The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Cool as Ice
Cool as Ice is a 1991 American romantic musical comedy film directed by David Kellogg and starring rapper Vanilla Ice in his feature film debut. The film focuses on the character of Johnny Van Owen, a freewheeling, motorcycle-riding rapper who arrives in a small town and meets Kathy, an honor student who catches his eye. Meanwhile, Kathy's father, in witness protection, is found by the corrupt police officers he escaped from years ago; the film was developed as a vehicle for Vanilla Ice. It received negative reviews, was a commercial failure, grossing only $1.2 million from a $6 million budget. Johnny Van Owen is a rapper. Johnny is performing at a nightclub and dancing with his crew and a club background songstress playing "Cool as Ice". While the group passes through a small town, Johnny falls for honor student Kathy Winslow; the crew is stranded in the town after a member's motorcycle breaks down and has to be left at a local repair shop. While waiting for repairs, Johnny uses the opportunity to see Kathy.
She has a boyfriend named Nick, whom he advises Kathy to dump. Johnny shows up with his crew at a local club frequented by her friends. Noticing that no one was enjoying the live music playing at the club and the crew decide to perform a musical number, "People's Choice", by unplugging the other band's instruments and taking control, shocking the audience and ending with Johnny sweeping Kathy off her feet, humiliating Nick, he offers to forgive Kathy and take her home. Unbeknownst to Kathy, she is stalked by two strange men in a car, she is saved by Johnny. At the club's parking lot, a jealous Nick and his friends smash up motorcycles belonging to Johnny's friends. Nick's friends attack the rapping biker who fights back, leaving Nick and his buddies unconscious and Nick himself in the hospital with a broken nose. Kathy's father, becomes suspicious of Johnny, warns Kathy to stay away from him because they can't trust strangers; the next day, Kathy goes for a ride with Johnny against her father's wishes.
They ride all including a construction site. When they return home, they are greeted by an angry Gordon, who coldly warns Johnny to stay away from his daughter. Gordon, under pressure from his wife Grace, reveals to Kathy the secret of his past—he was once a police officer, they were on the run from two corrupt cops and were able to escape using fabricated documents, explaining why he kept his life a secret from Kathy all these years. Kathy criticizes her father, saying it was not fair that he lied to her in order to protect her, yet refuse to permit her to see a total stranger; the next day, Johnny agrees to give Kathy's younger brother, a ride on his bike. They cruise through the streets, back to the Winslow home, where Tommy is kidnapped. At the repair shop, the crew prepares to leave town since the bike has been repaired, but they tell Johnny to say goodbye to Kathy; when Johnny arrives at the Winslow house, he finds an envelope meant for the family. It turns out to be a message from the crooked cops with Tommy recording it.
Fearing the worst, Gordon accuses Johnny of criminal involvement, much to Kathy's dismay. When Kathy asks Johnny to play the tape left behind by the kidnappers, he hears a loud clanging noise from a construction vehicle, revealing the message was recorded at the construction site; the gang ambushes the kidnappers and rescue Tommy. When the police arrive, the gang return Tommy to the Winslows, Gordon apologizes to Johnny; the rapper tells Kathy he has to move on. Nick arrives in his car, telling Kathy to get used to being a biker chick because she will never see him again. Kathy holds on as Johnny uses the car as the two new lovers ride off into the big city; the film ends with Johnny reaching his destination, rapping "Get Wit It" and dancing with his crew to an audience at a night club. Kathy joins him on stage. Vanilla Ice as John'Johnny' Van Owen Kristin Minter as Kathy Winslow Michael Gross as Gordon Winslow Deezer D as Jazz John Haymes Newton as Nick Candy Clark as Grace Winslow Victor DiMattia as Tommy Winslow Naomi Campbell as Singer Kathryn Morris as Jen Jack McGee as Clarke S. A. Griffin as Morrisey Sydney Lassick as Roscoe Dody Goodman as Mae Filming began in April 1991.
The role of Kathy was offered to Gwyneth Paltrow. Her father Bruce Paltrow forbade her from accepting it; the director of photography for the film was future Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan, Minority Report cinematographer Janusz Kamiński. The film's soundtrack album contained four new songs by Vanilla Ice, as well as other material, it peaked at No. 89 on the Billboard 200. The film opened in 393 theaters in the United States, grossing $638,000, ranking at No. 14 among the week's new releases. Reviews of the film were negative. Film website Rotten Tomatoes, which compiles reviews from a wide range of critics, gives the film a score of 7% based on reviews from 14 critics. Blender ranked Van Winkle's performance in the film as the seventh-worst performance by a musician turned actor. Director David Kellogg disowned the film. Cool as Ice on IMDb Cool as Ice at AllMovie Cool as Ice at Box Office Mojo
Bi-Polar (Vanilla Ice album)
Bi-Polar is the fourth studio album by Vanilla Ice. Released by Ultrax Records, it is the rapper's second independent release, after Hooked; the song "Unbreakable" was remade for Dance Dance Revolution II as "Still Unbreakable", with additional verses from Vanilla Ice himself and production from Konami in-house artist Des-ROW. The album was planned as a double album consisting of one disc of rock music and one disc of hip hop music. Before its release, it was decided that the two parts of the album would be released on one disc, with each part labeled; each side of the booklet features a different cover for each part. Skabz features appearances from heavy metal music figures such as former Slipknot guitarist Josh "Gnar" Brainard, Roy Mayorga, Billy Milano. Bomb Tha System notably features appearances from Insane Poetry's Cyco, Chuck D, the Insane Clown Posse, Wu-Tang Clan affiliate La the Darkman. In the initial publicity for the album, Vanilla Ice claimed that the album would feature a guest appearance from Lenny Kravitz.
Although Vanilla Ice is credited as "V-Ice" and "Ice" on the album, there was never any intent to change his stage name. The performer is quoted as saying "people are asking me. I'm proud of it and I'm not trying to run from anything or hide from anything." On "Hip Hop Rules", Vanilla Ice praises. "Dirty South" and "Tha Weed Song" are about marijuana. "Molton", "Nothing is Real" and "Primal Side" deal with Vanilla Ice's mortality and thoughts of death, while "Elvis Killed Kennedy" and "Hate" criticize the current condition the world is in. A lot of the songs feature a mixture of explicit and humorous lyrics such as "Exhale", while songs like "Insane Killas" could be described as horrorcore hip hop; the hardcore hip hop songs on the album, like "Detonator", "O. K. S." and "Unbreakable", flow. Although having mentioned him a couple of times in past interviews, Bi-Polar features Vanilla Ice's only musical response to Eminem, referencing him since the 90s and in every record since The Slim Shady LP.
In "Exhale", Ice claims that Marshall Mathers' initials stand for Mini-Me, a reference to the Austin Powers franchise because the first film referenced Vanilla Ice. Ice remarked that he has no real beef with Eminem. Eminem did however name-drop Vanilla Ice again on The Eminem Show, mentioning being reborn as his son, in the film 8 Mile. Five singles were released, "Nothing is Real","Get Your Ass Up", "Tha Weed Song", "Hot Sex" & "Elvis Killed Kennedy" Bomb tha System was reissued under the title Hot Sex on May 26, 2002, with alternate artwork depicting a woman in revealing clothing alongside Vanilla Ice. According to a Sony BMG executive, sales of Bi-Polar were "not bad...for Vanilla Ice. That's pretty respectable. Seriously." The album was universally panned by critics. Bradley Torreano of Allmusic disliked the album, calling it "wildly uneven and at times hilariously bad". Torreano referred to the album's heavy metal-influenced songs as being "terribly generic" and derivative of bands such as Korn and Deftones.
Torreano praised the production of the hip hop songs, but described their lyrics as "boring and simplistic", felt that the inclusion of the phone messages at the end of the album was not necessary. Torreano called "Elvis Killed Kennedy" "the best song on the album" and described it as "a sadly rare example of the talent that still has". "Hot Sex" "Im Nin'Alu" by Ofra Haza"Elvis Killed Kennedy" "Best of My Love" by The Emotions Bi-Polar at AllMusic
Play That Funky Music
"Play That Funky Music" is a song written by Rob Parissi and recorded by the band Wild Cherry. The single was the first released by the Cleveland-based Sweet City record label in April 1976 and distributed by Epic Records; the performers on the recording included lead singer Parissi, electric guitarist Bryan Bassett, bassist Allen Wentz, drummer Ron Beitle, with session players Chuck Berginc, Jack Brndiar, Joe Eckert and Rick Singer on the horn riff that runs throughout the song's verses. The single hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on September 18, 1976; the single was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments of over 2 million records and sold 2.5 million in the United States alone. The song was listed at No. 93 on Billboard magazine's "All-Time Top 100 Songs" in 2018. It was the group's only US Top 40 song. American rapper Vanilla Ice released a song featuring an interpretation of "Play That Funky Music". Based on this single, the independent record label Ichiban Records signed Vanilla Ice to a record deal, releasing the album Hooked in January 1989, containing "Play That Funky Music" and its B-side, "Ice Ice Baby".
Songwriter Robert Parissi was not credited. Parissi was awarded $500,000 in a copyright infringement lawsuit. Although it did not catch on, its B-side, "Ice Ice Baby", gained more success when a disc jockey played that track instead of the single's A-side. Following the success of "Ice Ice Baby", "Play That Funky Music" was reissued as its own single, peaked at no. 4 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and no. 10 in the UK. In 1988, the band Roxanne reached number 63 on the Billboard Hot 100 with a cover version; the song appears on the soundtrack of the film Evolution and on the open show Ces Gars-Là, a French-Canadian show on V Télé featuring the stand-up comic Sugar Sammy and Simon-Olivier Fecteau. The song is featured in the video game Guitar Hero 5. List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1976 List of Cash Box Top 100 number-one singles of 1976 List of number-one R&B singles of 1976
Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the '90s
Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the'90s is a music reference book by American music journalist and essayist Robert Christgau. It was published in October 2000 by St. Martin's Press and collects 3,800 capsule album reviews written by Christgau between 1990 and 2000 for his "Consumer Guide" column in The Village Voice. Text from his other writings for the Voice, Rolling Stone and Playboy during this period was featured; the book is the third in a series of "Consumer Guide" collections, following Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies and Christgau's Record Guide: The'80s. As the music industry and record production expanded during the 1980s, Robert Christgau found himself overwhelmed by records to listen to and review for his "Consumer Guide" column in The Village Voice. In September 1990, he abandoned his original letter-grading scheme on a scale of A-plus to E-minus, which had B-plus records as the most reviewed and grades going lower than C-minus. Instead, he decided to focus on writing reviews for A-minus to A-plus albums, with A-minus becoming the most common and those that would have ranged from B-minus to C-plus ignored.
This change was made because, as Christgau said, "most of my readers—not critics and bizzers, but real-life consumers—used my primary critical outlet for its putative purpose. They wanted to know what to buy."In this new format, B-plus records were only reviewed and most were filed under an "Honorable Mention" section, featuring one short phrasal statement for each album alongside its recommended tracks. Records he considered poor were relegated to a list of ungraded "Duds" or featured in a special November column dedicated to negative reviews, with the highest possible grade a B-minus. Christgau refined his new format further as the 1990s progressed, anticipating the decade's rapid increase in music recording and the diversification of the CD into longer album lengths and archival releases. In 1992, he started a "Neither" category denoting albums unworthy of an "honorable mention" but better than "duds"; the following year, an argument with fellow critic Eric Weisbard persuaded Christgau to review in each column a "Dud of the Month", unlike the "Turkey Shoot", featured "a fair number of dull, disappointing, or overhyped B's".
In the book, Christgau advises consumers to regard anything graded B and lower as a failure. The book explains each grade as follows: A-plus: "a record of sustained beauty, insight, and/or googlefritz that has invited and repaid repeated listenings in the daily life of someone with 500 other CDs to get to."A: "a record that flags for more than two or three tracks. Not every listener will feel what it's trying to do, but anyone with ears will agree that it's doing it."A-minus: "the kind of garden-variety good record, the great luxury of musical micromarketing and overproduction. Anyone open to its aesthetic will enjoy more than half its tracks."B-plus: "remarkable one way or another, yet flirts with the humdrum or the half-assed." Honorable Mention: "an enjoyable effort consumers attuned to its overriding aesthetic or individual vision may well treasure." Honorable Mention: "an likable effort consumers attuned to its overriding aesthetic or individual vision may well enjoy." Honorable Mention: "a worthy effort consumers attuned to its overriding aesthetic or individual vision may well like."
Christgau clarified that the three- and two-star honorable mentions "are B pluses I adjudge unworthy of a full review. Neither: "may impress once or twice with consistent craft or an arresting track or two, it won't." When the "Neither" entries were republished on Christgau's website, they were indicated by a cartoon impassive face. Choice Cut: "a good song on an album that isn't worth your time or money--sometimes a Neither, more a Dud." The "choice cut" entries are indicated by cartoon scissors on Christgau's website. Dud: "a bad record whose details merit further thought. At the upper level it may be overrated, disappointing, or dull. Down below it may be contemptible." Album era 1990s in music Rockism and poptimism Spin Alternative Record Guide Christgau, Robert. Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the'90s. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-24560-2. Christgau, Robert. "Xgau Sez". Robertchristgau.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019. Murray, Noel. "Inventory: 17 Essential Books About Popular Music".
The A. V. Club. Retrieved August 20, 2018. Reviews and interviews about the book Cartwright, Garth. "Master of the rock review". The Guardian. Dansby, Andrew. "Critic Christgau Wraps the'90s". Rolling Stone. Klein, Joshua. "Robert Christgau: Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums Of The'90s". The A. V. Club. Manzler, Scott. "Christgau's Consumer Guide To Albums Of The'90s". No Depression. Murray, Noel. "A Critical Matter". Nashville Scene. Pick, Steve. "The Pleasure Principle". Riverfront Times. Official website