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Extra-parochial area

In England and Wales, an extra-parochial area, extra-parochial place or extra-parochial district was a geographically defined area considered to be outside any ecclesiastical or civil parish. Anomalies in the parochial system, they had no church or clergymen and were therefore exempt from payment of poor or church rates and tithes, they were formed for a variety of reasons because an area was unpopulated or unsuitable for agriculture, but around institutions and buildings or natural resources. Extra-parochial areas caused considerable problems when they became inhabited as they did not provide religious facilities, local governance or provide for the relief of the poor, their status was ambiguous and there was demand for extra-parochial areas to operate more like parishes. Following the introduction of the New Poor Law, extra-parochial areas were made civil parishes by the Extra-Parochial Places Act 1857 and were eliminated by the Poor Law Amendment Act 1868; this was achieved either by being integrated with a neighbouring or surrounding parish, or by becoming a separate civil parish if the population was high enough.

Extra-parochial areas formed in every county in England for a number of reasons. They were remote areas without population or areas covered by a particular resource such as commons and fenlands; the names of some former extra-parochial areas such as Nowhere, Norfolk. Early institutions such as hospitals and leper colonies were made to be extra-parochial, as were houses of the gentry, depopulated villages, cathedral closes, castle grounds, Oxbridge colleges, the Inns of Court; the lack of parochial administration, including policing, would cause extra-parochial places to be used for the non-conformist religious congregation and Chartism meetings. Examples include the precincts of Westminster Abbey and Windsor Castle. Others were created for individual reasons such as Rothley Temple, used by the Knights Templar and Old Sarum, an abandoned settlement; the Army Chaplains Act 1868 allowed the creation of extra-parochial districts outside normal ecclesiastical administration of the Church of England for the purposes of churches on army bases.

The administration of the Old Poor Law caused particular problems for people from or resident in extra-parochial areas. The Poor Relief Act 1662 meant that poor relief could only be received from a parish of settlement, where a person was born or located; this excluded residents of extra-parochial places from the welfare system. In some cases relief was funded from the county rate, elsewhere a neighbouring parish provided support, in a limited number of extra-parochial places, there was provision of poor relief by overseers. However, the legal status of these areas regarding poor relief remained ambiguous; the New Poor Law presented different problems as parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions it was unclear what and how a contribution should be made from extra-parochial areas. It was unclear what rights the justices of the peace had to sit on a board of guardians; the problems of these areas relating to the administration of poor relief were exacerbated as the extra-parochial nature of the places attracted vulnerable people such as single women who wished to give birth there in order to avoid illegitimacy law, registration costs and parish settlement of their children by birth.

Aside from the Poor Law and civil administration, the nature of extra-parochial places caused other problems, such as rents being disproportionately high. Because it was problematic for communities to be without religious provision or the usual structures of local governance there were demands to make extra-parochial areas operate in the same way as parishes or for them to become part of an adjoining parish; the status of some extra-parochial areas was called into question, at least ambiguous. Because of shifts in population, it had become necessary to divide and otherwise alter ancient parishes and for them to diverge for ecclesiastical and civil purposes; some extra-parochial areas were absorbed by new parishes as part of this process. The Extra-Parochial Places Act 1857 from 1 January 1858 turned extra-parochial places into civil parishes, providing for poor relief, poor rates, police rates and registration. Overseers could be appointed from an adjoining parish. A local act could be used to join the extra-parochial area to a poor law union or parish if the guardians agreed.

It was possible for the extra-parochial place to be merged with another parish if a majority of landowners and occupiers agreed. The legislation was prevented from passing by the influential barristers of the Inns of Court who were able to secure a special provision to ensure Gray's Inn, Inner Temple, Middle Temple could not be grouped into any poor law union, although they were otherwise considered to be parishes; this provision was made for Charterhouse, London. The 1857 act was not successful and several areas continued to operate extra-parochially; the Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 converted to civil parishes any place that levied a separate poor rate and the Poor Law Amendment Act 1868 incorporated "for all civil parochial purposes" the extra-parochial places remaining on 25 December 1868, that were without an appointed overseer of the poor, into a neighbouring parish with the longest common boundary

E. Mervyn Taylor

Ernest Mervyn Taylor was a notable New Zealand engraver, commercial artist and publisher. He was born in Auckland, New Zealand in 1906 but lived and worked in Wellington, New Zealand until his sudden death at the age of 58. Taylor completed a number of murals towards the end of his career. Information is varied on the current status of these works: some are known to be intact, some have been boarded over, some are in need of restoration work, the fate of others is unknown; these works are the subject of a Massey University College of Creative Arts research project, the E. Mervyn Taylor mural search & recovery project. One of his commissions was a mural at the Taita headquarters of Soil Bureau depicting cloaked figure using a kō. In the short film "Pictorial Parade No. 128", produced in 1962 by the National Film Unit, Taylor can be seen discussing the mural with Mr. Normal Taylor, subsequently painting it. Wall mural – painted in situ for the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research ’s Soil Building in Taita.

The mural was commissioned by the New Zealand Government to mark the 1962 completion of the Tasman leg of the Commonwealth Pacific Cable – a huge underwater telephone cable system that connected New Zealand to its Commonwealth allies in the aftermath of World War Two. The mural was housed in the COMPAC landing station in Auckland. In 2014 this mural was discovered by artist Bronwyn Holloway-Smith; the work was brought to public attention once again through her project Te Ika-a-Akoranga. Bound to be noticed. 20. The renaissance man of Karori.


Colorlines is a daily news site featuring investigative reporting and news analysis from the perspective of communities of color. Colorlines was founded in 1998, it was a print publication published jointly by the Applied Research Center, a public policy institute that focused on race, the Center for Third World Organizing, a training center for community organizers of color. Bob Wing was the founding editor of Colorlines. In 2010, Colorlines became an online magazine of the Applied Research Center, which became Race Forward. Articles are composed of essays, investigative reports, think pieces, opinion columns, cultural criticism and humor pieces. Within a year of launching as a daily, digital publication, Colorlines was named a Webby Award Honoree for Political Blogs. Political Blog, Webby Honoree, 2012 Political Blog, Webby Honoree, 2011 Hillman Prize, Web Journalism, 2011 Outstanding Magazine Article, GLAAD nomination, 2009 Watchdog award winner, Chicago Headline Club, 2008 General Excellence Award, Utne Reader, 2007 Best Cultural and Social Coverage, Utne Reader, 2005 Outstanding Magazine Article, GLAAD nomination, 2005 Best Political Magazine, East Bay Express, 2004 Best Investigative/In-Depth Article, New America Media, 2004 Official website

Oates Coast

Oates Coast is that portion of the coast of Antarctica between Cape Hudson and Cape Williams. It forms the coast of part of the Australian claim to the Antarctic; the eastern portion of this coast was discovered in February 1911 by Lieutenant Harry Pennell, Royal Navy, commander of the expedition ship Terra Nova during the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13. He named the coast after Captain Lawrence E. G. Oates who, with Captain Robert F. Scott and three British Antarctic Expedition companions, perished on the return journey from the South Pole in 1912. Captain Oates' death was described by Robert Falcon Scott as "the act of a brave man and English gentleman"; the western portion of the coast, the vicinity of the Mawson Peninsula, was first delineated from air photos taken by U. S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47. Oates Bank Oates Canyon This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Oates Coast"

Kenneth Walton (pathologist)

Major Kenneth Walter William Henry Walton FRCP was a leading British experimental pathologist and rheumatologist. He was a member of 18 learned societies. One of the pathologists who helped form the current scientific era within his field, his death was described as'the end of an earlier period of British rheumatology', papers of his from the 1960s continue to be academically cited, he was born in Lahore and attended school in Highgate, being accepted into University College London to study Medicine, which he followed up with time spent at University College Hospital under Roy Cameron. During World War II he tended to victims of The Blitz before being called up in 1943, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps on 21 November, he spent time as a medical officer with infantry units stationed in England before being transferred to the East Asian theatre, serving as assistant director of pathology in Hong Kong. He was demobilised in 1947 and returned to UCH, but transferred to University of Birmingham in England.

He went to the United States in 1952 as part of a Rockefeller Fellowship, returning to the UK the next year. He was appointed a reader of the Experimental Pathology Department at Birmingham University in 1954 and became a professor in 1960, he worked at Birmingham University for over 25 years, establishing the Rheumatism Research Wing and continuing research on heart disease. He is most well known for his 1973 study into the causes of heart disease in which participants were asked to eat greasy fry-ups. In the 1980s more academics joined his unit, he retired in 1984 and suffered a brainstem stroke in 1987. He recovered, continuing research for a few more years, died on 26 April 2008, he married his wife Cynthia in 1948. The son, Peter became a doctor


Ouvéa or Uvea is a commune in the Loyalty Islands Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. The settlement of Fayaoué, on Ouvéa Island, is the administrative centre of the commune. Ouvéa is made up of Ouvéa Island, the smaller Mouli Island and Faiava Island, several islets around these three. All lie to the northeast of New Caledonia's mainland. Ouvéa is a Polynesian outlier settled by Polynesian navigators who named it for their home island, Uvea Island; some of their descendants still speak the West Uvean language. In April 1988, a hostage taking took place on Ouvéa. Four gendarmes were killed and twenty-seven were held hostage in a cave by supporters of the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front. Twelve of the captured gendarmes were released after a while, but six members of a French anti-terrorist squad were taken hostage; when negotiations to release the hostages did not succeed, French security forces besieged the cave and freed them. Eighteen Kanaks and two gendarmes were left dead.

In the aftermath it was alleged that three Kanaks had been executed or left to die after being arrested. The native languages of Ouvéa are the Melanesian Iaai and the Polynesian Faga Uvea, the only Polynesian language that has taken root in New Caledonia. Speakers of Faga Uvea have integrated into the Kanak society and consider themselves Kanak