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Extra innings

Extra innings is the extension of a baseball or softball game in order to break a tie. Ordinarily, a baseball game consists of nine regulation innings, each of, divided into halves: the visiting team bats first, after which the home team takes its turn at bat. However, if the score remains tied at the end of the regulation number of complete innings, the rules provide that "play shall continue until the visiting team has scored more total runs than the home team at the end of a completed inning; the rules of the game, including the batting order, availability of substitute players and pitchers, etc. remain intact in extra innings. Managers must display caution to avoid exhausting all their substitute players during regular innings, in case the game reaches extensive extra innings; the rules call for a forfeiture. In Major League Baseball, home teams won about 52% of extra-inning games from 1957 to 2007. During this same time period, home teams have won about 54% of all baseball games. So while the home team has some advantage in extra-inning games, this advantage is less noticeable than the initial home-field advantage.

Home teams tend to have the greatest advantage in run-scoring during the first 3 innings. For the visiting team to win, it must score as many runs as possible in the first half of the inning and prevent the home team from tying or taking the lead in the second half; because it bats in the bottom half of an inning, a home team wins the game by taking the lead at any point in the final inning. In such a situation, the moment the winning run scores for whatever reason, the game ends and no other runs are allowed; the term for winning in this scenario is a "walk-off" win. The exception is; each extra inning repeats this scenario. This is in contrast to the analogous penalty shootout used in ice hockey or Association Football, where shootout points are counted separately and only one point is awarded to the winner, or the game is recorded as a draw and the team winning the shootout is noted separately; the East Asian professional leagues, NPB, KBO, CPBL have a 12-inning limit before the game is declared a draw.

Additionally, NPB games have a total time limit of three and a half hours during the regular season before being counted as a tie. It is 12 in postseason play, the last game is replayed if drawn, leading to seven-game series that can go on for eight games, something that has happened only once. There are no limits on the number of innings in the eighth game of the Japan Series; the KBO does not play extra innings in the first game of a double-header. Tie games are discarded when calculating winning percentages since 2002, except for 2008 when it was counted as a loss in the league's standings. Before 2002, they counted as half a win. For CPBL postseason games, the 12-inning limit does not apply and the games will continue until a winner is decided; the longest game to be played took place during 2009 Taiwan Series, where in Game 6 the Brother Elephants defeated Uni-President 7-Eleven Lions 5 to 4 after 17 innings. In the 11th inning, the manager selects anywhere in the batting order to start the inning, regardless of the last player put out.

The batter preceding this newly designated leadoff man becomes a runner on first base, the next preceding batter is placed on second base. In subsequent innings, the batting order continues as normal, but the two players preceding the player scheduled to lead off the inning start on second and first; this has been adopted by European leagues Division de Honor, Italian Baseball League, Honkbal Hoofdklasse. Since 2009, a modified form of the rule has been used for the World Baseball Classic. Unlike the standard rule, the batting order may not start from a different place. Through the 2013 edition, the first inning in which teams started with runners on first and second was the 13th; the rule was not used in either the 2009 or 2013 editions because no game lasted more than 11 innings. For the 2017 World Baseball Classic, the rule was modified to use extra runners for the first time in the 11th inning, it would see its first use in a second-round game between Japan and the Netherlands at the Tokyo Dome.

Japan won that game thanks to a 2-run hit. Other methods include the following: Putting runners on second and third and an 0-2 count on the batter with no outs. Having bases loaded, with a 1-1 count on the batter and no outs. Sudden-death extra innings. In international softball, a special extra innings rule starts after regulation; each team begins their half of the inning with a runner on second base. Th

Linophryne arborifera

Linophryne arborifera, or illuminated netdevil, is an anglerfish of the family Linophrynidae, found in all tropical and subtropical oceans at depths below 1,000 m in the Bathyal zone. Its length is up to 77 mm; the female is larger than the mature, parasitic male. The literal translation is Linophryne arborifera, Greek for “tree-bearing flax-toad.” The female Linophryne has not only a luminous lure on the head, called the esca, but a multibranched barbel hanging from the lower jaw. The barbel filaments contain many more bioluminescent organs. At a length of up to 77 mm, females are larger than the males, which reach only about 15 mm. After metamorphosis they are black in color, they have no gelatinous skin. They are different from all other ceratioid families in having dorsal-fin rays 3, anal-fin rays 3, branchiostegal rays 5, a sinistral anus; the eyes of linophrynid males are well developed and unique among ceratioids in being tubular and directed somewhat forward. The nostrils of linophrynid males are large and well developed.

L. arborifera is found in all tropical and subtropical oceans at depths below 1,000 m. Recorded prey of the genus Linophryne include fishes and crustaceans. Attached males obtain their nutrition from the female, they attach to the female with their jaws on her ventral surface. Blood vessels and tissues between them become integrated, allowing nutrients to pass from the female to the male. Based on finding empty stomachs in captured free-living males, scientists think linophrynid males are unable to feed during their free-living stage after metamorphosis; the “short and stout” denticulars of the upper and lower jaws of these males do not seem suitable for prey capture, the alimentary canal is undeveloped. Current understanding is that free-living males die after a few months if they do not attach to a female. In the family Linophrynidae, males are obligatory sexual parasites. Attached males are nearly always found upside down, facing forward, attached to the belly close to the anus. In all specimens found so far, only one male is attached to each female, which differs from some other angler fish species.

Females without attached males and free-living males do not have well-developed sexual organs, so it seems that they must be attached for maturation and reproduction to occur. A 77-mm female Linophryne arborifera, with a 15-mm parasitic male, was observed to have numerous eggs embedded in a gelatinous mass protruding from the genital opening. Several species of deep-sea fish have luminous organs used to attract prey. Females of the genus Linophryne bear barbels containing luminous organs in addition to an escal light organ attached to the head. In L. arborifera, the top light organ has been likened to a pearl onion and contains luminous bacteria. The barbels, which look like seaweed fronds, do not contain bacteria but complex paracrystalline photogenic granules; the esca is ectodermal in origin. "Linophryne arborifera". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 April 2006. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Linophryne arborifera" in FishBase. January 2006 version. Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, ISBN 0-00-216987-8 Frogfish page on anglerfish, including linophryne arborifera 2002 article in Microbiology Today on bioluminescence in marine animals

Betty Wilson

Elizabeth Rebecca "Betty" Wilson was considered one of the greatest woman cricket players of all time. She represented Australia in Women's Test cricket between 1947–48 and 1957–58. Wilson batted right-handed, was a good off-spin bowler and a superb fielder. Born in Melbourne, Wilson grew up in the inner neighbourhood of Collingwood and learned the game by playing against a lamp post in her street. At the age of 10, she joined the Collingwood Women's Cricket Club, she made it to the Victoria second XI at the age of 14, to the senior side at 16. The Second World War delayed her Test appearances till 1948. On her debut against New Zealand, she scored 90 and took 4/37 and 6/28. In her second Test, she scored 111 against England becoming the first Australian woman to score a Test century against England, took nine more wickets. In 1949, she set a record by becoming the first woman cricketer to score a century and to take a five wicket haul in an innings of a Women's test match, she scored 81 in the first Test at Scarborough.

Against Yorkshire, she scored 100 * in leading Australia to a last ball win. After this series, she stayed in England for two and a half years. In the St. Kilda Test against England in 1957–58, she became the first cricketer, male or female, to score a 100 and to take 10 wickets in a Test. On a wet wicket, she took 7/7 in the first innings which included the first hat trick in a women's Test; the feat was not repeated until Shaiza Khan of Pakistan did the same in 2004. She top a 100 in the second. Taking 4/9 in 19 overs in the second, she set another record for the best bowling of 11/16 in a match, which stood as a record till 2004. Wilson played 11 Tests in her career scoring 862 runs at 57.46 and taking 68 wickets at 11.80. In 1985, she became the first woman cricketer to be inducted into the Australian Sporting Hall of Fame. In 1985–86, the Under-21 National Women's Cricket Championship was renamed the Betty Wilson Shield. In 1996–97, the age group was changed to Under-19. In 2015, Wilson was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame.

In 2017, Wilson was inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame. The Betty Wilson Young Player of the Year award was inaugurated at the 2017 Allan Border Medal Ceremony, to recognise a female cricketer who, prior to 5 December 2015, was aged under 25 and had played 10 or fewer matches. Women's cricket List of women cricketers List of women Test cricketers The Oxford Companion to Australian Cricket Betty Wilson at ESPNcricinfo Cricinfo: Wilson interview Wilson's sporting legacy

Foundations of Science

Foundations of Science is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary academic journal focussing on methodological and philosophical topics concerning the structure and the growth of science. It is the official journal of the Association for Foundations of Science and Cognition and is published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media; the journal was established in 1995. The editor in chief is Diederik Aerts; the journal is abstracted and indexed in Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Cengage, EBSCO Databases, FRANCIS, Google Scholar, Mathematical Reviews, PASCAL, Science Citation Index Expanded and Zentralblatt MATH. Official website Journal page at the Free University of Brussels

Alonso Ruizpalacios

Alonso Ruizpalacios is a Mexican film director. He was raised in Mexico City, he studied stage directing in Mexico City, before moving to London where he trained as an actor at RADA. Ruizpalacios directs for both stage and screen, his short film Café. His debut feature Gueros, shot in black and white, was lauded by critics and won five Ariel Awards in 2015, including Best Picture, Best First Film and Best Director. Ruizpalacios directed the music video for "Hasta la Raíz" by Mexican singer-songwriter Natalia Lafourcade, he directed the movie Museo, starring Gael García Bernal. The film won the best script award at the Berlin International Film Festival. Museum has been present in other international festivals; the film tells the story of the famous robbery to the National Museo of Anthropology on December 25, 1985, in Mexico City. He has contributed in tv series: directing two episodes for Narcos: Mexico and two episodes for the Mexican tv show Aquí en la tierra. Güeros Museum

Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1957

Denmark took part in the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time at the Eurovision Song Contest 1957, held in Frankfurt, Germany. The Danish entry was chosen during a national final called Dansk Melodi Grand Prix. Dansk Melodi Grand Prix 1957 was held on 17 February 1957 at the Radiohouse in Copenhagen; the host was Volmer Sørensen The country was represented by Birthe Wilke and Gustav Winckler with the song "Skibet skal sejle i nat", written by Erik Fiehn and Poul Sørensen. Denmark had wanted to take part in the first Eurovision Song Contest in 1956 but was disqualified because no entry was submitted right in time; the first Dansk Melodi Grand Prix, Dansk Melodi Grand Prix 1957, was held in Copenhagen on 17 February 1957. The show was hosted by Volmer Sørensen. 117 songs had been submitted to the broadcaster and six of them were chosen for the national final. Two singers were competing in the selection - Gustav Winckler. Both performed two songs as soloists and they performed two songs as a duo.

A jury of ten people selected the winner and only the top two were announced, which turned out to be the two duets. "Skibet skal sejle i nat" was the overall winner and would become Denmark's first entry in the Eurovision Song Contest. "Skibet skal sejle i nat" was released on an EP of the same title. The runner-up entry "Kærlighedens Cocktail" was included on this record too. After the contest, Gustav Winkler has recorded a German version of the song with Bibi Johns. Winkler himself appeared as Gunnar Winkler on this record, the name under which he was popular in Germany in these days. Denmark was the first Scandinavian country in the competition. At the Eurovision Song Contest in Frankfurt, the Danish entry was visually one of the most impressive ones that year: to illustrate the content of the song, about a sailor who has to say goodbye to a woman he met and fell in love with during a shore leave, Winkler was dressed up as a sailor and Wilke as a woman standing at the harbour wearing a coat with a purse in her hand.

Furthermore, a tar vat was brought on stage to create a harbour atmosphere. The Danish entry was performed ninth on the night following preceding Switzerland. At the close of voting, Denmark had received ten points in total placing the country third among the ten participants. Denmark would remain the most successful debuting country in the Eurovision Song Contest until Poland finished second on its debut in 1994. However, Denmark has only received points from three of the other nine countries, most notably five points from the Netherlands; every country had a jury of ten people. Every jury member could give one point to her favourite song; the Danish final of esconnet.dk Information about the national final