An extended periodic table theorises about chemical elements beyond those known in the periodic table and proven up through oganesson, which completes the seventh period in the periodic table at atomic number 118. If further elements with higher atomic numbers than this are discovered, they will be placed in additional periods, laid out to illustrate periodically recurring trends in the properties of the elements concerned. Any additional periods are expected to contain a larger number of elements than the seventh period, as they are calculated to have an additional so-called g-block, containing at least 18 elements with filled g-orbitals in each period. An eight-period table containing this block was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969; the first element of the g-block may have atomic number 121, thus would have the systematic name unbiunium. Despite many searches, no elements in this region have been discovered in nature. According to the orbital approximation in quantum mechanical descriptions of atomic structure, the g-block would correspond to elements with filled g-orbitals, but spin-orbit coupling effects reduce the validity of the orbital approximation for elements of high atomic number.
While Seaborg's version of the extended period had the heavier elements following the pattern set by lighter elements, as it did not take into account relativistic effects, models that take relativistic effects into account do not. Pekka Pyykkö and Burkhard Fricke used computer modeling to calculate the positions of elements up to Z = 172, found that several were displaced from the Madelung rule; as a result of uncertainty and variability in predictions of chemical and physical properties of elements beyond 120, there is no consensus on their placement in the extended periodic table. Elements in this region are to be unstable with respect to radioactive decay and undergo alpha decay or spontaneous fission with short half-lives, though element 126 is hypothesized to be within an island of stability, resistant to fission but not to alpha decay. Other islands of stability beyond the known elements may be possible, including one theorised around element 164, though the extent of stabilizing effects from closed nuclear shells is uncertain.
It is not clear how many elements beyond the expected island of stability are physically possible, whether period 8 is complete, or if there is a period 9. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry defines an element to exist if its lifetime is longer than 10−14 seconds, the time it takes for the nucleus to form an electron cloud; as early as 1940, it was noted that a simplistic interpretation of the relativistic Dirac equation runs into problems with electron orbitals at Z > 1/α ≈ 137, suggesting that neutral atoms cannot exist beyond element 137, that a periodic table of elements based on electron orbitals therefore breaks down at this point. On the other hand, a more rigorous analysis calculates the analogous limit to be Z ≈ 173 where the 1s subshell dives into the Dirac sea, that it is instead not neutral atoms that cannot exist beyond element 173, but bare nuclei, thus posing no obstacle to the further extension of the periodic system. Atoms beyond this critical atomic number are called supercritical atoms.
Heavier elements beyond the actinides were first proposed to exist as early as 1895, when the Danish chemist Hans Peter Jørgen Julius Thomsen predicted that thorium and uranium formed part of a 32-element period which would end at a chemically inactive element with atomic weight 292. In 1913, the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg predicted that the next noble gas after radon would have atomic number 118, purely formally derived heavier congeners of radon at Z = 168, 218, 290, 362, 460 where the Aufbau principle would predict them to be. Niels Bohr predicted in 1922 the electronic structure of this next noble gas at Z = 118, suggested that the reason why elements beyond uranium were not seen in nature was because they were too unstable; the German physicist and engineer Richard Swinne published a review paper in 1926 containing predictions on the transuranic elements in which he anticipated modern predictions of an island of stability: he had hypothesised since 1914 that half-lives should not decrease with atomic number, but suggested instead that there might be some longer-lived elements at Z = 98–102 and Z = 108–110, speculated that such elements might exist in the Earth's core, in iron meteorites, or in the ice caps of Greenland where they had been locked up from their supposed cosmic origin.
By 1955, these elements were called superheavy elements. The first predictions on properties of undiscovered superheavy elements were made in 1957, when the concept of nuclear shells was first explored and an island of stability was theorised to exist around element 126. In 1967, more rigorous calculations were performed, the island of stability was theorised to be centered at the then-undiscovered flerovium. Many searches for superheavy elements were conducted in all with negative results; as of December 2018, synthesis has been attempted for every element up to and including unbiseptium, except unbitrium, with the heaviest synthesized element being oganesson in 2002 and the most recent discovery being that of tennessine in 2010. As some superheavy elements were pred
Yoram Rabin is a leading Israeli Law scholar. He was the Dean of the Haim Stricks School of law of the College of Management in Israel, he was an adjunct professor in constitutional law and Criminal Law at the IDC Radzyner School of Law. In October 2015 Rabin was appointed Legal Adviser of the Israeli State Comptroller. Rabin edited several books on Public Law, Human Rights and Criminal Law, he is one of the founding members of The Movement for Freedom of Information in Israel. Member of the National Committee for Reform of Education, 2003/4. Yoram Rabin was born in third generation to kibbutz founders, he graduated Givat Brenner high school and served in the IDF as a Military Police investigation officer. He is a reserve service Court-Martial Judge in the rank of Major. Rabin obtained his LL. B. from the College of Management Law School. He worked for a short time as a lawyer in the Yuval Co. law firm in Tel Aviv. Shortly after that he attended Tel-Aviv University earning LL. M. degree on 1997 and JSD degree on 2002.
His LL. M. Thesis focused on the constitutional right of access to courts, his JSD thesis focused on the constitutional right to education. The two dissertations were published at books, he was editor of the "Hapraklit" Law Review. In 2008 he published. A second edition of the book's two volumes was published in 2009 and the third edition, adding a third volume, was published in 2014. In 2009 he was awarded the rank of Professor. Rabin served as the Dean of the Haim Stricks School of Law at the College of Management from 2011 to 2015, his main teaching and research fields are Criminal Law. His books and articles have been cited many times in judgments of Israel's Supreme Court. In October 2015 Rabin was appointed Legal Adviser of the Israeli State Comptroller. Yoram Rabin has two children. Member of the committee to appoint the Knesset's legal advisor, 2009. Member of the National Committee for Reform of Education, 2003-2004. Founding member and board member of the Freedom of Information Movement in Israel, 2005-2015.
Member of the Israeli Association of Public Law since 2003. Yoram Rabin, Access to Court as a Constitutional Right. Yoram Rabin, The Right to Education. Yoram Rabin & Yaniv Vaki, Criminal Law. Yoram Rabin & Yuval Shany Economics, Social & Cultural Rights in Israel. Dror Arad-Ayalon, Yoram Rabin & Yaniv Vaki David Weiner Book on Criminal Law and Ethics 766 pages. Co-Editing of Adi Azar Book. Editor of Hamishpat Law Review. Editor of Hapraklit Law Review. Asaf Meydani & Yoram Rabin, Israel: Public Law, Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy. Giora Rahav, Yoram Rabin & Eppi Yuchtman-Yaar, Disparities between Jews and Arabs in the Israeli Criminal Justice System, 13 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 233. Roy Peled & Yoram Rabin, The Constitutional Right to Information, 42 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 357. Yoram Rabin & Yuval Shany, The Case for Judicial Review over Social Rights: Israeli Perspectives, 14 Israel Affaires 681. Yoram Rabin & Roy Peled, Transfer of Sovereignty over Populated Territories from Israel to a Palestinian State: The International Law Perspective, 17 Minnesota Journal of International Law 59.
Yoram Rabin & Arnon Gutfeld, Marbury v. Madison and its Impact on the Israeli Constitutional Law, 15 University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review 303. Yoram Rabin, The Many Faces of the Right to Education, Exploring Social Rights – Between Theory and Practice 265. Yoram Rabin & Roy Peled, Between FOI Law and FOI Culture: The Israeli Experience, 1 Open Government: Journal on Freedom of Information 41. Yoram Rabin & Yuval Shany, The Israeli Unfinished Constitutional Revolution: Has the Time Come for Protecting Economic and Social Rights?, 37 Israel Law Review 299. Http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=467793 http://www.colman.ac.il/English/AcademicUnits/Law/Faculty/Yoram_Rabin/Pages/Yoram_Rabin.aspx http://www.yoramrabin.org
The Naumburg tramway is a tramline forming part of the public transport system in Naumburg, a city in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. At only 2.9 km long, it is the smallest urban tramway in Germany, one of the smallest in Europe. Service with steam trams began on 15 September 1892; the network was electrified in 1907. Tram operation was suspended on 19 August 1991 due to financial difficulties and declining numbers of passengers. In 1994, 300 m of track was restored for weekend services as a horsedrawn tram, with electric service resuming in 1995. Operation of the tramway was assumed by Naumburger Straßenbahn GmbH. Daily services on parts of the former loop line began on 31 March 2007. An extension of the line from Vogelwiese to Salztor was opened in 2017; the network consisted of a loop line around Naumburg Cathedral. Today, the 2.9 km line, numbered Linie 4, runs on parts of the former loop arrangement from Naumburg Hauptbahnhof to Salztor. List of town tramway systems in Germany Trams in Germany Media related to Trams in Naumburg at Wikimedia Commons Naumburger Straßenbahn – includes English summary Naumburg database / photo gallery and Naumburg tram list at Urban Electric Transit – in various languages, including English
Derek Gordon Thomas is a British Conservative Party politician and former property developer of ethnic Cornish origin. He has been the Member of Parliament for St Ives since the general election in May 2015. Thomas was born in Cornwall to parents, he went on to complete a traditional Cornish Mason Apprenticeship. He studied in South London and returned to West Cornwall to be a development manager for Mustard Seed, a voluntary organisation in Helston, Cornwall which helps in meeting of the needs of adults with learning disabilities on a day care basis, through provision of training in essential life skills with a view to greater integration within the community, he started his own small construction business as a property developer. Thomas was first elected as a candidate for the Conservative Party at a by-election in November 2005 for Penzance Central ward on Penwith District Council, he narrowly beat the Liberal Democrat candidate and subsequently opposed the creation of a unitary Cornwall Council.
In May 2009, he did not stand for the new Penzance Central ward on the amalgamated Cornwall Council and the seat was narrowly won by the Liberal Democrat candidate. He unsuccessfully contested the parliamentary seat of St Ives for the Conservative Party at the 2010 general election, coming 1,719 votes behind the Liberal Democrat incumbent Andrew George. However, in the following general election in May 2015 he subsequently took the seat. In January 2016, the Labour Party unsuccessfully proposed an amendment in Parliament that would have required private landlords to make their homes "fit for human habitation". According to Parliament's register of interests, Thomas was one of 72 Conservative MPs who voted against the amendment who derived an income from renting out property; the Conservative Government had responded to the amendment that they believed homes should be fit for human habitation but did not want to pass the new law that would explicitly require it. Thomas supported the Leave campaign in the 2016 European Union Referendum.
Thomas once again contended for the St Ives seat in the 2017 general election, his campaign including a visit by Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs Andrea Leadsom to his Penzance office. He went on to be re-elected with an increased vote share, but a diminished majority of 312. In April 2019, Thomas was criticised for saying that Cornwall has a National Park on the Lizard Peninsula during a debate he secured to discuss'Effect of the 25 Year Environment Plan on World Health', when in fact the area is a National Nature Reserve and an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Despite this error the debate was positively received by MPs and led to Thomas being invited to apply to the Environmental Audit Committee by its Chair Mary Creagh MP. In May 2019, Cornish MPs received local scrutiny following release of expenses figures for that year, Thomas claimed £184,937, therefore making him Cornwall's "second most expensive MP" after Steve Double. Thomas said: "Having run my own business before being elected an MP, I am acutely aware of the need to keep a close eye on what is being spent.
I look at ways of reducing my expenses but believe my claims are reasonable for an MP representing a constituency in the extreme south west of the country”. In June 2019, Thomas supported the establishment of a Marine Conservation Zone west of Land's End, calling the move a "big step forward". In the House of Commons he sits on the Environmental Audit Committee and the Work and Pensions Select Committee having sat on both the Health and Social Care Select Committee and the Science and technology Select Committees. Thomas is the Chair of the following All-Party Parliamentary Groups: Brain Tumours and Venous Disease, Axial Spondyloarthritis; as well as chairing those APPGs, Thomas is Vice Chair for the following APPG groups: Post Office Group, UK Islands Group and Home Electrical Safety Group. He is Secretary for the Healthy Homes and Buildings Group, Treasurer for the Fuel Poverty and Energy Efficiency Group and the South West Rail Group, he is a member of the Ocean Conservation Group, The Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol Group and the Great South West Alliance group.
In 2019 he was once again elected to parliament increasing his majority from 312 to 4,284. Derek Thomas lives in London and the village of St Buryan with his wife Tamsin and their three young children. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Derek Thomas MP campaign website Derek Thomas UK Conservative Party website
Tim Horan AM is a former Australian rugby union footballer. He played for the Queensland Reds in the Super 12, represented Australia, he was one of the best centres in the world throughout the 1990s due to his attacking prowess, formidable defence and playmaking ability. He became one of only twenty dual Rugby Union World Cup winners; as well as inside centre, Horan played fly-half and earned one international cap on the wing. Horan's rugby career began at Toowoomba's Downlands College under First XV coach John Elders, a former coach of England; the Downlands First XV of 1987 was undefeated throughout the year, including matches against Sydney's Kings, Riverview and St Joseph's colleges. The side included future Wallabies Brett Johnstone, Brett Robinson, Garrick Morgan, Peter Ryan, he partnered Jason Little, with whom he wrote a book, Perfect Union and in his career, Daniel Herbert. Horan and Little met when they were 13 years old, rooming together for a rugby league representative team. Horan played a role in Australia winning the 1999 Rugby World Cup.
He was voted player of the tournament. His debut came in 1989 against New Zealand, where he impressed his opposite number, Joe Stanley, so much that Stanley gave Horan his Test jersey and told him to keep his own as it was his first. In his next Test, he and Little marked the experienced French pair of Franck Mesnel and Philippe Sella, Horan scored his first two Test tries; that year, in what has become a famous incident in Australian Rugby, both he and Jason Little were subjected to a mock bar room ceremony in which they pledged not to defect to Rugby league. After winning the World Cup in 1991, in which he scored four tries and a successful Bledisloe Cup in 1992, the Wallabies endured a mixed 1993. 1994 saw Horan's career nearly end with a horrific knee injury in the Super 10 final and he would spend over a year in rehabilitation before making the squad to the 1995 World Cup defence in South Africa. In 1996 he captained the national side for the first and only time and he played at flyhalf.
He missed the 61-22 loss to South Africa but returned for a 15-all draw with England, helping Ben Tune and George Gregan score a try apiece. He peaked again for the 1999 World Cup against South Africa in the semi-final. Despite suffering from severe food poisoning the night before the match, he played against South Africa in a 27-21 extra-time win; this was followed by the second Wallaby World Cup win of his career. 2000 was to was affected by injuries. He signed for English club Saracens. Horan began a career as broadcaster. Horan headed the Sports and Entertainment business in Private and Premium Banking for Westpac Banking Corporation until 2018 when he joined London based investment specialist River and Mercantile as Managing Director of its Australia and New Zealand operation, he is an ambassador for Spinal Injuries Australia, speaking to school children regarding prevention of spinal injuries. Horan is an ambassador for the Modified Rugby Program that provides modified games of rugby for boys and girls with learning and perceptual difficulties.
He is ambassador for Aunties and Uncles - a non-profit organisation offering friendship, role-modelling and support for children in single parent or parentless families. He was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 2006 and in 2009 he was made a Member of the Order of Australia. Horan's father is Mike Horan, the former National Party and Liberal National Party Member of Parliament for the Queensland electoral district of Toowoomba South. Played 80 test caps 119 state caps 130 points 40 tries Tim Horan has been a commentator for Fox Sports Australia since September 2010. In 2011 Horan joined Triple M's Sunday Rugby show The Ruck with Matt Burke Horan was inducted into both the World Rugby Hall of Fame and the Australian Rugby Union Hall of Fame in 2015. Sporting Heroes Profile
GNU parallel is a command-line driven utility for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems which allows the user to execute shell scripts or commands in parallel. GNU parallel is free software, written by Ole Tange in Perl, it is available under the terms of GPLv3. The most common usage is to replace the shell loop, for example to the form of where the file list contains arguments for do_something and where process_output may be empty. Scripts using parallel are easier to read than scripts using pexec; the program parallel features grouping of standard output and standard error so the output of the parallel running jobs do not run together. The above is the parallel equivalent to: This searches in all files in the current directory and its subdirectories whose name end in.foo for occurrences of the string bar. The parallel command will work. In order to avoid this limitation one may use: The above command uses the null character to delimit file names; the above command uses to tell parallel to replace with the argument list.
The command above does the same as: However, the former command which uses find/parallel/cp is more resource efficient and will not halt with an error if the expansion of *.ogg is too large for the shell. Xargs pexec GNU Queue Official website Project page and manual page of GNU parallel