Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III, born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181. Pope Alexander III was born in Siena. From 14th century he is referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Bandinelli, although this has not been proven, he was long thought to be the 12th-century canon lawyer and theologian Master Roland of Bologna, who composed the "Stroma" or "Summa Rolandi"—one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum of Gratian—and the "Sententiae Rolandi", a sentence collection displaying the influence of Pierre Abélard, but John T. Noonan and Rudolf Weigand have shown this to be another Rolandus, he studied at Bologna, where Robert of Torigni notes that he taught theology. In October 1150, Pope Eugene III created him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano, he became Cardinal-Priest of St Mark. In 1153, he became papal chancellor and was the leader of the cardinals opposed to German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, he negotiated the Treaty of Benevento, which restored peaceful relations between Rome and the Kingdom of Sicily.
On 7 September 1159, he was chosen the successor to Pope Adrian IV, the only Briton to hold the office. A minority of the cardinals, elected the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV and became the German Emperor's antipope; the situation was critical for Alexander III, because according to many chronicles of the time, Barbarossa's antipope received the approval of most of the kingdoms of Europe, with the exception of the kingdoms of Portugal and Spain. However, in 1161, King Géza II of Hungary signed an agreement and recognised Alexander III as the rightful pope and declared that the supreme spiritual leader was the only one who could exercise the rite of investiture; this meant that Alexander's legitimacy was gaining strength, as soon proved by the fact that other monarchs, such as the king of France and King Henry II of England, recognized his authority. Because of imperial strength in Italy, Alexander was forced to reside outside of Rome for a large part of his pontificate.
When news reached him of the death of Victor in 1164, he wept, scolded the cardinals in his company for rejoicing at the end of the rival antipope. However, the dispute between Alexander III, Antipope Victor IV and his successors Antipope Paschal III and Antipope Calixtus III continued until Frederick Barbarossa's defeat at the Legnano in 1176, after which Barbarossa recognized Alexander III as pope. On 12 March 1178, Alexander III returned to Rome, which he had been compelled to leave twice: the first time between 1162 and 23 November 1165; when Alexander was arrested by supporters of the imperialist Antipope Victor IV, Oddone Frangipane freed him and sent to safety in Campania. Alexander again left Rome in 1167. At first he went to Benevento moving to various strongholds such as of Anagni, Ferentino and Veroli. Alexander III was the first pope known to have paid direct attention to missionary activities east of the Baltic Sea, he had created the Archbishopric of Uppsala in Sweden in 1164 at the suggestion of his close friend Eskil, Archbishop of Lund – exiled in Clairvaux, due to a conflict with the Danish king.
The latter appointed a Benedictine monk Fulco as a bishop in Estonia. In 1171, Alexander became the first pope to address the situation of the Church in Finland, with Finns harassing priests and only relying on God in time of war. In the bull Non parum animus noster, in 1171 or 1172, he gave papal sanction to ongoing crusades against pagans in northern Europe, promising remission of sin for those who fought there. In doing so, he legitimized the widespread use of forced conversion as a tactic by those fighting in the Baltic. Besides checkmating Barbarossa, Alexander humbled King Henry II of England for the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170, to whom he was unusually close canonizing Becket in 1173; this was the second English saint canonized by Alexander, the first being Edward the Confessor in 1161. Nonetheless, he confirmed the position of Henry as Lord of Ireland in 1172. In March 1177, on his way to Venice to meet the Emperor, Alexander spent four days in the city of Zadar on the Dalmatian coast.
Zadar was at that time a vassal of the Republic of Venice. Through the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum, issued on 23 May 1179, he recognized the right of Afonso I to proclaim himself King of Portugal – an important step in the process of Portugal becoming a recognized independent Kingdom; as a fugitive, Alexander enjoyed the favour and protection of Louis VII of France. In 1163 Alexander summoned clergy and prelates from England, France and Spain to the Council of Tours to address, among other things, the unlawful division of ecclesiastical benefices, clerical usury, lay possession of tithes. In March 1179, Alexander III held the Third Council of the Lateran, one of the most important mediaeval church councils, reckoned by the Catholic Church as the eleventh ecumenical council, its acts embodied several of the Pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the Church, among them the law requiring that no one could be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals. The rule was altered in 1996, but was restored in 2007.
This synod marked the summit of Alexander III's power. Soon after the close of the synod, the Roman Republic forced Alexander III to leave the city, which he never re-entered, on 29 September 1179, some nobles set up the Antipope Innocent III. By the judicious use of money, Alexander III got him into his power, so that he was deposed in January 1180. In 11
Harald Sigurdsson, given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus' and of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire; when he was fifteen years old, in 1030, Harald fought in the Battle of Stiklestad together with his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson. Olaf sought to reclaim the Norwegian throne, which he had lost to the Danish king Cnut the Great two years prior. In the battle and Harald were defeated by forces loyal to Cnut, Harald was forced into exile to Kievan Rus', he thereafter spent some time in the army of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise obtaining rank as a captain, until he moved on to Constantinople with his companions around 1034. In Constantinople, he soon rose to become the commander of the Byzantine Varangian Guard, saw action on the Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Minor, Sicily in the Holy Land, Bulgaria and in Constantinople itself, where he became involved in the imperial dynastic disputes.
Harald amassed considerable wealth during his time in the Byzantine Empire, which he shipped to Yaroslav in Kievan Rus' for safekeeping. He left the Byzantines in 1042, arrived back in Kievan Rus' in order to prepare his campaign of reclaiming the Norwegian throne. To Harald's knowledge, in his absence the Norwegian throne had been restored from the Danes to Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus the Good. In 1046, Harald joined forces with Magnus's rival in Denmark, the pretender Sweyn II of Denmark, started raiding the Danish coast. Magnus, unwilling to fight his uncle, agreed to share the kingship with Harald, since Harald in turn would share his wealth with him; the co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, Harald thus became the sole ruler of Norway. Domestically, Harald crushed all local and regional opposition, outlined the territorial unification of Norway under a national governance. Harald's reign was one of relative peace and stability, he instituted a viable coin economy and foreign trade.
Seeking to restore Cnut's "North Sea Empire", Harald claimed the Danish throne, spent nearly every year until 1064 raiding the Danish coast and fighting his former ally, Sweyn. Although the campaigns were successful, he was never able to conquer Denmark. Not long after Harald had renounced his claim to Denmark, the former Earl of Northumbria, Tostig Godwinson, brother of the newly chosen English king Harold Godwinson, pledged his allegiance to Harald and invited him to claim the English throne. Harald went along and entered Northern England in September 1066, raided the coast and defeated English regional forces in the Battle of Fulford near York. Although successful, Harald was defeated and killed in an attack by Harold Godwinson's forces in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern historians have considered Harald's death, which brought an end to his invasion, as the end of the Viking Age. Harald's most famous epithet is Old Norse harðráði, translated variously as'hard in counsel','tyrannical', ‘tyrant’, ‘hard-ruler’, ‘ruthless’, ‘savage in counsel’, ‘tough’, ‘severe’.
While Judith Jesch has argued for'severe' as the best translation, Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes prefer'resolute'. Harðráði has traditionally been Anglicised as'Hardrada', though Judith Jesch characterises this form as'a bastard Anglicisation of the original epithet in an oblique case'; this epithet predominates in the Icelandic saga-tradition. However, in a number of independent sources associated with the British Isles earlier than the Icelandic sagas, Harald is given epithets deriving from Old Norse hárfagri; these sources include: Manuscript D of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the related histories by Orderic Vitalis, John of Worcester, William of Malmesbury. Marianus Scotus of Mainz; the Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan. In Icelandic sagas the name Harald Fairhair is more famously associated with an earlier Norwegian king, twentieth-century historians assumed that the name was attached to Harald Hardrada in error by Insular historians. However, recognising the independence of some of the Insular sources, historians have since favoured the idea that Harald Hardrada was known as Harald Fairhair, indeed now doubt that the earlier Harald Fairhair existed in any form resembling the saga-accounts.
Sverrir Jakobsson has suggested that'fairhair"might be the name by which King Harald wished himself to be known. It must have been his opponents who gave him the epithet “severe”, by which he is known in thirteenth-century Old Norse kings’ sagas'. Harald was born in Ringerike, Norway in 1015 to Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and her second husband Sigurd Syr. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands. Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf II of Norway / Olaf Haraldsson's three half-brothers. In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, admired Olaf as his role model, he thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more sim
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Civil war era in Norway
The civil war era in Norway began in 1130 and ended in 1240. During this time in Norwegian history, some two dozen rival kings and pretenders waged wars to claim the throne. In the absence of formal laws governing claims to rule, men who had proper lineage and wanted to be king came forward and entered into peaceful, if still fraught, agreements to let one man be king, set up temporary lines of succession, take turns ruling, or share power simultaneously. In 1130, with the death of King Sigurd the Crusader, his possible half-brother, Harald Gillekrist, broke an agreement he and Sigurd had made to pass the throne to Sigurd's only son, the bastard Magnus. On bad terms before Sigurd's death, the two men and the factions loyal to them went to war. In the first decades of the civil wars, alliances shifted and centered on the person of a king or pretender. However, towards the end of the 12th century, two rival parties, the Birkebeiner and the Bagler, emerged. From this point, the civil wars were less about putting a particular "legitimate" king in power and more about ensuring and When they reconciled in 1217, a more ordered and codified governmental system freed Norway from wars to overthrow the lawful monarch.
In 1239, Duke Skule Bårdsson became the third pretender to wage war against King Håkon Håkonsson, but he was defeated in 1240, bringing more than 100 years of civil wars to an end. The unification of Norway into one kingdom is traditionally held to have been achieved by King Harald Fairhair at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in 872, but the process of unification took a long time to complete and consolidate. By the mid-11th century the process seems to have been completed. However, it was still not uncommon for several rulers to share the kingship; this seems to have been the common way of solving disputes in cases where two or more worthy candidates for the throne existed. The relationship between such co-rulers was tense, but open conflict was averted. Clear succession laws did not exist; the main criterion for being considered a worthy candidate for the throne was to be a descendant of Harald Fairhair through the male line—legitimate or illegitimate birth was not an issue. King Sigurd the Crusader had shared the kingdom with his brothers, King Øystein and King Olav, but when they both died without issue, Sigurd became sole ruler and his son, heir-apparent.
However, in the late 1120s a man called Harald Gille arrived in Norway from Ireland, claiming to be a son of King Sigurd's father, King Magnus Barefoot. King Magnus had spent some time campaigning in Ireland, Harald would thus be King Sigurd's half-brother. Harald proved his case through an ordeal of fire, the common way of settling such claims at the time, King Sigurd recognized him as his brother. However, Harald had to swear an oath that he would not claim the title of king as long as Sigurd or his son was alive; when Sigurd died in 1130, Harald broke his oath. Sigurd's son Magnus was proclaimed king, but Harald claimed the royal title, received much support. A settlement was reached whereby Harald would both be kings and co-rulers. Peace between them lasted until 1134. In 1135 Harald succeeded in capturing Magnus in Bergen. Magnus was blinded, castrated and imprisoned in a monastery, he was thereafter known as Magnus the Blind. At about the same time Sigurd Slembe, another man from Iceland, arrived claiming to be a son of Magnus Barefoot.
He claimed to have gone through an ordeal by fire in Denmark to prove his claim. Harald did not recognize him as his half-brother. In 1136 Sigurd murdered Harald in his sleep in Bergen, had himself proclaimed king. Harald's supporters would not accept him and had Harald's two infant sons, Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback, named king. Sigurd Slembe liberated Magnus the Blind from his enforced monastic life and allied himself with him; the war between Sigurd Slembe and Magnus the Blind on the one side, Harald Gille's old supporters with his young sons on the other, dragged on until 1139, when Magnus and Sigurd were defeated in Battle of Holmengrå fought near Hvaler. Magnus was killed in the battle, Sigurd was tortured to death; the power-sharing between Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback functioned well as long as they were both minors. In 1142, once again, a king's son arrived in Norway from west of the North Sea; this time it was a son of Harald Gille. Øystein claimed part of his father's inheritance and was given the title of king, with a third of the kingdom.
The three brothers ruled together in peace, until 1155. According to the sagas, Øystein and Sigurd Munn laid plans to depose their brother Inge and divide his share of the kingdom between them. At the urging of his mother Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter and the influential lendmann Gregorius Dagsson, Inge decided to strike first, at a meeting among the three kings in Bergen. Sigurd Munn was killed by Inge's men before Øystein had had time to arrive in the city. Inge and Øystein reached a tenuous settlement, but conditions between them soon deteriorated into open warfare, ending with Øystein's capture and murder in Bohuslän in 1157. Whether or not Inge himself ordered the killing of his brother seems to have been disputed at the time; the followers of Inge's dead brothers, Øystein and Sigurd Munn, were not inclined to submit to Inge and instead chose a new pretender, Sigurd Munn's son, Håkon the Broadshouldered. This development has been seen as the first sign of a new stage in the civil wars: The warring parties no longer sprung up around a king or pretender but stayed together after the fall of their leader and elected a
A steward is an official, appointed by the legal ruling monarch to represent them in a country, may have a mandate to govern it in their name. From Old English stíweard, stiȝweard, from stiȝ "hall, household" + weard "warden, keeper"; the Old English term stíweard is attested from the 11th century. Its first element is most stiȝ- "house, hall". Old French estuard and Old Norse stívarðr are adopted from the Old English; the German and Dutch term is a parallel but independent formation corresponding to obsolete English stead holder. In medieval times, the steward was a servant who supervised both the lord's estate and his household; however over the course of the next century, other household posts arose and involved more responsibilities. This meant that in the 13th century, there were two stewards in each house—one who managed the estate and the other, the majordomo, to manage domestic routine. Stewards earned up to 3 to 4 pounds per year. Stewards took care of their lord's castles. Stewards checked on the taxes of the serfs on his lord's manor.
The Lord High Steward of England held a position of power in the 12th to 14th centuries, the Lord Steward is the first dignitary of the court. The Stewart family traces its appellation to the office of the High Steward of Scotland. Lord High Steward of Ireland is a hereditary office held since the 15th century. In the Netherlands, it developed into a rare type of de facto hereditary head of state of the thus crowned Dutch Republic. Stadtholders were appointed by feudal lords to govern parts of their territory. Stadtholders could be appointed for the whole or parts of their territory by the local rulers of the independent provinces in the Low Countries, e.g. the Duke of Gelre appointed a stadtholder to represent him in Groningen. In the Low Countries from the Middle Ages to the 18th century, this was an honorary title awarded by the Spanish Habsburg kings to major noblemen in each province, but its nature changed drastically. In Denmark, a ministerial high office of royal governor in the capital, at Copenhagen Castle In Norway the office of Statholder existed both during the Dano-Norwegian personal union from 1536 to 1814 and during the Swedish-Norwegian personal union from 1814 until it was abolished in 1873, while the union lasted until 1905.
During the latter, the office was known as Rigsstatholder, i.e. Lieutenant of the Realm; the Statholder governed Norway on behalf of the King. As Norway was a separate kingdom with its own laws and institutions, it was arguably the most influential office in both Denmark-Norway and in the Swedish-Norwegian realm second to that of the king; the office was sometimes held by the Crown Prince, styled as Viceroy. The term Statholder means "place holder", i.e. the one governing on behalf of the king. The modern Norwegian spelling is stattholder; the Croatian office of the Ban was equivalent of a viceroy. Ban was appointed by the monarch with a mandate to govern a part of country, or whole country, in the name of the King of Dalmatia and Slavonia. Bosnia was a banate of the Kingdom of Hungary 1136–1377. During that period Bosnia was governed by an autonomous hereditary viceroy, called ban; the last of them, became the first king of the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Russian equivalent of "stadtholder" is posadnik.
Although there were such legendary posadniks as Gostomysl, the term first appeared in the Primary Chronicle under the year of 997 to denote the most senior official of an Eastern Slavic town. The earliest posadniks of the city of Novgorod include a dynasty composed of Dobrynya, his son Konstantin Dobrynich and Ostromir; the office of Steward or Grand Steward is an elected office of merit in Freemasonry. The main duty of the Steward is to assist other Officers in their duties; the Grand Stewards may provide special assistance at Lodge Installations. The Stewards Jewel consists of a cornucopia with compasses above. Bailli Ban of Croatia Butler Castellan Chamberlain Mayor of the Palace Seneschal Viceroy