Kent State University
Kent State University is a public research university in Kent, Ohio. The university includes seven regional campuses in Northeast Ohio and additional facilities in the region and internationally. Regional campuses are located in Ashtabula, East Liverpool, Jackson Township, New Philadelphia and Warren, with additional facilities in Cleveland and Twinsburg, New York City, Florence, Italy; the university was established in 1910 as a teacher-training school. The first classes were held in 1912 at various locations and in temporary buildings in Kent and the first buildings of the original campus opened the following year. Since the university has grown to include many additional baccalaureate and graduate programs of study in the arts and sciences, research opportunities, as well as over 1,000 acres and 119 buildings on the Kent campus. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the university was known internationally for its student activism in opposition to U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, due to the Kent State shootings in 1970.
As of September 2017, Kent State is one of the largest universities in Ohio with an enrollment of 39,367 students in the eight-campus system and 28,972 students at the main campus in Kent. In 2010, Kent State was ranked as one of the top 200 universities in the world by Times Higher Education. U. S. News & World Report's 2017 rankings put Kent State as tied for #188 for National Universities and tied for #101 in Top Public Schools. Kent State offers over 300 degree programs, among them 250 baccalaureate, 40 associate, 50 master's, 23 doctoral programs of study, which include such notable programs as nursing, history, library science, journalism, fashion design and the Liquid Crystal Institute. Kent State University was established in 1910 as an institution for training public school teachers, it was part of the Lowry Bill, which created a sister school in Bowling Green, Ohio – now known as Bowling Green State University. It was known under the working name of the Ohio State Normal College At Kent, but was named Kent State Normal School in 1911 in honor of William S. Kent, who donated the 53 acres used for the original campus.
As such, it is the only public university in Ohio named for an individual. The first president was John Edward McGilvrey, who served from 1912 to 1926. McGilvrey had an ambitious vision for the school as a large university, instructing architect George F. Hammond, who designed the original campus buildings, to produce a master plan. Classes began in 1912; these classes were held at extension centers in 25 cities around the region. By May 1913, classes were being held on the campus in Kent with the opening of Merrill Hall; the school graduated 34 students in its first commencement on July 29, 1914. In 1915, the school was renamed Kent State Normal College due to the addition of four-year degrees. By additional buildings had been added or were under construction. Kent State's enrollment growth was notable during its summer terms. In 1924, the school's registration for summer classes was the largest of any teacher-training school in the United States. In 1929, the state of Ohio changed the name to Kent State College as it allowed the school to establish a college of arts and sciences.
McGilvrey's vision for Kent was not shared by many others outside the school at the state level and at other state schools. His efforts to have the state funding formula changed created opposition from Ohio State University and its president William Oxley Thompson; this resulted in a 1923 "credit war" where Ohio State refused Kent transfer credits and spread to several other schools taking similar action. It was this development – along with several other factors – which led to the firing of McGilvrey in January 1926. McGilvrey was succeeded first by David Allen Anderson and James Ozro Engleman from 1928 to 1938, though he continued to be involved with the school for several years as president emeritus and as head of alumni relations from 1934 to 1945, he was present in Columbus on May 17, 1935, when Kent native Governor Martin L. Davey signed a bill that allowed Kent State and Bowling Green to add schools of business administration and graduate programs, giving them each university status.
From 1944 to 1963, the University was led by President George Bowman. During his tenure, the student senate, faculty senate and graduate council were organized. Although it had served Stark County from the 1920s, in 1946, the University's first regional campus, the Stark Campus, was established in Canton, Ohio. In the fall of 1947, Bowman appointed Oscar W. Ritchie as a full-time faculty member. Ritchie's appointment to the faculty made him the first African American to serve on the faculty at Kent State and made him the first African American professor to serve on the faculty of any state university in Ohio. In 1977, the former Student Union, built in 1949, was rededicated as Oscar Ritchie Hall in his honor. Renovated, Oscar Ritchie Hall houses the department of Pan-African Studies the Center of Pan-African Culture, the Henry Dumas Library, the Institute for African American Affairs, the Garrett Morgan Computer Lab and the African Community Theatre; the 1950s and 1960s saw continued growth in the physical size of the campus.
Several new dorms and academic buildings were built during this time, including the establishment of additional regional campuses in Warren, New Philadelphia, Salem and East Liverpool, Ohio. In 1961, grounds superintendent Larry Wooddell and Biff Stap
College of Wooster
The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college in Wooster, Ohio. It is known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research and enrolls 2,000 students. Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian Church as the University of Wooster, it has been non-sectarian since 1969, when ownership ties with the Presbyterian Church ended. From its creation, the college has been a co-educational institution; the school is a member of The Five Colleges of Ohio, Great Lakes Colleges Association, the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities. As of December 31, 2017, Wooster's endowment stood at $311 million. Wooster is one of forty colleges named in Loren Pope's book Colleges That Change Lives, in which he called it his "original best-kept secret in higher education." It is ranked among the nation's top liberal arts colleges, according to U. S. News and World Report. In US News' "Best Colleges 2018", for the sixteenth year in a row, Wooster is recognized for its “outstanding” undergraduate research opportunities and its senior capstone program, the I.
S.. Founded as The University of Wooster in 1866 by Presbyterians, the institution opened its doors in 1870 with a faculty of five and a student body of thirty men and four women. Wealthy Wooster citizen Ephraim Quinby donated the first 22 acres, a large oak grove situated on a hilltop overlooking the town. After being founded with the intent to make Wooster open to everyone, the university's first Ph. D. was granted to a woman, Annie B. Irish, in 1882; the first black student, Clarence Allen, began his studies in the same decade. It is rumored that when the college was founded, it was gifted a mummy and the head of Nat Turner. While the mummy is still located on campus, at the basement of the art center, the head of Nat Turner was lost in Old Main after a fire broke out. In the pre-dawn hours of December 11, 1901, a fire destroyed the five-story Old Main building, the centerpiece of the campus. Within two years, it was replaced by several new buildings which remain the primary structures for the classes and faculty offices.
These include Kauke Hall, Scovel Hall, Severance Hall, Taylor Hall. About ten years after the fire and rebuilding, there were eight divisions, including a medical school whose faculty outnumbered those in the college of arts and sciences. However, the university had begun to define itself as a liberal arts institution and, in 1915, after a bitter dispute between the faculty and the Trustees, chose to become The College of Wooster in order to devote itself to the education of undergraduate students in the liberal arts; the enrollment of the college is kept intentionally small, around 2000 students, to allow for close interaction between faculty and students. In the 1920s, during the clashes between liberal and fundamentalists, William Jennings Bryan, a prominent Presbyterian layman, former United States Secretary of State, attacked the college for its teaching of evolution; the subject had been taught at the college for several decades and defended by president Charles F. Wishart. Bryan called for the General Assembly of the church to cut off funding to the college.
But in 1923 Wishart defeated Bryan for the position of Moderator of the General Assembly on the evolution issue, the college continued to teach evolution. The 240-acre college has a tree endowment, established in 1987, which supports tree conservation, a tree replacement program; the Oak Grove, a pleasant green space near the center of campus, plays host to commencement ceremonies each May. Several of the Grove's trees are older than the college itself, including an eastern black oak near Galpin Hall that dates to 1681, as well as a 1766 white oak; each senior class plants a class tree in the Oak Grove on the day before graduation. On November 10, 2015, the College named Sarah Bolton as its 12th president, first female president, her term began July 1, 2016. Bolton was a physics professor at Williams College. Upon completion of at least 32 courses, students may earn a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, or Bachelor of Music Education degree. In addition to the programs listed below, students may design their own major with approval from the registrar and the Provost.
Some of the pre-professional programs are cooperative ones in which students spend a certain period of time at the College of Wooster before transferring to accelerated courses at other colleges and universities. The College of Wooster has an Independent Study program, in which all students work one-on-one with a faculty advisor to complete a written thesis or other significant project during the course of the senior year about 50 to 100 pages in length; the student presents an oral defense of the thesis before a faculty committee. The program, begun in 1947 by Howard Lowry, has received attention from other colleges and universities, a number of other institutions have modeled programs after it. In 2003, the independent study program at Wooster was recognized by US News and World Report as the second best'senior capstone experience' in the US, behind only Princeton University. Wooster ranks 14th in the United States among independent colleges whose graduates earned Ph. D.s between 1920 and 1995.
Preparation and completion of the thesis can be time consuming, led to one view in which a student, writing in the weekly The Wooster Voice, suggested that the independent study program be interwoven with career planning as well as applications to graduate
Wright State University
Wright State University is a public research university in Fairborn, United States, with an additional branch campus located on Grand Lake St. Marys. Operating itself as a branch campus, Wright State became an independent institution in 1967 and was named in honor of the aviation pioneers Orville and Wilbur Wright, who were residents of nearby Dayton; the university offers degrees at the bachelor's, master's, doctoral level. Wright State's athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I as a member of the Horizon League, competing as the Wright State Raiders. Wright State University first opened in 1964 as a branch campus of Miami University and Ohio State University, occupying only a single building. Groundwork on forming the institution began in 1961 during a time when the region lacked a public university for higher education. A community-wide fundraising effort was conducted in 1962 to establish the university, the campaign raised the $3 million needed in seed money. Much of the land that the campus was built on was donated by the United States Air Force from excess acreage of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
The Ohio General Assembly passed legislation in 1965 that transformed the branch campus into a separate institution with its own Advisory Committee on November 5, 1965. It was anticipated the campus would achieve full independent status by 1967 with its increasing enrollment of full-time students, projected to reach 5,000 within two years. On October 1, 1967, the campus became Wright State University following a decision by the Ohio Board of Regents; the name honors the Wright brothers, well-known Dayton residents who are credited with inventing the world's first successful airplane. In 1969, a 173-acre branch campus opened on the shore of Grand Lake St. Marys in Celina, Ohio Cheryl B. Schrader is the university's current president, a role she began July 1, 2017. Schrader is Wright State's seventh president—and first female president. Previous university presidents: Brage Golding, Robert J. Kegerreis, Paige E. Mulhollan, Harley E. Flack, Kim Goldenberg, David R. Hopkins. Curtis L. McCray was the interim president from March 17 through June 30, 2017, holding the position following Hopkins' early retirement on March 17, 2017.
In 2017, Wright State University celebrated its 50th anniversary. Coinciding with the historic event, Wright State created a 50th anniversary website to highlight important milestones and events throughout the university's history; the celebration culminated at Homecoming on September 30–October 1, 2017. October 1, 2017, was the university's official 50th anniversary. In 2017, the university became tobacco-free and banned all tobacco products on its Dayton and Lake campuses. Smoking cessation products, such as nicotine-replacement gum and patches were still allowed; the university offered courses to help students and faculty quit tobacco use. The school decided to go tobacco-free after the Ohio Board of Regents in 2012 recommended all Ohio public universities become tobacco free. Wright State University faculty are unionized and represented by the American Association of University Professors. In early 2019 they began a strike after two years of unsuccessful and contentious contract negotiations.
An agreement was made on February 10th-11th to end the strikes. At twenty days, this was the longest higher-ed strike in Ohio history, one of the longest in US history; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission at the doctoral degree-granting level. Wright State is divided into three schools. Wright State offers 106 baccalaureate degrees in the following colleges: the Raj Soin College of Business, the College of Education and Human Services, the College of Engineering and Computer Sciences, the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Nursing and Health, the College of Science and Mathematics; the Lake Campus offers a limited number of complete bachelor's and master's degrees, as well as 15 associate degrees. Wright State offers 145 graduate and professional programs, certificates and endorsements through the Wright State University Graduate School, the Boonshoft School of Medicine, the School of Professional Psychology; the Lake Campus offers a limited number of graduate programs.
The Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine was established in 1973. It is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education. In the 2018-19 academic year, the school had 480 M. D. students, 51 Master of Public Health students, 30 M. B. A. students with a concentration in health care management, 71 M. S. in Pharmacology and Toxicology students. The school adopted its current name in 2005 in honor of the Oscar Boonshoft family, major donors to the medical school. Wright State University offers Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps and Army ROTC programs on campus, known as Detachment 643 and the Raider Battalion, respectively; the Air Force ROTC program contains the cross town schools of the University of Dayton, Cedarville University, Sinclair Community College and is the largest AFROTC detachment in the Northeast Region. Wright State University hosts five North-American Interfraternity Conference fraternities, one Local Fraternity, five National Panhellenic Conference sororities, eight of the nine members of National Pan-Hellenic Council fraternities and sororities.
Sigma Phi Epsilon Lambda Chi Alpha Phi Sigma Phi Sigma Phi Delta Delta Tau Delta Alpha Sigma Phi Phi Mu Alpha Beta Phi Omega Delta Zeta Alpha Xi Delta Kappa Delta Theta Phi Alpha Zeta Tau Alpha Phi Sigma Rho Alpha Omicron Pi The Wright State Raiders are the athletics teams of Wright State University. The school participa
Iowa State University
Iowa State University of Science and Technology referred to as Iowa State, is a public land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, United States. It is the largest university in the state of Iowa and the third largest university in the Big 12 athletic conference. Iowa State is classified as a research university with "highest research activity" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Iowa State is a member of the Association of American Universities, which consists of 60 leading research universities in North America. Founded in 1858 and coeducational from its start, Iowa State became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act on September 11, 1862, making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so. Iowa State's academic offerings are administered today through eight colleges, including the graduate college, that offer over 100 bachelor's degree programs, 112 master's degree programs, 83 at the Ph.
D. level, plus a professional degree program in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University's athletic teams, the Cyclones, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are a founding member of the Big 12 Conference; the Cyclones have won numerous NCAA national championships. In 1856, the Iowa General Assembly enacted legislation to establish the Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm; this institution was established on March 22, 1858, by the General Assembly. Story County was chosen as the location on June 21, 1859, beating proposals from Johnson, Kossuth and Polk counties; the original farm of 648 acres was purchased for a cost of $5,379. Iowa was the first state in the nation to accept the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Iowa subsequently designated Iowa State as the land-grant college on March 29, 1864. From the start, Iowa Agricultural College focused on the ideals that higher education should be accessible to all and that the university should teach liberal and practical subjects; these ideals are integral to the land-grant university.
The institution was coeducational from the first preparatory class admitted in 1868. The formal admitting of students began the following year, the first graduating class of 1872 consisted of 24 men and two women; the Farm House, the first building on the Iowa State campus, was completed in 1861 before the campus was occupied by students or classrooms. It became the home of the superintendent of the Model Farm and in years, the deans of Agriculture, including Seaman Knapp and "Tama Jim" Wilson. Iowa State's first president, Adonijah Welch stayed at the Farm House and penned his inaugural speech in a second floor bedroom; the college's first farm tenants primed the land for agricultural experimentation. The Iowa Experiment Station was one of the university's prominent features. Practical courses of instruction were taught, including one designed to give a general training for the career of a farmer. Courses in mechanical, civil and mining engineering were part of the curriculum. In 1870, President Welch and I. P. Robert, professor of agriculture, held three-day farmers' institutes at Cedar Falls, Council Bluffs and Muscatine.
These became the earliest institutes held off-campus by a land grant institution and were the forerunners of 20th century extension. In 1872, the first courses were given in domestic economy and were taught by Mary B. Welch, the president's wife. Iowa State became the first land grant university in the nation to offer training in domestic economy for college credit. In 1879, the "School" of Veterinary Science was organized, the first state veterinary college in the United States; this was a two-year course leading to a diploma. The veterinary course of study contained classes in zoology, anatomy of domestic animals, veterinary obstetrics, sanitary science. William M. Beardshear was appointed President of Iowa State in 1891. During his tenure, Iowa Agricultural College came of age. Beardshear developed new agricultural programs and was instrumental in hiring premier faculty members such Anson Marston, Louis B. Spinney, J. B. Weems, Perry G. Holden, Maria Roberts, he expanded the university administration, the following buildings were added to the campus: Morrill Hall.
In his honor, Iowa State named its central administrative building after Beardshear in 1925. In 1898, reflecting the school's growth during his tenure, it was renamed Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, or Iowa State for short. Today, Beardshear Hall holds the following offices: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Registrar and student financial aid. Catt Hall is named after famed alumna Carrie Chapman Catt and is the home of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. In 1912 Iowa State had its first Homecoming celebration; the idea was first proposed by Professor Samuel Beyer, the college's “patron saint of athletics,” who suggested that Iowa State inaugurate a celebration for alumni during the annual football game against rival University of Iowa. Iowa State's new president, Raymond A. Pearson, liked the idea and issued a special invitation to alumni two weeks prior to the event: “We need you, we must have you. Come and see what a school you have made in Iowa State College.
Find a way.” In October 2012 Iowa State marked its 100th Homecoming with a "CYtennial" Celebration. Iowa State celebrated its first VEISHEA on
Feminist science fiction
Feminist science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction focused on theories that include feminist themes including but not limited to gender inequality, race and reproduction. Feminist SF is political because of its tendency to critique the dominant culture; some of the most notable feminist science fiction works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue. Science fiction and fantasy serve as important vehicles for feminist thought as bridges between theory and practice. No other genres so invite representations of the ultimate goals of feminism: worlds free of sexism, worlds in which women's contributions are recognized and valued, worlds that explore the diversity of women's desire and sexuality, worlds that move beyond gender. Feminist science fiction distinguishes between feminist SF authors.
Both female and feminist SF authors are significant to the feminist SF subgenre, as female writers have increased women's visibility and perspectives in SF literary traditions, while the feminist writers have foregrounded political themes and tropes in their works. Because distinctions between female and feminist can be blurry, whether a work is considered feminist can be debatable, but there are agreed-upon canonical texts, which help define the subgenre; as early as the English Restoration, female authors were using themes of SF and imagined futures to explore women's issues and place in society. This can be seen as early as 1666 in Margaret Cavendish's The Blazing World, in which she describes a utopian kingdom ruled by an empress; this foundational work has garnered attention from some feminist critics, such as Dale Spender, who considered this a forerunner of the science fiction genre, more generally. Another early female writer of science fiction was Mary Shelley, her novel Frankenstein dealt with the asexual creation of new life, has been considered by some a reimagining of the Adam and Eve story.
Women writers involved in the utopian literature movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries could be considered the first feminist SF authors. Their texts, emerging during the first-wave feminist movement addressed issues of sexism through imagining different worlds that challenged gender expectations. In 1881, Mizora: A Prophecy described a women-only world with technological innovations such as parthenogenesis and artificial meat, it was followed by other feminist utopian works, such as Elizabeth Burgoyne Corbett's New Amazonia: A Foretaste of the Future. In 1892, poet and abolitionist Frances Harper published Iola Leroy, one of the first novels by an African American woman. Set during the antebellum South, it follows the life of a mixed race woman with white ancestry and records the hopes of many African Americans for social equality—of race and gender—during Reconstruction. Unveiling a Parallel features a male protagonist who takes an "aeroplane" to Mars, visiting two different "Marsian" societies.
In one, women have adopted the negative characteristics of men. Two American Populists, A. O. Grigsby and Mary P. Lowe, published NEQUA or The Problem of the Ages, which explores issues of gender norms and posited structural inequality; this rediscovered novel displays familiar feminist SF conventions: a heroine narrator who masquerades as a man, the exploration of sexist mores, the description of a future hollow earth society where women are equal. The Sultana's Dream, by Bengali Muslim feminist Rokeya Sakhawat Hussain, engages with the limited role of women in colonial India. Through depicting a gender-reversed purdah in an alternate technologically futuristic world, Hussain's book has been described as illustrating the potential for cultural insights through role reversals early on in the subgenre's formation. Along these same lines, Charlotte Perkins Gilman explores and critiques the expectations of women and men by creating a single-sex world in Herland the most well-known of the early feminist SF and utopian novels.
During the 1920s and 1930s, many popular pulp science fiction magazines exaggerated views of masculinity and featured portrayals of women that were perceived as sexist. These views would be subtly satirized by Stella Gibbons in Cold Comfort Farm and much by Margaret Atwood in The Blind Assassin; as early as 1920, women writers of this time, such as Clare Winger Harris and Gertrude Barrows Bennett, published science fiction stories written from female perspectives and dealt with gender and sexuality based topics. The Post-WWII and Cold War eras were a pivotal and overlooked period in feminist SF history. During this time, female authors utilized the SF genre to assess critically the changing social and technological landscape. Women SF authors during the post-WWII and Cold War time periods directly engage in the exploration of the impacts of science and technology on women and their families, a focal point in the public consciousness during the 1950s and 1960s; these female SF authors published in SF magazines such as The Avalonian, The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Galaxy, which were open to new stories and authors that pushed the boundaries of form and content.
At the beginning of the Cold War
Science Fiction Studies
Science Fiction Studies is an academic journal founded in 1973 by R. D. Mullen; the journal is published three times per year at DePauw University. As the name implies, the journal publishes articles and book reviews on science fiction, but occasionally on fantasy and horror when the topic covers some aspect of science fiction as well. Known as one of the major academic publications of its type, Science Fiction Studies is considered the most "theoretical" of the academic journals that publish on science fiction. SFS has had three different institutional homes during its lifetime, it was founded in 1973 at Indiana State University by the late English professor Dr. R. D. Mullen, where it remained for five years. In 1978, it moved to McGill University and to Concordia University in Montreal, where it was supported by a Canadian government grant until 1991. SFS was brought back to Indiana to DePauw University in 1992 where it has remained since; the parent company of SFS is SF-TH Inc. a not-for-profit corporation established under the laws of the State of Indiana.
Dr. Arthur B. Evans serves as president of SF-TH Inc. and managing editor of SFS. The other senior editors of SFS are Dr. Istvan Csicsery-Ronay, Dr. Joan Gordon, Dr. Veronica Hollinger, Dr. Carol McGuirk, Dr. Lisa Swanstrom, Dr. Sherryl Vint. SFS is refereed selective, its 900+ subscription base includes institutions and individuals in the US and Canada and more than 30 foreign countries. SFS has been called the world’s most respected journal for the critical study of science fiction. Recognized as having brought a rigorous theoretical focus to the study of this popular genre, SFS has been featured in The Chronicle of Higher Education, where Jim Zook noted that "Since its founding... Science Fiction Studies has charted the course for the most hard-core science fiction critics and comparatists; that focus has earned the journal its reputation as the most theoretical scholarly publication in the field, as well as the most daring". SFS has been reviewed in the Times Literary Supplement, where Paul Kincaid compared the world’s three principal learned journals that focus on science fiction: Science Fiction Studies and Foundation.
He concluded that "Science Fiction Studies... has always been resolutely academic, the articles always peer-reviewed... and with an uncompromising approach to the complexities of critical theory". On top of being the most theoretically sophisticated journal in the field, SFS has the broadest coverage of science fiction outside the English language, with special issues on Science Fiction in France, Post-Soviet SF, Japanese SF, Latin American SF. SFS appears averages 200 pages in length. A representative issue contains 5–8 articles ranging in length from 5,000 to 15,000 words, 2–3 review-essays, two dozen book reviews covering scholarly works, plus a substantial Notes and Correspondence section. Special issues follow the same format but are guest-edited. Recent special issue topics include Technoculture and Science Fiction, Latin American Science Fiction, Animal Studies and Science Fiction, Science Fiction and Sexuality, Italian Science Fiction, Digital Science Fiction, Spanish Science Fiction, among others.
A regular rotation of open and special issues has characterized the journal’s publication schedule from the outset: one-third of its 130+ issues have been special issues. These special issues have a major impact on the field, setting critical agendas and initiating debates. Guest editors are drawn from the consulting board of 35 scholars, representing in their expertise the international scope of the field. SFS offers electronic subscriptions via the SFS Store on its website. A subscription is included with membership in the Science Fiction Research Association. Extrapolation Femspec Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction Official site
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article