Brian "Dolphin" Taylor is a British drummer. Taylor's first band was Dragon's Playground. In 1976 Dragon's Playground appeared on ATV's New Faces, his career with the Tom Robinson Band started when Taylor gave a friend a lift to an audition as bass guitarist for the Tom Robinson Band in 1976. As the band had no drummer at that point, Taylor filled in. By the end of the evening, the band was still looking for a bass guitarist, but had found their drummer, he stayed for two years resigning in 1978. In 1982 he joined Stiff Little Fingers, playing on the £1.10 or less EP, the Now Then... album, before the band split in 1983. In 1983 after the demise of SLF, Taylor become the occasional session drummer for producer Nick Tauber. Towards the end of 1983 through his work with Nick Tauber, he was introduced to and joined Spear of Destiny as their full-time drummer. Dolphin became a part of The Engine Room, the Spear of Destiny rhythm section, along with bass player Stan Stammers, he left Spear of Destiny in 1986 after they were dropped by their record label CBS, after the band went through a line-up change.
In 1987 Taylor was asked to join the reformed SLF, with whom he stayed until 1996, playing on 1991's Flags and Emblems and 1994's Get a Life. In 1997 he and one time SLF manager Russell Emanuel set up Extreme Music, a company that composes and sells production music. Category:Songs written by Dolphin Taylor Extreme Music Stiff Little Fingers The Engine Room - Spear of Destiny's Rhythm Section Mike Dolbear Drums - Dolphin Taylor Interview
Sony α, is a camera system introduced on 5 June 2006. It uses and expands upon Konica Minolta camera technologies, including the Minolta AF SLR lens mount, whose assets were acquired by Sony after the end of Konica Minolta's photography operations in early 2006. Sony has an 11.08% ownership stake in Japanese lens manufacturer Tamron, known to have partnered with Konica Minolta and Sony in the design and manufacture of many zoom lenses. Prior to the acquisition by Sony, the α branding had been used on the Japanese market by Minolta for their AF camera system. Sony adopted the name "A-mount system" for the Minolta AF lens mount, retained in their new SLR range. Sony's entry into the DSLR market dates back to July 2005 where a joint venture with Konica Minolta would have resulted in both companies marketing an updated line of DSLRs to the masses. Between 2006 and 2008 Sony was the fastest growing company on the DSLR market, reaching 13% market share in 2008 to become the third largest DSLR company in the world.
In May 2010, Sony introduced two α NEX mirrorless interchangeable lens cameras equipped with the new proprietary Sony E-mount. A-mount lenses can be used in E-mount cameras with an adapter - four different adapters are available from Sony alone. Sony announced plans to introduce a special camera service programme for professional photographers since the launch of the α900 in 2008. Sony Imaging PRO Support was established starting between 2013 and 2015 depending on country; the Sony α model system works on the principle that the next model up in the series has additional features to the one below. Only a few Sony APS-C DSLRs have Live View, except for the Sony α100, α200, α230, α290, α700, α850 and α900 series. Live View mode features a 1.4x or 2x Smart Teleconverter which digitally zooms in on the subject and reproduces pixels on a 1:1 basis, preventing degradation of picture quality. In 2010 Sony replaced the legacy DSLR design with SLT cameras, where the "SLT" stands for "single-lens translucent" which refers to a fixed beam splitter in the image path.
Sony SLT can shoot movie files at Full HD 1080p AVCHD with continuous phase detection autofocus. Along with the α33 and α55 cameras, Sony announced one of the last Sony DSLRs - the α560 which can shoot movie files at full HD stereo 1080p AVCHD, but with limited manual controls and no continuous AF; these three cameras use. The α33 and α55 are SLT based and can take movie files with continuous Auto Focus, whereas DSLRs using reflex mirrors cannot, at least not without limitations; the A-mount known as the A-type bayonet mount was introduced by Minolta in 1985 as the world's first integrated SLR autofocus system. As a result, all Minolta A-mount lenses can be used on Sony DSLRs, all Sony A-mount lenses work on Minolta's film and digital SLRs. During the initial introduction of the α system in 2006, Sony announced 19 lenses and 2 tele-converters, of which the majority were rebranded Konica Minolta lenses. At the 2007 PMA trade show, Sony unveiled several new lenses, but referred to them only in qualitative terms and did not provide specifications.
On 18 May 2009, Sony introduced the first A-mount lenses to feature their new SAM in-lens auto-focus motor for more lens-specific AF speed improvements. This introduction was made with the new "+30" series camera bodies; these new bodies retain an in-body focus motor for backward compatibility with the historic lens collection. In addition, the new bodies utilize HDMI output for display on HDTV sets and feature dual memory card slots for both Sony's proprietary Memory Stick Pro Duo chips as well as SDHC media format, while eliminating CompactFlash support. In 2010 Sony added the E-mount system to their Sony α lineup; this includes mirrorless cameras as well as camcorders. First they were all called "NEX" but this name has been dropped for "ILCE" for the mirrorless stills cameras; the 4-pin Auto-lock Accessory Shoe on all Sony DSLRs/SLTs and some NEX models up to 2012-08 was introduced by Minolta in 1988 for their Maxxum/Dynax/α series of A-mount AF SLRs and was used on their digital DiMAGE A cameras series.
It offers a slide-on auto-locking mechanism but is mechanically incompatible with hotshoes based on the ISO 518 standard as utilized by most other camera and accessory manufacturers. A compatible 7-pin variant existed as well, but was used by Minolta, not at all by Sony; the passive adapters Minolta FS-1100 and FS-PC allow to adapt Minolta AF and TTL flashes with ISO-based foot to cameras with Auto-lock Accessory Shoe, whereas the FS-1200 allows users to use AF TTL flashes with Auto-lock Accessory Foot on earlier Minolta SLRs. These adapters provide no voltage protection or galvanic isolation, but they maintain TTL support with Minolta film cameras. Digital cameras, require digital-ready flashes for TTL support. If no TTL support, but voltage protection and galvanic isolation is required, the Sony FA-HS1AM can be used instead to mount ISO-based equipment on Auto-lock Accessory Shoe cameras. If no electrical connection is re
Russell Emanuel is a British entrepreneur and producer. He is the co-founder, CEO of Extreme Music, which creates and licenses music for use in television, film and online media, the president and CEO of Bleeding Fingers Custom Music Shop, a scoring, composition,and music production company co-founded with Hans Zimmer and Steve Kofsky. Emanuel was born in London to Maureen Emanuel and Edward Potok, a Polish survivor of World War II, he grew up in a working-class neighborhood in North London, began to play the guitar when he was a child. As a teenager, Emanuel played in bands and bought his first electric guitar with money earned from a paper route, he left high school at 15 and remained in London, where he became involved in the English punk scene of the late 1970s. After leaving secondary school, Emanuel got a job in the mailroom at the BBC, he was a studio assistant at MCA Music Publishing as well as a tape operator and a sound engineer at studios including Abbey Road. During the same time period, he played bass in a punk band, Class Ties, who released an album on EMI in 1981.
In the mid-80s, he began to manage bands including The Jam and Stiff Little Fingers, with whom he co-wrote several songs and engineered. Emanuel was introduced to production music when he was hired by Bruton Music, a production music library. Although he worked in the mailroom, he and a friend, Warren Bennett, were asked to record an album for the library. Bennett's father, Brian Bennett who had played with The Shadows and Cliff Richard, served as the album's producer. Commenting on the aesthetic of production music of the time, Emanuel said: "Bruton was one of the first production music libraries, it was all on vinyl back and with a few exceptions tended to be full of people knocking out soundalikes of current hits. They'd change the chord structure round a bit and that would be it." Over the next fifteen years and Bennett received royalty payments for the Bruton soundalike album. Emanuel was subsequently hired by MatchMusic, a small music library, began to compose production music with SLF drummer Dolph Taylor.
In addition to writing while on tour with portable equipment and Taylor wrote together in a small MIDI studio in Taylor's London flat. With significant success, Taylor joined the staff of Match Music, he and Emanuel ran the company. Rather than writing and recording the "traditional old-school emulations," Emanuel and Taylor approached commercial artists, many of whom they knew, to create tracks with high production values, they subsequently developed the "Extreme Music" series for Match, creating production music by established artists. In 1997, when MatchMusic was sold to BMG, Emanuel and Taylor decided to found their own library, naming the company Extreme Music, it was pitched as a "production music company that would up the industry ante by using professional recording equipment and top-notch musicians" and financed through a $100,000 investment from Mark Levinson, a previous owner of Palan Music,Extreme Music was positioned to reflect the punk rock ethos of its founders. With a focus on production, they intentionally limited the size of the catalogue, "upping the industry ante by using professional recording studios and top-notch musicians."
Through keeping the library's emphasis on quality over quantity, they streamlined the process of selecting music for advertising agencies and music supervisors building one of the most profitable production music libraries in the UK. In August 2005 it was bought by Viacom for $45.1 million, in 2008 it was acquired by Sony/ATV Music Publishing. The terms of the sale were not disclosed. Extreme Music remains based in London. In 2005 it expanded to include a production facility in California. Additional offices were opened globally, as of 2016, Extreme had built a library which contained 15,000 original copyrights. Noting its size and the impact of using only high-quality music in the library, Emanuel said: “We’re surgical about what we put in the catalog,” he says. “Our biggest competition, who we outperform, have a million copyrights.”In August 2013, Extreme partnered with composer Hans Zimmer and his business partner, Steve Kofsky, to found Bleeding Fingers Custom Music Shop, a joint venture.
It focuses on creating original music for use in light television drama, animated features, reality television and film scores. Emanuel serves as the company's president and CEO. In 2017, Emanuel produced the track "Ocean", a Zimmer and Radiohead collaboration for the BBC's Blue Planet II. Extreme Music Bleeding Fingers Custom Music Shop
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
BRAVIA is a brand of Sony Visual Products Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation, used for its television products. Its backronym is "Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture". All Sony high-definition flat-panel LCD televisions in North America have carried the logo for BRAVIA since 2005. BRAVIA replaces the "LCD WEGA" which Sony used for their LCD TVs until Summer 2005. Bravia televisions and their components are manufactured in Sony's plants in Mexico and Slovakia for their respective regions and are assembled from imported parts in Brazil, China and Ecuador. Principal design work for BRAVIA products is performed at Sony's research facilities in Japan, at the research and development department at the Sony de Mexico facility in Baja California, Mexico and at the Sony Europe facility in Nitra, Slovakia; the brand is used on mobile phones in North American and European markets. In 2014, in part of Hirai's plans to turn Sony around, BRAVIA was made into an subsidiary rather than just a brand of products.
In May 2015 Sony launched their first lineup of Android television Bravia models, which allows users to access content from services like YouTube and Hulu as well as install apps and games from the Google Play Store. Noteworthy for being the first Android TV available. Android TV on Sony televisions are now integrated with the Google Assistant for controlling your home automation and voice commands. In September 2016, Sony announced. Sony introduced their OLED TV under the BRAVIA brand, named as the A1E in January 2017 with a X1 Extreme processor; the AF8 was the next OLED TV introduced by SONY at CES 2018. At IFA 2018, the A9F was unveiled. Like other TVs from SONY, their OLED TVs have Android TV. In April 2007, Sony launched the BRAVIA TDM-IP1, a docking cradle to permit playback of audio and video hosted on an Apple iPod on a BRAVIA model television. Current accessories available include Wi-Fi adapter. Sony Bravia Internet Video first became available in late 2009 on Internet enabled Bravia TV's becoming available on Sony Blu-ray and home theatre systems.
The original Bravia Internet Video was built around Sony's XMB interface and had several streaming media partners including: Amazon Video On Demand, YouTube, Yahoo!, Netflix and Sony Video. 2011 saw a revamp of Bravia Internet Video, with a rework of the interface and an added Skype capability. Sony Bravia Internet TV is the first TV to incorporate Google TV only available in the US it plans to revolutionize IPTV. XBR8 is a series of Sony BRAVIA LCD High Definition Televisions, they were released into the US marketplace starting in September 2008. The 46- and 55-inch models of the XBR8 series features an RGB LED backlight system which Sony calls Triluminos; the new backlight system is claimed to provide a truer and higher color spectrum and allows this series of televisions to rival plasma displays in terms of dark blacks. This model marked the debut of Sony's new video processor, the BRAVIA Engine 2 Pro; the display panel offers the 120 Hz MotionFlow technology. The XBR8 line offers two screen sizes.
The second model, the 55" became available for order in October 2008. For sale in Japan on July 30, 2008, Sony's green product, a new flat-panel 32-inch TV for ¥150,000 BRAVIA KDL-32JE1 offers ecological consumers the advantage of 70% less energy consumption than regular models with same image quality. For consumers who rely on electricity generated from carbon dioxide emitting sources, it reduces carbon dioxide emissions totaling 79 kilograms a year. Sony uses a BRAVIA image processing engine in high-end mobile devices produced by its Sony Mobile Communications), starting with the Xperia arc model in 2011. Subsequent flagship models of Sony's smartphone range such as the Xperia S, Xperia Z use enhanced versions of the BRAVIA engine. In addition, BRAVIA brand phones have been produced by Sony/Sony Ericsson. BRAVIA brand phones are able to watch 1seg terrestrial television. For NTT DoCoMo FOMA SO903iTV FOMA SO906i FOMA SO-01C For au by KDDIU1 S004 S005 The LCD panels within BRAVIA TVs are manufactured by Sony corporation with a special architecture.
Since 2010, high end Bravia LX, HX and selected NX series use 10th gen Sony Bravia ASV panel. The 8th gen SPVA panel from Sony LCD continue to serve other budget Bravia models. Many Sony televisions with USB connectivity run Linux; the software can be upgraded via a USB type A interface labeled "DMEx / service only" and via the Internet for models. 2006–2007 models may be updated using Memory Stick or USB. Depending upon the country and TV standard the Tuner may need a Service Device to update it, it appears that units manufactured through November 2005 for sale in Asia and North America contained a software bug that prevented the device from powering up/down after 1200 hours. A free upgrade is available
FeliCa is a contactless RFID smart card system from Sony in Japan used in electronic money cards. The name stands for Felicity Card. First utilized in the Octopus card system in Hong Kong, the technology is used in a variety of cards in countries such as Singapore, Japan and the United States. FeliCa's encryption key is dynamically generated each time mutual authentication is performed, preventing fraud such as impersonation. FeliCa is externally powered, i.e. it does not need a battery to operate. The card uses power supplied from the special FeliCa card reader; when the data transfer is complete, the reader will stop the supply of power. FeliCa was rejected. However, ISO/IEC 18092 uses some similar modulation methods, it uses Manchester coding at 212 kbit/s in the 13.56 MHz range. A proximity of 10 centimeters or less is required for communication. FeliCa complies with JIS: X6319-4: Specification of implementation for integrated circuit cards - Part 4: High speed proximity cards; the standard is regulated by JICSAP.
The UK IT security evaluation and certification scheme provides more detail as to the internal architecture of the FeliCa card. FeliCa IC card and its operating system has obtained ISO15408 Evaluation Assurance Level 4, a standard which indicates the security level of information technology and consumer products. FeliCa is included as a condition of the NFC Forum Specification Compliance; the next generation of FeliCa IC chip announced in June 2011 will have enhanced security adopting the Advanced Encryption Standard encryption. Sony claims the next generation chip will have a higher performance and lower power consumption. FeliCa supports simultaneous access of up to 8 blocks. If an IC card is moved outside of the power-supplied area during the session, the FeliCa card automatically discards incomplete data to restore the previous state. Mobile FeliCa is a modification of FeliCa for use in mobile phones by FeliCa Networks, a subsidiary company of both NTT DoCoMo and Sony. DoCoMo has developed a wallet phone concept based on Mobile FeliCa and has developed a wide network of partnerships and business models.
Au and SoftBank have licensed mobile FeliCa from FeliCa Networks. The Osaifu-Keitai system was developed by NTT DoCoMo, introduced in July 2004 and licensed to Vodafone and au, which introduced the product in their own mobile phone ranges under the same name. Using Osaifu-Keitai, multiple FeliCa systems can be accessed from a single mobile phone. On January 28, 2006, au introduced Mobile Suica, used on the railway networks owned by JR East. On September 7, 2016, Apple announced. Users who purchased iPhone 7 or Apple Watch Series 2 in Japan can now add Suica cards into their Apple Pay wallets and tap their devices just like regular Suica cards. Users can either transfer the balance from a physical Suica card to the Apple Pay wallet, or create a virtual Suica card in the wallet from the JR East application. On September 12, 2017, Apple announced new iPhone 8, iPhone X and Apple Watch Series 3 models featuring "Global FeliCa", i.e. NFC-F and licensed FeliCa middleware incorporated in all devices sold worldwide, not just ones sold in Japan.
On October 9, 2018, Google announced that its latest Pixel device, the Pixel 3, would support FeliCa in models purchased in Japan. This feature enables support for WAON, SuiCa, various other FeliCa-based services through Google Pay. Sony has built a FeliCa reader/writer known as "FeliCa Port" into their VAIO PC line. Using the device, FeliCa cards can be used over the Internet for charging FeliCa cards. An external USB FeliCa PC reader/writer has been released as well, called PaSoRi, it is USB powered and allows one to perform online transactions and top up EZ-link cards in Singapore with credit cards or debit cards anywhere, as long as there is direct access to the Internet. The Sony PaSoRi Reader is not compatible with the new ez-link cards. United States University Campuses Octopus cards, Hong Kong Shenzhen TransCard, China Chang'An Card, Xi'an, China Pay Ease, Chong Qing, China Unified Automatic Fare Collection Scheme completed by Q4 2009, United Arab Emirates EZ-link, Singapore Metro Card, Thailand SPASS card, Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation, Bangladesh Indonesia: Multi-Trip Card, KRL Commuter, Jakarta Dompetku D-Tap, Indosat Ooredoo Jelajah, Jakarta MRT Japan: The system is de facto standard in Japan.
Electronic money or mobile payment: Edy, bitWallet eLIO, Sony Finance International iD, NTT DoCoMo nanaco, Seven & I Holdings Co. Osaifu Keitai QUICPay, Japan Credit Bureau and AEON Credit Service Smartplus, Mitsubishi UFJ NICOS ToruCa, NTT DoCoMo Visa Touch, Visa International WAON, AEON Group Public transportation payment: Major cards: ICOCA, JR West Kitaca, JR Hokkaidō PASMO, railways and buses in Kantō region PiTaPa, railways and buses in Kansai SUGOCA, JR Kyūshū nimoca, public transportation in Fukuoka Prefecture Suica, JR East TOICA, JR Central Manaca, public transportation in Tōkai region See the table below for other cards; as FeliCa is the de facto smart card ticketing system standard in Japan, many of these cards have integrated services. A particular region/operator may acc
Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company that produces and distributes filmed entertainment through multiple platforms. Through an intermediate holding company called Sony Film Holding Inc. it is operated as a subsidiary of Sony Entertainment Inc., itself a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, a wholly owned subsidiary and the US headquarters of the Tokyo-based multinational technology and media conglomerate Sony Corporation. Based in Culver City, California, it encompasses Sony's motion picture, television production and distribution units, its group sales in the fiscal year 2017 has been reported to be $9.133 billion. SPE is the Motion Picture Association of America. Sony Pictures' film franchises include The Karate Kid, Spider-Man, Stuart Little, Men in Black, Robert Langdon, The Smurfs, Hotel Transylvania, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, many more. On September 1, 1987, The Coca-Cola Company announced plans to spin off its assets of Columbia Pictures, which it had owned since 1982.
Under this arrangement, Coca-Cola would sell its entertainment assets to TriStar Pictures, of which it owned 39.6%. Tri-Star would be renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. with Coca-Cola owning 49%, its shareholders owning 31%, Tri-Star's shareholders owning 20%. A new company was formed in early 1988 with the Tri-Star name to take over the studio's operations. On September 28, 1989, Sony obtained an option to purchase all of The Coca-Cola Company's stock in CPE for $27 per share; the next day, Sony announced that it reached an agreement with Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, Inc. to acquire CPE for $200 million when Sony hired Peter Guber and Jon Peters to be its co-chairmen. This was all led by Norio Ohga, the president and CEO of Sony during that time; the hiring of Guber and Peters by Sony to run Columbia was conflicted by a previous contract the producers had signed at Warner Bros. Time Warner's chairman, Steve Ross, threatened Sony with a lawsuit for breach of contract; the lawsuit would be subsequently dropped when Sony sold half-interest in Columbia House and cable distribution rights to Columbia's feature films, TV movies, miniseries to Warner Bros.
That same agreement saw Columbia sell its 35% interest in the Burbank Studios and acquired Lorimar Studios the MGM lot, from Warner Bros. On October 31, 1989, Sony completed a friendly takeover bid for the rest of shares of CPE, a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, acquired 99.3% of the common stock of the company. On November 8, 1989, Sony completed the acquisition by a "short-form" merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Sony Columbia Acquisition Corporation into CPE under Delaware law. Sony completed a tender offer for shares of common stock of the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company on November 6, 1989 and acquired the company 3 days later; the acquisition cost Sony $4.9 billion and was backed by five major Japanese banks Mitsui, Fuji and Industrial Bank of Japan. The company was renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment on August 7, 1991. Sony has since created numerous other film production and distribution units, such as creating Sony Pictures Classics for art-house fare, by forming Columbia TriStar Pictures by merging Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures in 1998, revitalizing Columbia's former television division Screen Gems.
It expanded its operations on April 8, 2005, when a Sony-led consortium acquired the legendary Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in a US$4.8 billion leveraged buyout, through the holding company MGM Holdings Inc. This in effect re-united the MGM studio name, with the MGM main studio lot, although somewhat confusingly, the bulk of the pre-1986 original MGM library ended up at Warner Bros. via the Ted Turner-Kirk Kerkovian "Turner Entertainment Company" transactions. The post-1986 MGM library consists of acquisitions of various third-party libraries, such as the Orion Pictures catalogue, leading to the MGM version of "Robocop". On June 4, 2008, SPE's wholly owned group 2JS Productions B. V. acquired Dutch production company 2waytraffic N. V. famous for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, acquired from the original production company Celador, You Are What You Eat for £114.3 million. In 2011, the Sony Pictures computer network was breached and one million user accounts associated with the SonyPictures.com website were leaked.
On November 18, 2012, Sony Pictures announced it has passed $4 billion with the success of releases: Skyfall, The Amazing Spider-Man, 21 Jump Street, Men in Black 3, Hotel Transylvania, Underworld: Awakening, The Vow, Resident Evil: Retribution. On November 21, 2013, SPE and Sony Entertainment's CEO Michael Lynton announced that SPE will shift emphasis from movies to television by cutting its 2014 film slate, it was announced on the same day, that there will be more Spider-Man sequels and spin-offs, though in February 10, 2015, Sony Pictures signed a deal with Disney's Marvel Studios to allow Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Captain America: Civil War, before appearing in Spider-Man: Homecoming, released on July 7, 2017. The deal allowed Sony to distribute and have creative control on any MCU film where Spider-Man is the main chara