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New Providence is the most populous island in The Bahamas, containing more than 70% of the total population. It is the location of the national capital city of Nassau, whose boundaries are coincident with the island; the island was under Spanish control following Christopher Columbus's discovery of the New World, but the Spanish government showed little interest in developing the island. Nassau, the island's largest city, was known as Charles-town, but it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684, it was laid out and renamed Nassau in 1695 by Nicholas Trott, the most successful Lord Proprietor, in honor of the Prince of Orange-Nassau who became William III of England. The three branches of Bahamian Government: the executive, the legislative, the judiciary, are all headquartered on New Providence. New Providence functions as the main commercial hub of The Bahamas, it is home to more than 400 banks and trust companies, its hotels and port account for more than two-thirds of the four million-plus tourists who visit The Bahamas annually.
Other settlements on New Providence include Grants Town, Bain Town, Fox Hill, Yamacraw, South Beach, Coral Harbour, Lyford Cay, Paradise Island, Sea Breeze, The Grove and The Grove, Cable Beach, Gambier, Old Fort Bay, Love Beach. The name New Providence Island is derived from a 16th‐century governor who gave thanks to Divine Providence for his survival after a shipwreck; the "New" was added to distinguish it from Providencia off the Mosquito Coast used by pirates. After 1670, Bermudian salt rakers gathering sea salt in Grand Turk and Inagua became regular visitors to the island; the first lasting European occupation was on Eleuthera in 1648, New Providence in 1666. By 1670, there were over 900 people on the settlement of Charles-Town. Due to ineffective governors, Charles-Town was attacked by the French and Spanish navies, became a home base for pirates, was destroyed by a Spanish attack in 1684. However, two years in 1686, new English colonists from Jamaica came and settled, they were called back by the governor of Jamaica.
In 1695, Governor Nicolas Trott rebuilt the town and added a fort, both were called Nassau. However, the fort was damaged in a Spanish attack in 1700 and the colonists abandoned the fort in 1703 after a French and Spanish attack. Due to the lack of cannon and soldiers in the fort, New Providence soon became a home base for pirates. By 1713, there were over 1000 pirates in Nassau and they outnumbered the 400–500 law-abiding inhabitants. In 1718, Governor Woodes Rogers came in and offered a pardon for any pirate willing to give up their ways. Using his intelligence and threatening to execute them if they did not take the pardon, Rogers was able to rid Nassau of pirates. In February 1776, American Esek Hopkins led a squadron of over seven ships in an effort to raid the British-held island in order to secure supplies and munitions. In an event known as the Battle of Nassau, on March 3 and 4, Hopkins landed the first-ever amphibious assault by American military forces consisting of 250 Marines and sailors.
Under the covering fire of the Providence and Wasp, the attackers overwhelmed Fort Montague. The British retreated to Fort Nassau, but surrendered to Continental forces; the Americans managed to secure 88 cannon and 15 mortars, but most of the much desired gunpowder was evacuated before capture. Hopkins spent two weeks loading his ships with the booty before returning home; the frigate South Carolina, of the South Carolina Navy, arrived at Havana on 12 January 1782. At Havana, after negotiations between Alexander Gillon and the Spanish, the South Carolina joined a force of 59 vessels carrying Spanish forces under the overall command of Bernardo de Galvez. On 22 April the expedition sailed to capture New Providence. By May 6 the whole fleet had reached New Providence and on 8 May the British colony surrendered; this was the third capture of New Providence by a foreign force during the American Revolutionary War. After the American Revolution, several thousand Loyalists and their slaves emigrated to New Providence and nearby islands, hoping to re-establish plantation agriculture.
The shallow soils and sparse rainfall doomed this activity to failure, by the early 19th century the Bahamas had become a nearly vacant archipelago. Salt raking continued here and there, wreck gleaning was profitable in Grand Bahama, but New Providence was the only island with any prosperity because of the large British military establishment; the fortresses began to crumble and were abandoned by 1850. New Providence afterwards had two periods of high economic success: during the American Civil War of 1861–65, when it was a popular port for blockade-runners serving the Confederate States of America. By the late 19th century New Providence had begun billing itself as the "sanitarium of the western hemisphere". Testimonials by residents and visitors emphasized its mild climate with minimal daily temperature fluctuations and warm winters (a typical winter morning in the range of 70 °F to 74 °F, excellent drainage, ample variety and number of Christian churches, well-tended and rectilinear roads, modern luxurious facilities, native English-speakers.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u
Cat Island is in the central Bahamas, is one of its districts. Cat Island has the nation's highest point, Mount Alvernia, it is topped by a monastery called The Hermitage. This assembly of buildings was erected by the Franciscan "Brother Jerome"; the first European settlers were Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, who arrived in 1783. The island may have been named after Arthur Catt, a pirate, or the name may refer to its one-time large population of feral cats. Current residents complain about wanting more cats on the island; the island gained wealth from cotton plantations, but slash and burn farming is now the main way of life for Cat Islanders. An economic crop is Croton eluteria bark, gathered and shipped to Italy where it becomes a main ingredient in medicines and Campari; until written accounts were found, Cat Island was thought to be Guanahani or San Salvador, the first island Christopher Columbus arrived at in the Americas. The population of Cat Island is 1,522; the main settlements are New Bight, Arthur's Town, Orange Creek, Port Howe.
Cat Island, Tea Bay was the birthplace of famed Bahamian musician & Visual Artist Tony McKay, better known as Exuma. New Bight Airport and Arthur's Town Airport serve the island. At the top of 206 ft Como Hill is Mt. Alvernia Hermitage on Mount Alvernia, the highest point in The Bahamas; this small stone monastery built by hand by the architect hermit, Father Jerome, is at the peak and accessible by a trek up this steep rocking incline. Just south of the Hermitage are the ruins of Armbrister Plantation. Armbrister Creek flows into a clear lake called "Boiling Point" or "Boiling Hole" whose tidal conditions cause bubbles and burps, the conditions which lead to folklore of a sea monster below its surface. Rays and baby sharks can be found in the lake. In addition, numerous birds can be found nesting along its mangrove fringe. Located in Bain Town is another lake; this 65 ft wide 10 ft deep lake called Mermaid Hole is said in local folklore to be home to a mermaid that lives amongst the 4 bed holes within that lead to underground caverns and passageways.
One of the major attractions in Cat Island Bahamas is the Big Blue Hole near Orange Creek at Dickies Road. The hole is deep and it has a strong undercurrents flowing into the sea. Many objects such as dead farm animals tossed into the lake ended up reaching the ocean through its caverns. Local folklore says; this folklore is said to still scare local fisherman from venturing too far into this freshwater lake. Dickie's Road goes east to Griffin Bat Cave, once a hideout for slaves. Sitting atop a ridge alongside the road in the settlement of Old Bight is St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church, built by Father Jerome, with frescos and sculptures. In the Port Howe area of Cat Island, are the ruins of an 18th-century plantation at Deveaux House mansion, it was given to Colonel Andrew Deveaux in 1783 for protecting Nassau from Spanish invasion and occupation. In Knowles, there is a museum called the Columbus World Centre Museum. In South Bight there is the childhood home of Academy Award winner. Arthur's Town Old Bight New Bight Port Howe Devil's Point
Eleuthera refers both to a single island in the archipelagic state of The Commonwealth of the Bahamas and to its associated group of smaller islands. Eleuthera forms a part of the Great Bahama Bank; the island of Eleuthera incorporates the smaller Harbour Island. "Eleuthera" derives from the feminine Greek adjective ἐλεύθερος, meaning "free". Known in the 17th century as Cigateo, it lies 80 km east of Nassau, it is thin -- 180 km long and in places little more than 1.6 km wide. Its eastern side faces the Atlantic Ocean, its western side faces the Great Bahama Bank; the topography of the island varies from wide rolling pink sand beaches to large outcrops of ancient coral reefs, its population is 11,000. The principal economy of the island is tourism; the name Eleuthera refers both to the single Bahamian island and is used to refer to its associated chain of small islands, which include Harbour Island, Windermere Island, Man Island and Current Island. Eleuthera forms part of the Great Bahama Bank on its western edge and its eastern coastline faces the Atlantic Ocean.
The main island lies 80 km east of Nassau. It is a thin island; the island has an estimated area of 457.4 square-kilometers, presents 336 km of coastline. The topography of the island varies, including wide rolling pink sand beaches, large outcrops of ancient coral reefs and other geological features; the island features, among other flora and fauna, 13 catalogued species of native amphibian and reptile species, three of which were listed as endangered in 2000. The main island is home to a 25-acre nature preserve; the waters around Eleuthera contain an abundance of sharks and rays, attributed by the local Cape Eleuthera Institute to the banning of long-line fishing in local waters. The island's first settlers are believed to have originated from the main continent of the Americas; this Arawaks. Following increasing Spanish visits after the exploration of the area by Christopher Colombus, the local population either perished from disease or were deported by the Spanish to work in the mines of Hispaniola.
An intact wooden duho or ritual seat, made by the Taino people was found on the island of Eleuthera in the nineteenth century and is now in the collections of the British Museum. The island in its early history was known as Cigateo, but this name changed following subsequent European settlement; the island is believed to have been unoccupied until the first European settlers arrived in volume, with Puritan colonists arriving in 1648 from other parts of Bermuda. These settlers, known as the "Eleutherian Adventurers", under Captain William Sayle gave the island its current name – ἐλευθερία eleutheria – which derives from the feminine form of the Greek adjective ἐλεύθερος, meaning "free"; the difficulties of settlement left only a few of the settlers on the island, thwarting their aim of creating the first democracy in the Western Hemisphere. The island was stated to have been agriculturally prosperous in the period from 1950 to 1980; this included a large crop of pineapples for exports. When the Bahamas became independent from Britain in 1973, new ownership laws changed the nature of the island economy.
Since the island has become a popular tourist destination. In 1992 the island was damaged by the category 5 Hurricane Andrew. Relief efforts helped mitigate some of the damage, including a number of relief tasks that were carried out by HMS Cardiff as the vessel was operating in the area. Disney Cruise Line purchased in early March 2019 another Bahamas destination, Lighthouse Point property on the island of Eleuthera; the Bahama Government and Disney agree to a development plan for the area. Disney is expected to spend $250 million and $400 million on developing the 700 acre property and donate 190 acres including the southern most tip to the government for a national park. In 2000, the official census taken by the Government of the Bahamas recorded a population of 7,999 persons on the island. In 2010, the official census recorded the population as 8,202 spread across 2,718 separate households; the 2010 census stated. As of 2017 it was stated that the population of the islands were 11,000. Settlements on the island include the Bluff and Lower Bogue, Gregory Town, Alice Town, James Cistern, Governor's Harbour and South Palmetto Point, Savannah Sound, Winding Bay, Tarpum Bay, Rock Sound, Deep Creek, Delancy Town, Wemyss Bight, John Millars, Millar's and Bannerman Town.
The largest of the settlements are Governor's Harbour, Rock Sound, Tarpum Bay, Harbour Island with its unusual pink sandy beaches and Spanish Wells. The largest settlements in terms of population in Eleuthera are Dunmore Town, Spanish Wells and Rock Sound. There is an annual Pineapple Festival in Gregory Town. Eleuthera is a destination for those interested in Bahamian history and nature, neighboring Harbour Island and Spanish Wells offer further tourism experiences. Natural attractions include the Glass Window Bridge, Hatchet Bay caves and Surfer's Beach in the north, Ocean Hole and Lighthouse Beach at the south end. Preacher's Cave on the north end was home to the Eleutherian Ad