James Louderback is the CEO of VidCon, was the CEO of Revision3. He has had numerous jobs in media companies involved in technology, most notably with TechTV and editor-in-chief of PC Magazine, he is well known as the television host of TechTV's Fresh Gear for three years from 1998 to 2000. Louderback graduated from Northfield Mount Hermon School attended the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont from 1979 to 1983, he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1983 with a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and a minor in Communications. Upon graduating from the University of Vermont, Louderback went on to New York University Stern School of Business located in New York, New York, he graduated Beta Gamma Sigma in 1986 receiving a M. B. A. with a concentration in Computer Applications and Information Systems. Louderback started out working for Fortune 100 companies in the 1980s building computer systems and LAN-based client-server systems. In 1991, Louderback was hired as the Executive Lab Director of PC Week magazine.
In his time with the publication, Louderback refined the product reviews into essential news stories. For his work, he was awarded "Best Journalist" in 1993 by the SPA. Louderback's next position was as the Editor-in-Chief of Windows Sources from 1995 to 1996 in New York. In 1996, Louderback headed back to Boston to become the Vice President and Editorial Director at PC Week. In 1997, Louderback headed out to San Francisco, California to be Vice President and Editorial Director of ZDTV, the first 24-hour technology television channel, he was in charge of the program content for the channel. He appeared in numerous segments on the network, hosted the Fresh Gear show for three years. In 1999, he developed the "Best of CES" awards program for the CES trade show; this program judges still continues to this day. Louderback developed a daily, live, 8-hour TechTV news program called TechLive in 2000; the show supplied viewers with a steady stream of market news, technology reporting, product information, CEO interviews.
Louderback became Editor-In-Chief for Ziff Davis Media's internet properties in 2002, he managed PCMag.com, eWeek and Microsoft Watch. He was promoted to Senior Vice President and Editor in Chief of PC Magazine in the fall of 2005 where he managed DL. TV, Cranky Geeks, ExtremeTech, TechnoRide, GearLog, Smart Company, he did a weekly podcast along with Patrick Norton called What's New Now as well as a video podcast called DL. TV. In 2007, he wrote "The iPhone is flawed. Apple will sell lots at first and sales will plummet." On July 10, 2007, Louderback became CEO of Revision3. After 7 years, Louderback resigned to focus efforts on a book about being a first time CEO. On August 29, 2017, Louderback was named as CEO of VidCon. Louderback had served as editorial director of VidCon's industry programming track for the last three years. Louderback is the author of the book TechTV Microsoft Windows XP for Home Users. Since early 2011, Louderback has been one of the featured "CoolHotNot Tech Xperts," along with John C.
Dvorak, Chris Pirillo, Dave Graveline, Robin Raskin, Dave Whittle, Steve Bass, Cheryl Currid. At CoolHotNot's web site, Dvorak shares his "Loved List" of favorite consumer electronics, his "Wanted List" of tech products he'd like to try, his "Letdown List" of tech products he found disappointing. Ziff Davis Media TechTV Revision3 Revision3 Jim Louderback's homepage Jim Louderback's columns at PCmag What's New Now Webpage Jim Louderback's current list of best, most wanted, worst tech products
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly is a monthly American video game magazine. It offers video game news, coverage of industry events, interviews with gaming figures, editorial content, product reviews; the magazine was founded in 1988 as U. S. National Video Game Team's Electronic Gaming Monthly under Sendai Publications. In 1994, EGM spun off EGM ², which focused on expanded tricks, it became Expert Gamer and the defunct GameNOW. After 83 issues, EGM switched from Sendai Publishing to Ziff Davis publisher; until January 2009, EGM only covered gaming on console software. In 2002, the magazine's subscription increased by more than 25 percent; the magazine was discontinued by Ziff Davis in January 2009, following the sale of 1UP.com to UGO Networks. The magazine's February 2009 issue was completed, but was not published. In May 2009, EGM founder Steve Harris purchased its assets from Ziff Davis; the magazine was relaunched in April 2010 by Harris' new company EGM Media, LLC, widening its coverage to the PC and mobile gaming markets.
Notable contributors to Electronic Gaming Monthly have included Martin Alessi, Ken Williams, "Trickman" Terry Minnich, Andrew "Cyber-Boy" Baran, Danyon Carpenter, Marc Camron, Mark "Candyman" LeFebvre, Todd Rogers, Mike Weigand a.k.a. Major Mike, Al Manuel, Howard Grossman, Arcade Editor Mark "Mo" Hain, Mike "Virus" Vallas, Jason Streetz, Ken Badziak, Scott Augustyn, Chris Johnston, Che Chou, Dave Ruchala, Crispin Boyer, Greg Sewart, Jeanne Trais, Jennifer Tsao, artist Jeremy Norm Scott, Shawn "Shawnimal" Smith, West Coast Editor Kelly Rickards, Kraig Kujawa, Dean Hager, Jeremy Parish, Mark Macdonald. Writers who served stints as editor-in chief include Ed Semrad, Joe Funk, John Davison, James Mielke, artist Jeremy "Norm" Scott, Seanbaby. In addition, writers of EGM's various sister publications – including GameNow, Computer Gaming World/Games for Windows: The Official Magazine, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine – would contribute to EGM, vice versa; the magazine is known for making April Fools jokes.
Its April 1992 issue was the source of the Sheng Long hoax in Street Fighter II: The World Warrior. The magazine includes the following sections: Insert Coin Letter from the editor - the editorial Login - Letters from readers and replies by the magazine Press Start This section contains a general article about video gaming EGM RoundTable - discussions around video games The Buzz - industry rumors The EGM Hot List - background information about a critically acclaimed game Features - feature articles The EGM Interview - interview with a person from the gaming industry Cover Story - preview of the game featured on the magazine cover Next Wave - previews of upcoming games Launch Point - short previews of upcoming games Review Crew - review section Review Recap - recapitulation of the review scores from the preceding issue Game Over - Commentary articles on video gaming related topics EGM's current review scale is based on a letter grade system in which each game receives a grade based on its perceived quality.
Games are reviewed by one member, except for "the big games", which were reviewed by one of a pool of editors known as "The Review Crew." They each write a few paragraphs about their opinion of the game. The magazine makes a strong stance. Towards the top of the scale, awards are given to games that average a B- or higher from the three individual grade: "Silver" awards for games averaging a grade of B- to B+; the current letter grade system replaced a long-standing 0–10 scale in the April 2008 issue. In that system, Silver went to a game with an average rating from 8 to 9, Gold to a game reviewed at 9 to 10, Platinum to a game that received nothing but 10 ratings; until 1998, as a matter of editorial policy, the reviewers gave scores of 10, never gave a Platinum Award. That policy changed when the reviewers gave Metal Gear Solid four 10 ratings in 1998, with an editorial announcing the shift. In addition, they gave the game with the highest average score for that issue a "Game of the Month" award.
If a "Game of the Month" title receives a port to another console, that version is disqualified from that month's award, such as with Resident Evil 4, which won the award for the Nintendo GameCube version and subsequently received the highest scores for the PlayStation 2 port months and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, which won the Platinum award for two separate versions of the game. In 2002, EGM began giving games; as there is not always such a game in each issue, this award is only given out when a game qualifies. A team of four editors reviewed all the games; this process was dropped in favor of a system that added more reviewers to the staff so that no one person reviewed all the games for the month. Though the scores ranged from 0–10 on the previous numerical scale, the score of zero was never utilized, with exceptions being Mortal Kombat Advance, The Guy Game, Ping Pals. EGM en Español was released in Mexico in November 2002, it is edited by a different staff. Sometimes the content was more focused to
EWeek PCWeek, is a technology and business magazine, owned by Foster City, California marketing company QuinStreet. Quinstreet acquired the magazine in 2012 from Internet company Ziff Davis, along with Baseline.com, ChannelInsider.com, CIOInsight.com, WebBuyersGuide.com.eWeek was started under the name PCWeek on Feb. 28, 1984. The magazine was called PCWeek until 2000, during which time it covered the rise of business computing in America. PCWeek was formed to promote the use of computers as business tools; the world of personal computing was changing. This new computational ability made computers a new and effective business tool, more and more companies started buying IBM PCs. PCWeek became a resource for business-computing information. Team members that started PCWeek included the first news editor. Although PCWeek's official first publication was Feb. 28, 1984, a "sample version" of the magazine was available at a COMDEX convention in 1983. At the time, the concept of PCWeek was a "radical idea".
Few saw any real need for a "weekly news magazine about personal computers", business-oriented. In addition, many magazines at the time covered business computing, such as Datamation and Computerworld. There were magazines dedicated to hobbyist machines, so it seemed there was no place for a weekly issue to fit in. Once the first few publications came out, it seemed; the first month of weekly issues had only 22 pages of advertising on average, well below industry standard. After a rocky first few months, things began to turn around. PCWeek began establishing itself as the best source for information on business computing; the magazine started breaking big stories before anyone else, including news on a "new version of the Compaq", the "IBM PC AT", the new "Intel 80286 processor". The magazine provided extensive reviews for business class PCs. John Pallatto, a writer for PCWeek in its first year, produced a full buyer's guide on all DOS-compatible PCs on the market. By the end of the first year, PCWeek's numbers had skyrocketed.
The average number of advertising pages for the last month was 74.875. The publication owed its success to the increasing popularity of IBM PCs, but to their style of reporting. Sam Whitmore describes it as "gritty, kick the door down, break your secret plans" and says that they had "so much fun spoiling people's days". David Strom, the executive editor in charge of "reviews and analysis" at the time identified their "direct contact with industry leaders" as part of why they were able to break effective stories. PCWeek's audience was important to their success. Early promotional publications from PCWeek show them describing their key audience as "volume buyers", that is, people and companies that would buy PCs in bulk for business purposes. With this the magazine was able to show big computer companies that advertising in an issue of PCWeek was the best possible way to get their product seen by the biggest and most important buyers. Following the turn-around success in its first couple of years, PCWeek only got better.
Important people involved in between PCWeek's initial success and change to eWeek were David Strom, Sam Whitmore, Mike Edelhart, Gina Smith, Peter Coffee, Paul Bonner, current editor Chris Preimesberger and many others. The team behind the magazine was getting better. Jim Louderback, a lab director at PCWeek as of 1991, describes how they were able to "get a product in on Wednesday, have it on the front page on Monday" and that "that was something we were the first to do"; the publication was "perfectly positioned" to be the source for all information on what PCs were worth looking at for business purposes. They broke stories spoiling products from IBM, others as a result of incredible work by reporters like Gina Smith. Leading up to its name-change, PCWeek began building an online presence, they were one of the first magazines to do so, they had reviews about and coverage of the emergence of the World Wide Web that were "ahead of the game". The switch to the name eWeek and an greater online presence was overseen by Eric Lundquist, editor-in-chief at the time.
In 2012, eWeek and other Ziff Davis assets were acquired by the company QuinStreet, which runs other tech-oriented publications. PCWeek evolved; the early success of the IBM PC and the Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet programs gave PCWeek the coverage they needed to get on their feet. The magazine developed a active audience of people telling the team at PCWeek "about their experiences and bad, as they worked with the products". So PCWeek was able to evolve with feedback from their active readers. In the 21st century, business PCs have gone from "supporting" businesses to "driving" them, there's been an increasing need for "unbiased, expert testing of the technology". EWeek has become much more oriented towards "Lab-based product evaluation" as a result of this. In terms of news, eWeek now covers all different sorts of tech, they focus on things like cloud computing, mobile technology, data center and infrastructure and enterprise applications, as well as IT careers and leadership information.eWeek has stated their mission as hoping to provide technology decision-makers with a mix of breaking news, analysis and reviews to help them make educated IT buying decisions.
PCWeek had a key influence on the PC Industr
GMR was a monthly magazine on video games, published by Ziff-Davis — the publisher of such magazines as PC Magazine, Electronic Gaming Monthly, Computer Gaming World. GMR was launched in February 2003, being sold in only the Electronics Boutique chain of video game stores; the magazine was unusual among multiconsole magazines in that it covered PC as well as console games, as well as its minimalistic cover art, and, in its last few months, its shift in focus toward promotion of less mainstream titles. It lasted two years, as the 25th and last issue was the February 2005 edition; as the magazine was funded by Electronics Boutique, the magazine stopped circulation when Gamestop merged with EB Games, as Gamestop had its own magazine, Game Informer. The fates of its entire staff remain unknown, although James "Milkman" Mielke and Andrew "Skip" Pfister have transferred to the 1Up.com Network online. Shortly after the release of the PS2 game Monster Hunter, an online-only Event Quest was released which allowed players to obtain the "GMR Chrome Heart," a weapon prominently featuring an embossed GMR logo.
Each month had e.g.. "The Rainbow Issue", "The First Issue". These are listed. February 2003: Dead or Alive: Extreme Beach Volleyball - "The First Issue" March 2003: Xenosaga - "The Chewy issue" April 2003: Zone of the Enders - "The Metal issue" May 2003: Auto Modellista - "The Speed issue" June 2003: World of Warcraft, Star Wars Galaxies - "The Wired issue" July 2003: Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater - "The Jungle issue" August 2003: Ninja Gaiden - "The Masked issue" September 2003: Soul Calibur II - "The Kick A** Issue" October 2003: F-Zero GX - "The Future Issue" November 2003: SSX 3 - "The Frosted Issue" December 2003: Tony Hawk's Underground - "The Flipped Issue" January 2004: Rainbow Six 3, Ninja Gaiden - "The Creepy Issue" February 2004: Darkwatch - "The Dead Issue" March 2004: Star Wars: Republic Commando - "The Space Issue" April 2004: Astro Boy - "The Anime Issue" May 2004: Nina: Death By Degrees - "The Women Issue" June 2004: Onimusha 3 - "The Samurai Issue" July 2004: Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories - "The magic issue" August 2004: Everquest 2, Monster Hunter, Final Fantasy XI: Chains of Promathia, The Matrix Online - Four different covers, "The Online World issue" September 2004: Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas - "The Sandbox Issue" October 2004: Fable, Dead or Alive Ultimate - Two different covers, "The Hot Pink Issue" November 2004: Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door - "the it's a-me issue" December 2004: Need For Speed Underground 2, - "The nitro issue" January 2005: Halo 2 - "The FPS Issue" February 2005: Resident Evil 4 - "The last issue" When games were reviewed, they were rated on a scale of 1 to 10.
A score of 9 or 10 was considered excellent, 7 or 8 good, 4 to 6 mediocre, 1 to 3 bad. As well, the GMR Essential Selection logo would be awarded to all games scoring 10 and some games scoring 9. With the rating would come a one- or two-word comment a pun on the game's title, three lines of comparisons. Previewers would rate their excitement about an upcoming game on a scale of 1 to 5 flames, although one-flame previews were absent and two-flame previews rare. One of the most popular sections of the magazine was an editorial that appeared in the final pages of most every issue called Game Geezer; the editorial was written as though it were being dictated by an excessively cranky old man in a humorous tone and was well regarded by readers for its concise opinions and arguments regarding the video game industry and player community. Game Geezer was revealed to be written by Jeff Green, former editor-in-chief of Games for Windows: The Official Magazine and Computer Gaming World; the column was written, on a fill-in basis, by former Xbox Nation editor Greg Orlando.
GMR suffered a black eye to its reputation with the publication of the August 2003 issue, which featured what was billed as the exclusive first review for the highly anticipated Xbox action game Ninja Gaiden. The game was featured on the cover and given an excellent review, but at about the same time, the game's developer made the decision to continue tweaking the game, delaying its release until early 2004. Thus, the GMR review was rendered invalid because it was based on a prerelease development version of the game. GMR website
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Amazing Stories is an American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback's Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted to science fiction. Science fiction stories had made regular appearances in other magazines, including some published by Gernsback, but Amazing helped define and launch a new genre of pulp fiction; as of 2018, Amazing has been published, with some interruptions, for ninety-two years, going through a half-dozen owners and many editors as it struggled to be profitable. Gernsback was forced into bankruptcy and lost control of the magazine in 1929. In 1938 it was purchased by Ziff-Davis. Palmer made the magazine successful though it was not regarded as a quality magazine within the science fiction community. In the late 1940s Amazing presented as fact stories about the Shaver Mystery, a lurid mythos that explained accidents and disaster as the work of robots named deros, which led to increased circulation but widespread ridicule. Amazing switched to a digest size format in 1953, shortly before the end of the pulp-magazine era.
It was sold to Sol Cohen's Universal Publishing Company in 1965, which filled it with reprinted stories but did not pay a reprint fee to the authors, creating a conflict with the newly formed Science Fiction Writers of America. Ted White took over as editor in 1969, eliminated the reprints and made the magazine respected again: Amazing was nominated for the prestigious Hugo Award three times during his tenure in the 1970s. Several other owners attempted to create a modern incarnation of the magazine in the following decades, but publication was suspended after the March 2005 issue. A new incarnation appeared in July 2012 as an online magazine. Print publication resumed with the Fall 2018 issue. Gernsback's initial editorial approach was to blend instruction with entertainment, his audience showed a preference for implausible adventures, the movement away from Gernsback's idealism accelerated when the magazine changed hands in 1929. Despite this, Gernsback had an enormous impact on the field: the creation of a specialist magazine for science fiction spawned an entire genre publishing industry.
The letter columns in Amazing, where fans could make contact with each other, led to the formation of science fiction fandom, which in turn had a strong influence on the development of the field. Writers whose first story was published in the magazine include John W. Campbell, Isaac Asimov, Howard Fast, Ursula K. Le Guin, Roger Zelazny, Thomas M. Disch. Overall, Amazing itself was an influential magazine within the genre after the 1920s; some critics have commented that by "ghettoizing" science fiction, Gernsback harmed its literary growth, but this viewpoint has been countered by the argument that science fiction needed an independent market to develop in to reach its potential. By the end of the 19th century, stories centered on scientific inventions, stories set in the future, were appearing in popular fiction magazines; the market for short stories lent itself to tales of invention in the tradition of Jules Verne. Magazines such as Munsey's Magazine and The Argosy, launched in 1889 and 1896 carried a few science fiction stories each year.
Some upmarket "slick" magazines such as McClure's, which paid well and were aimed at a more literary audience carried scientific stories, but by the early years of the 20th century, science fiction was appearing more in the pulp magazines than in the slicks. In 1908, Hugo Gernsback published the first issue of Modern Electrics, a magazine aimed at the scientific hobbyist, it was an immediate success, Gernsback began to include articles on imaginative uses of science, such as "Wireless on Saturn". In April 1911, Gernsback began the serialization of his science fiction novel, Ralph 124C 41+, but in 1913 he sold his interest in the magazine to his partner and launched a new magazine, Electrical Experimenter, which soon began to publish scientific fiction. In 1920 Gernsback retitled the magazine Science and Invention, through the early 1920s he published much scientific fiction in its pages, along with non-fiction scientific articles. Gernsback had started another magazine called Practical Electrics in 1921.
In 1924, he changed its name to The Experimenter, sent a letter to 25,000 people to gauge interest in the possibility of a magazine devoted to scientific fiction. However, in 1926 he decided to go ahead, ceased publication of The Experimenter to make room in his publishing schedule for a new magazine; the editor of The Experimenter, T. O'Conor Sloane, became the editor of Amazing Stories; the first issue appeared on 10 March 1926, with a cover date of April 1926. The magazine focused on reprints. In the August issue, new stories were noted with an asterisk in the table of contents; the editorial work was done by Sloane, but Gernsback retained final say over the fiction content. Two consultants, Conrad A. Brandt and Wilbur C. Whitehead, were hired to help find fiction to reprint. Frank R. Paul, who had worked with Gernsback as early as 1914, became the cover artist. Amazing was issued in the large bedsheet format, 8.5 × 11.75 in, the same size as the technical magazines. It was an immediate success and by the following March reached a circulation of 150,000.
Gernsback saw there was an enthusiastic readership for "scientific
Fantastic was an American digest-size fantasy and science fiction magazine, published from 1952 to 1980. It was founded by the publishing company Ziff Davis as a fantasy companion to Amazing Stories. Early sales were good, the company decided to switch Amazing from pulp format to digest, to cease publication of their other science fiction pulp, Fantastic Adventures. Within a few years sales fell, Howard Browne, the editor, was forced to switch the focus to science fiction rather than fantasy. Browne lost interest in the magazine as a result and the magazine ran poor-quality fiction in the mid-1950s, under Browne and his successor, Paul W. Fairman. At the end of the 1950s, Cele Goldsmith took over as editor of both Fantastic and Amazing Stories, invigorated the magazines, bringing in many new writers and making them, in the words of one science fiction historian, the "best-looking and brightest" magazines in the field. Goldsmith helped to nurture the early careers of writers such as Roger Zelazny and Ursula K.
Le Guin, but was unable to increase circulation, in 1965 the magazines were sold to Sol Cohen, who hired Joseph Wrzos as editor and switched to a reprint-only policy. This was financially successful, but brought Cohen into conflict with the newly formed Science Fiction Writers of America. After a turbulent period at the end of the 1960s, Ted White became editor and the reprints were phased out. White worked hard to make the magazine successful, introducing artwork from artists who had made their names in comics, working with new authors such as Gordon Eklund, his budget for fiction was low, but he was able to find good stories from well-known writers, rejected by other markets. Circulation continued to decline, in 1978, Cohen sold out his half of the business to his partner, Arthur Bernhard. White resigned shortly afterwards, was replaced by Elinor Mavor, but within two years Bernhard decided to close down Fantastic, merging it with Amazing Stories, which had always enjoyed a higher circulation.
In 1938, Ziff Davis, a Chicago-based publisher looking to expand into the pulp magazine market, acquired Amazing Stories. The number of science fiction magazines grew and several new titles appeared over the next few years, among them Fantastic Adventures, launched by Ziff Davis in 1939 as a companion to Amazing. Under the editorship of Raymond Palmer, the magazines were reasonably successful but published poor-quality work. Ziff Davis agreed to back the new magazine, Browne put together a sample copy, when the Korean War broke out, Ziff Davis cut their budgets and the project was abandoned. Browne did not give up, in 1952 received the go-ahead to try a new magazine instead, focused on high-quality fantasy, a genre which had become more popular; the first issue of Fantastic, dated Summer 1952, appeared on March 21 of that year. Sales were good, Ziff Davis was sufficiently impressed after only two issues to move the magazine from a quarterly to a bimonthly schedule, to switch Amazing from pulp format to digest-size to match Fantastic.
Shortly afterwards the decision was taken to eliminate Fantastic Adventures: the March 1953 issue was the last, the May–June 1953 issue of Fantastic added a mention of Fantastic Adventures to the masthead, though this ceased with the following issue. Payment started at two cents per word for all rights, but could go up to ten cents at the editor's discretion; the experiment with quality fiction did not last. Circulation dropped, which led to budget cuts, in turn the quality of the fiction fell. Browne had wanted to separate Fantastic from Amazing's pulp roots, but now found he had to print more science fiction and less fantasy in order to attract Amazing's readers to its sister magazine. Fantastic's poor results were a consequence of an overloaded sf-magazine market: far more magazines appeared in the early 1950s than the market was able to support. Ziff Davis sales staff were able to help sell Fantastic and Amazing along with the technical magazines that it published, the availability of a national sales network though it was not focused on Fantastic, undoubtedly helped the magazine to survive.
In May 1956, Browne left Ziff Davis to become a screenwriter. Paul W. Fairman took over as editor of both Amazing. In 1957, Bernard Davis left Ziff Davis. With his departure Amazing and Fantastic stagnated. In November 1955, Ziff Davis hired an assistant, Cele Goldsmith, who began by helping with two new magazines under development, Dream World and Pen Pals, she read the slush piles for all the magazines, was given more responsibility. In 1957, she was made managing editor of both Amazing and Fantastic, doing administrative chores and reading unsolicited manuscripts. At the end of 1958, she became editor, replacing Fairman, who had left to become managing editor of Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine. Goldsmith—who became Cele Lalli when she married in 1964—stayed as editor for six and a half years. Circulation dropped for both Amazing and Fantastic: in 1964, Fantastic had a paid circulation of only 27,000. In 1965, Sol Cohen, who at that time was Galaxy's publisher, set up his own publishing company, Ultimate Publishing, bought both Amazing and Fantastic from Ziff Davis.