisie daily, with elemental force, in vast proportions." Apart from ideological goals, Joseph Stalin wished to embark on a program of rapid heavy industrialization which required larger surpluses to be extracted from the agricultural sector in order to feed a growing industrial work force and to pay for imports of machinery. Social and ideological goals would be served through mobilization of the peasants in a co-operative economic enterprise which would provide social services to the people and empower the state.
Not only was collectivization meant to fund industrialization, but it was a way for the Bolsheviks to systematically attack the Kulaks and peasants in general. Stalin was suspicious of the peasants, he viewed them as a major threat to socialism. Stalins use of the collectivization process served to not only address the grain shortages, but his greater concern over the peasants willingness to conform to the collective farm system and state mandated grain acquisitions, he viewed this as an opportunity to eliminate Kulaks as a class by means of collectivization. This demand for more grain resulted in the reintroduction of requisitioning, resisted in rural areas. In 1928 there was a 2-million-ton shortfall in grains purchased by the Soviet Union from neighbouring markets. Stalin claimed the grain had been produced but was being hoarded by "kulaks." When in reality the farmers were holding on to their grain because the prices were below market
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dekulakization was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests and executions of millions of prosperous peasants and their families in the 1929–1932 period of the First five-year plan. To facilitate the expropriations of farmland, the Soviet government portrayed kulaks as class enemies of the USSR. More than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930–1931. The campaign had the stated purpose of fighting counter-revolution and of building socialism in the countryside; this policy, carried out with collectivization in the Soviet Union brought all agriculture and all the peasants in Soviet Russia under state control. Hunger and mass executions during dekulakization led to at least 530,000 to 600,000 deaths from 1929 to 1933, though higher estimates exist, with historian Robert Conquest estimating that as many as five million people may have died; the results soon became known outside the Soviet Union. In November 1917, at a meeting of delegates of the committees of poor peasants, Lenin announced a new policy to eliminate wealthy Soviet peasants, known as "kulaks": "If the kulaks remain untouched, if we don't defeat the freeloaders, the czar and the capitalist will return."
In July 1918, "Committees of the Poor" were created to represent poor peasants, which played an important role in the struggle against the kulaks, led the process of redistribution of confiscated lands and inventory, food surpluses from the kulaks. This launched the beginning of a great crusade against grain kulaks. Before being dismissed in December 1918, the Committees had confiscated 50 million hectares of kulak land. Joseph Stalin announced the "liquidation of the kulaks as a class" on 27 December 1929. Stalin had said: "Now we have the opportunity to carry out a resolute offensive against the kulaks, break their resistance, eliminate them as a class and replace their production with the production of kolkhozes and sovkhozes." The Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party formalized the decision in a resolution titled "On measures for the elimination of kulak households in districts of comprehensive collectivization" on 30 January 1930. All kulaks were assigned to one of three categories: Those to be shot or imprisoned as decided by the local secret political police Those to be sent to Siberia, the North, the Urals or Kazakhstan, after confiscation of their property Those to be evicted from their houses and used in labor colonies within their own districtsAn OGPU secret-police functionary, Yefim Yevdokimov, played a major role in organizing and supervising the round-up of peasants and the mass executions.
In February 1928, the "Pravda" newspaper for the first time published materials that claimed to expose the kulaks: they described widespread domination by the rich peasantry in the countryside and invasion by kulaks of communist party cells. Expropriation of grain stocks from kulaks and middle class peasants was called a "temporary emergency measure". Temporary emergency measures turned into a policy of "eliminating the kulaks as a class"; the party's appeal to the policy of eliminating the kulaks as a class had been formulated by Stalin: "In order to oust the kulaks as a class, the resistance of this class must be smashed in open battle and it must be deprived of the productive sources of its existence and development. That is a turn towards the policy of eliminating the kulaks as a class. Without it, talk about ousting the kulaks as a class is empty prattle and profitable only to the Right deviators." In 1928 the right opposition of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was still trying to support the prosperous peasantry and to soften the struggle against the kulaks.
In particular, Alexei Rykov, criticizing the policy of dekulakization and "methods of war communism," declared that an attack on the kulaks should be carried out, but not by methods of so-called dekulakization. He argued against taking action against individual farming in the village, the productivity of, two times lower than in European countries, he believed that the most important task of the party was the development of the individual farming of peasants with the help of the government. Active measures to eliminate the well-to-do peasantry were welcomed by the poor, who feared that "the party set its course on the kulak." The party noted that "the poor continue to regard our policy in the countryside as a sharp turn from the poor to the middle peasant and the kulak," describing the perceived reaction of the poor to the "new course" of the Fourteenth Party Congress in 1925. The government noticed an open and resolute protest among the poor against the well-to-do middle peasants; the growing discontent of the poor peasants was reinforced by the famine in the countryside.
The Bolsheviks preferred to blame the "rural counterrevolution" of the kulaks, intending to aggravate the attitude of the people towards the party: "We must repulse the kulak ideology coming in the letters from the village. The main advantage of the kulak is bread embarrassments." Red Army peasants sent letters supporting anti-kulak ideology: "The kulaks are the furious enemies of socialism. We must destroy them, don't take them to the kolkhoz, you must take away their property, their inventory." The letter of the Red Army soldier of the 28th Artillery Regiment became known: "The last bread is taken away, the Red Army family is not considered. Although you are my dad, I do not believe you. I'm glad. Sell bread, carry surplus - this is my last word." Red Terror Decossackization Population trans
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
Eminent domain, land acquisition, compulsory purchase, resumption/compulsory acquisition, or expropriation is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use. However, this power can be legislatively delegated by the state to municipalities, government subdivisions, or to private persons or corporations, when they are authorized by the legislature to exercise the functions of public character. In the Anglo-American historical context, property taken could be used only by the government taking the property in question; the most common uses of property taken by eminent domain have been for roads, government buildings and public utilities. However, in the mid-20th century, a new application of eminent domain was pioneered, in which the government could take the property and transfer it to a private third party; this was done only to a property, deemed "blighted" or a "development impediment", on the principle that such properties had a negative impact upon surrounding property owners, but was expanded to allow the taking of any private property when the new third-party owner could develop the property in such a way as to bring in increased tax revenues to the government.
Some jurisdictions require that the taker make an offer to purchase the subject property, before resorting to the use of eminent domain. However, once the property is taken and the judgment is final, the condemnor owns it in fee simple, may put it to uses other than those specified in the eminent domain action. Takings may be of the subject property in its entirety or in part, either quantitatively or qualitatively; the term "eminent domain" was taken from the legal treatise De jure belli ac pacis, written by the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius in 1625, which used the term dominium eminens and described the power as follows:... The property of subjects is under the eminent domain of the state, so that the state or those who act for it may use and alienate and destroy such property, not only in the case of extreme necessity, in which private persons have a right over the property of others, but for ends of public utility, to which ends those who founded civil society must be supposed to have intended that private ends should give way.
But, when this is done, the state is bound to make good the loss to those. The exercise of eminent domain is not limited to real property. Condemnors may take personal property intangible property such as contract rights, trade secrets, copyrights; the taking of a professional sports team's franchise has been held by the California Supreme Court to be within the purview of the "public use" constitutional limitation, although that taking was not permitted because it was deemed to violate the interstate commerce clause of the U. S. Constitution. A taking of property must be accompanied by payment of "just compensation" to the owner. In theory, this is supposed to put the owner in the same position "pecuniarily" that he would have been in had his property not been taken, but in practice courts have limited compensation to the property's fair market value, considering its highest and best use. But though granted, this is not the exclusive measure of compensation. In most takings owners are not compensated for a variety of incidental losses caused by the taking of their property that, though incurred and demonstrable in other cases, are deemed by the courts to be noncompensable in eminent domain.
The same is true of appraisers fees. But as a matter of legislative grace rather than constitutional requirement some of these losses have been made compensable by state legislative enactments, in the U. S. may be covered by provisions of the federal Uniform Relocation Assistance Act. Most states use the term eminent domain, but some U. S. states use the term appropriation or expropriation as synonyms for the exercise of eminent domain powers. The term condemnation is used to describe the formal act of exercising this power to transfer title or some lesser interest in the subject property; the constitutionally required "just compensation" in partial takings is measured by fair market value of the part taken, plus severance damages. Where a partial taking provides economic benefits specific to the remainder, those must be deducted from severance damages; the former owners of the property receive full market value because some elements of value are deemed noncompensable in eminent domain law. The practice of condemnation came to the American colonies with the common law.
When it came time to draft the United States Constitution, differing views on eminent domain were voiced. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution requires that the taking be for a "public use" and mandates payment of "just compensation" to the owner. In federal law, Congress can take private property directly by pa
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940. He is best known for nationalization of the oil industry in 1938 and the creation of Pemex, the government oil company, he revived agrarian reform in Mexico, expropriating large landed estates and distributing land to small holders in collective holdings. Although he was not from the state of Sonora, whose generals had dominated Mexican politics in the 1920s, Cárdenas was loyal to Sonoran general and former president Plutarco Elías Calles. Calles had founded the National Revolutionary Party, in the wake of the assassination of Sonoran general Alvaro Obregón, who served as president and was president-elect in 1928. Cárdenas was Calles's hand-picked candidate in 1934 to run for the presidency. While Calles did not hold the title of president, he had remained the power behind the presidency, expected to maintain that role when Cárdenas took office.
However, Cárdenas out-maneuvered him politically and forced the former president into exile, establishing Cárdenas's legitimacy and power in his own right during his remaining time in office. In 1938, Cárdenas transformed the structure of the party Calles founded, creating the Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, based on sectoral representation of peasants via peasant leagues, unionized workers and the Mexican army. Cárdenas's incorporation of the army into the party structure was a deliberate move to diminish the power of the military and prevent their traditional intervention in politics through coups d'état. An important political achievement of Cárdenas was his complete surrender of power in December 1940 to his elected successor, Manuel Ávila Camacho, a political moderate without a distinguished military record. Cárdenas has been revered as "the greatest constructive radical of the Mexican Revolution," for reviving its ideals, but he has been criticized as an "authoritarian populist." According to numerous opinion polls and analysts, Cárdenas is considered as the most popular Mexican president of the 20th century.
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río was born on May 21, 1895, one of eight children in a lower-middle-class family in the village of Jiquilpan, Michoacán, where his father owned a billiard hall. After the death of his father, from age 16 Cárdenas supported his family. By the age of 18, he had worked as a tax collector, a printer's devil, a jail keeper. Although he left school at the age of eleven, he used every opportunity to educate himself and read throughout his life works of history. Cárdenas set his sights on becoming a teacher, but was drawn into the military during the Mexican Revolution after Victoriano Huerta overthrew President Francisco Madero in February 1913. Michoacán was far from the revolutionary action that had brought Madero to the Mexican presidency, but after Huerta's coup and Madero's assassination, Cárdenas joined a group of Zapatistas, but Huerta's forces scattered the group, where Cárdenas had served as captain and paymaster. Since revolutionary forces were voluntary organizations, his position of leadership points to his skills and his being paymaster to the perception that he would be honest in financial matters.
Both characteristics followed him through his subsequent career. He escaped the Federal forces in Michoacán and moved north where he served with Álvaro Obregón Pancho Villa, after 1915 when Villa was defeated by Obregón to Plutarco Elías Calles, who served Constitutionalist leader, Venustiano Carranza. Although Cárdenas was from the southern state of Michoacán, his key experiences in the Revolution were with Constitutionalist northerners, whose faction won. In particular, he served under Calles, who tasked him with military operations against Yaqui Indians and against Zapatistas in Michoacán and Jalisco, during which time he rose to a field command as general, in 1920 after Carranza was overthrown by northern generals, Cárdenas was given the rank of brigadier general at the age of 25. Cárdenas was appointed provisional governor of his home state of Michoacán under the brief presidency of Adolfo de la Huerta. Cárdenas was a political protégé of Calles, but his ideological mentor was revolutionary General Francisco J. Múgica, a anticlerical, secular socialist.
President Calles appointed Cárdenas Chief of Military Operations in the Huasteca, an oil producing region on the Gulf Coast. Cárdenas saw first hand the operations of the foreign oil companies. In the Huasteca, U. S. oil companies extracted oil, avoided taxes owed to the Mexican government, treated the region as “conquered territory.” Múgica was posted to the Huasteca and he and Cárdenas became close. During their time in the Huasteca, Múgica told Cárdenas that “socialism the appropriate doctrine for resolving conflicts in Mexico.” Cárdenas was appointed governor of his home state of Michoacan in 1928, wracked by the political conflict between state and Church, the known as the Cristiada. His ideological mentor Múgica had served as the state’s governor, had attempted to counter the power of the Roman Catholic Church through laws, he mobilized groups to support his positions, creating “political shock troops,” consisting of public school teachers and members of a disbanded agrarian league, forming the Confederación Revolucionaria Michoacana del Trabajo, under the slogan of “Union, Work.”
The organization was funded by the state government. It became the single-most powerful organization representi