The Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal is a 31-mile long canal in England which connected the mining district around Moira, just outside the town of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, with the Coventry Canal at Bedworth in Warwickshire. It was opened in 1804, a number of tramways were constructed at its northern end, to service collieries; the canal was taken over by the Midland Railway in 1846, but remained profitable until the 1890s, after which it declined. Around 9 miles passed through the Leicestershire coal field, was affected by subsidence, with the result that this section from Moira, southwards to Snarestone, was progressively closed in 1944, 1957 and 1966, leaving 22 miles of navigable canal; the abandoned section is the subject of a restoration project and was the first canal where a new section had been authorised under the Transport and Works Act 1992. The Transport and Works Order was obtained by Leicestershire County Council, as some of the original route had been infilled and built over, restoration therefore involved construction on a new route through the centre of Measham.
It is hoped. An isolated section near Moira Furnace and the National Forest visitor centre was opened between 1999 and 2005, is the location for an annual trailboat festival; the canal starts at a junction with the Coventry Canal just outside Bedworth and travels north-east for about 7 miles through the town of Hinckley. It continues to run north through rural and remote countryside for another 15 miles until reaching its terminus at Snarestone. Near Sutton Cheney Wharf, it passes the foot of Ambion Hill, the site of the Battle of Bosworth Field. At Shackerstone, it passes the station, the headquarters of the Battlefield Line Railway. In the last half of the eighteenth century there had been an increasing need for transport to exploit the coal reserves at Ashby Wolds and lime from the quarries north of Ashby-de-la-Zouch; the first proposal was for a canal running from Burton-on-Trent on the upper River Trent to Marston on the Coventry Canal. A second suggestion was for a canal from Ashby Wolds to the Coventry Canal at Griff.
Both proposals were made in December 1781. The first was opposed by the Coventry company. Robert Whitworth had estimated the cost of the project at £46,396, but the scheme was dropped a year later. William Jessop proposed a canal and tramway between Breedon and the Trent, with a connecting link to the Trent and Mersey Canal in 1787, which came to nothing. A proposal in 1790 was well received at the time, but opposition afterwards prevented a bill being submitted to Parliament. Another proposal for a canal northwards to the Trent at Burton was discussed between 1791 and 1793. There was wide support for a canal to Griff in 1792, but the muted support of Penn Assheton Curzon, a local landowner and Member of Parliament, led to it being dropped. In October 1792, Robert Whitworth revised his plan from 1781; the proposal featured a level canal from Griff, near Nuneaton, to Ashby Wolds, which would cost £63,402. From there it would climb 139 feet to a summit which would be supplied with water by a steam pumping engine.
After a further 5 miles, the summit level would descend through 84 feet to level branches, which would serve collieries at Ticknall, Cloud Hill, near Breedon-on-the-Hill, Staunton Harold. The cost of this section would be £82,143; the plans were checked by Jessop, formed the basis for a bill to authorise a company with powers to raise £150,000 of capital. Hard negotiation with Curzon and the Coventry Canal was required, during which the junction with the Coventry Canal was moved from Griff to Marston, but the bill became an Act of Parliament in May 1794. Whitworth and his son called Robert, were appointed as engineers in July, construction began.. By October 1796, it had become obvious that the costs of construction had been underestimated. In addition, around one quarter of the shareholders had not honoured their pledges, so the company had less capital than expected; the company decided. For a brief time at the start of 1797, the company investigated the possibility of extending the canal to the River Trent at Burton-on-Trent, building tramways from the quarries to the river.
Amalgamation with the Trent Navigation was considered, but the plans failed due to the lack of capital. In May 1797, Robert Whitworth Jr. became ill, the Whitworths were replaced by Thomas Newbold. An investigation at that time into the state of the collieries at Ashby Wolds revealed that they were unlikely to be producing coal by the time the canal opened. By March the following year, the top section from Ashby Wolds to Market Bosworth was operational; the company had been considering the option of building tramways since 1793, asked Newbold to investigate the possible lines for railways which would serve the canal at Ashby Wolds in June 1798. They asked Benjamin Outram to advise, he reported in September, he suggested running the lines to Willesley Basin rather than Ashby Wolds, as this route would cost over £8,000 less. The lines as built ran from the basin through Ashby to a junction at Old Parks, where one branch ran through Lount to Cloud Hill, replacing the proposed canal and its diversion through Coleorton.
The other branch led from Old Parks to Ticknall, with branches to the quarries between Calke Abbey and Staunton Harold. The total length of the lines was around 12.5 miles (20 km
Shacklewell Hollow is a 3.2 hectares biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Empingham in Rutland, beside the A606 road. This marshy site is in the valley of a tributary of the River Gwash; the marsh is dominated by hard rush, there are several artificial ponds with large populations of mare's tail. There are areas of calcareous grassland and alder wood; the site is private property with no public access. Shacklewell Hollow is the name of a Scout campsite, it can accommodate up to 100 people in 4.5 acres of grassland and woods
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
Seaton Meadows is an 11.4 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Seaton in Rutland. It is managed by Plantlife; this site is traditionally managed as hay pasture, it is an example of unimproved alluvial flood meadows, a rare habitat due to agricultural developments. The grasses are diverse, including red fescue, sweet vernal grass and Yorkshire fog. There is access from the B672 road
Bloody Oaks Quarry
Bloody Oaks Quarry is a 1.3 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest north-west of Great Casterton in Rutland. It is managed by the Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust; this site has species-rich grassland on Jurassic limestone. The dominant grasses are tor-grass and upright brome and flora include rock-rose, salad burnet, yellow-wort and autumn gentian; the site is open to the public
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
Allexton Wood is a 25.9 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest north-east of Hallaton in Leicestershire. This coppice semi-natural wood is on soils derived from Jurassic clays; the dominant tree is ash, elm and pedunculate oak are common. There are several small streams with populations of opposite-leaved golden saxifrage; the site is private property with no public access