Darfur is a region in western Sudan. Dar is an Arabic word meaning home of - the region was named Dardaju while ruled by the Daju, who migrated from Meroë c. 350 AD, it was renamed Dartunjur when the Tunjur ruled the area. Darfur was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916; the region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. Because of the war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003; the First historical mention of the word'Fur' occurs in 1664 in the account by J. M. Vansleb, a traveler, of a visit to Egypt, it is claimed that, like sudan, fur means "blacks", was the name given by the early light-colored Berber sultans of Darfur to the original inhabitants of the country such as the Binga, etc. Those original inhabitants agreed to become muslims and submit to the sultan's rule, the alternative being to be attacked and either killed or enslaved.
As the historic dynasty's physical appearance became more "Africanized" from intermarriage with black wives and concubines, the appearance of the sultans darkened correspondingly and they became known by the appellation of their black subjects, Fur. Darfur covers an area of 493,180 square kilometers the size of mainland Spain, it is an arid plateau with the Marrah Mountains, a range of volcanic peaks rising up to 3,042 meters of topographic prominence, in the center of the region. The region's main towns are Al Nyala. There are four main features of its physical geography; the whole eastern half of Darfur is covered with plains and low hills of sandy soils, known as goz, sandstone hills. In many places the goz is waterless and can only be inhabited where there are water reservoirs or deep boreholes. While dry, goz may support rich pasture and arable land. To the north the goz is overtaken by the desert sands of the Sahara. A second feature are the wadis, which range from seasonal watercourses that flood only during the wet season to large wadis that flood for most of the rains and flow from western Darfur hundreds of kilometres west to Lake Chad.
Many wadis have pans of alluvium with rich heavy soil that are difficult to cultivate. Western Darfur is dominated by the third feature, basement rock, sometimes covered with a thin layer of sandy soil. Basement rock is too infertile to be farmed, but provides sporadic forest cover that can be grazed by animals; the fourth and final feature are the Marrah Mountains and Daju Hills, volcanic plugs created by a massif, that rise up to a peak at Deriba crater where there is a small area of temperate climate, high rainfall and permanent springs of water. Remote sensing has detected the imprint of a vast underground lake under Darfur; the potential water deposits are estimated at 49,500 km2. The lake, during epochs when the region was more humid, would have contained about 2,500 km3 of water, it may have dried up thousands of years ago. Some conjectures include the area of Darfur as part of the Proto-Afro-Asiatic Urheimat in distant prehistoric times, though numerous other theories exclude Darfur. Most of the region consists of a semi-arid plain and thus appears unsuitable for developing a large and complex civilization.
But the Marrah Mountains offer plentiful water, by the 12th century the Daju people, succeeding the semi-legendary Tora culture, created the first historical attestable kingdom. They were centered in the Marrah Mountains and left records of valuable rock engravings, stone architecture and a list of kings; the Tunjur replaced the Daju in the fourteenth century and the Daju established new headquarters in Abyei, Denga and Mongo in the current Chad. The Tunjur sultans intermarried with the Fur and sultan Musa Sulayman is considered the founder of the Keira dynasty. Darfur became a great power of the Sahel under the Keira dynasty, expanding its borders as far east as the Atbarah River and attracting immigrants from Bornu and Bagirmi. During the mid-18th century conflict between rival factions wracked the country, external war pitted Darfur against Sennar and Wadai. In 1875, the weakened kingdom was destroyed by the Egyptian ruler set up in Khartoum through the machinations of Sebehr Rahma, a slave-trader, competing with the dar over access to ivory in Bahr el Ghazal to the south of Darfur.
The Darfuris were restive under Egyptian rule, but were no more predisposed to accept the rule of the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, when in 1882 his Emir of Darfur, who came from the Southern Darfur Arab Rizeigat tribe led by Sheikh Madibbo, defeated the Ottoman forces led by Slatin Pasha in Darfur. When Ahmad's successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, himself an Arab of Southern Darfur from the Ta’isha tribe, demanded that the pastoralist tribes provide soldiers, several tribes rose up in revolt. Following the overthrow of Abdallahi at Omdurman in 1899 by the Anglo-Egyptian forces, the new Anglo-Egyptian government recognized Ali Dinar as the sultan of Darfur and left the Dar to its own affairs except for a nominal annual tribute. In 1916 the British, concerned that the sultanate might fall under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and incorporated Darfur into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Colonial rule directed financial and administrative resources to the tribes of central Sudan near Khartoum - to the detriment of
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
William Rancic is a Croatian-American entrepreneur, the first candidate hired by The Trump Organization at the conclusion of the first season of Donald Trump's reality television show, The Apprentice. He is married to E! News host Giuliana Rancic. Rancic was born in Chicago and grew up in the suburb of Orland Park, Illinois in a family of Irish and Croatian heritage. Rancic graduated from Carl Sandburg High School, he earned a B. S. from Loyola University Chicago. His mother is Gail Rancic, he has three sisters, Beth and Karen. Rancic was one of the job applicants in The Apprentice 1 during the spring of 2004, as one of 16 contestants. Rancic was hired at the conclusion of the 14-week job interview after Donald Trump selected him over finalist Kwame Jackson. For the final challenge against competitor Kwame Jackson, Trump gave Rancic the task of running a celebrity golf outing at Trump National Golf Club Westchester in Briarcliff Manor, NY, while Jackson was tasked to manage a Jessica Simpson concert.
At the final board meeting, Jackson remarked that running a golf outing was the easier of the two tasks, which brought a disagreement from Trump VP Carolyn Kepcher, managing a golf course when Trump hired her. Trump hired Rancic. Rancic was the first reality TV star, he elected to take charge of the construction of the Trump Tower Chicago in his native Chicago, Illinois, on the site of the demolished Chicago Sun-Times building. His other option was to oversee and manage a new Trump National Golf Course and resort in Los Angeles. Rancic said that after his one-year contract as being Donald Trump's Apprentice expired, he would leave the job and start his own company, he instead opted to remain part of the Trump Organization, in some seasons filled in as a judge when regular judge George H. Ross was away on business. In September 2007, Rancic co-hosted iVillage's In the Loop with iVillage, a TV show and webcast produced by NBC Universal. NBC commissioned a set at the Universal Orlando Resort in Florida.
In September 2008, Rancic began as host for the A&E reality show We Mean Business, in which small business owners undergo business make-overs. In 2008, Rancic and his wife, TV host Giuliana Rancic, started a joint television production company, You and I Productions, which produces reality and scripted programming for television. In 2009, they started their own reality-television show Giuliana and Bill which aired on the E! network. In 2010, Rancic started hosting a news program called America Now, broadcast across the United States on stations owned by Raycom Media; the following year, "America Now" was brought back for a second season, with Leeza Gibbons joining Bill Rancic. The show was on every weekend, but when Leeza Gibbons joined the show, it moved to a Monday through Friday timeslot. In 2012, Rancic became a television spokesperson for the product Rogaine, appearing in national commercials detailing his experience with hair loss. In April 2014, Rancic began hosting the Food Network competitive cooking series Kitchen Casino, where chefs participate in three casino-themed challenges in an attempt to win up to $30,000.
In 2016, Rancic published First Light, to mixed reviews. In 2009, Rancic sold a century-old Gold Coast row house he had bought in 2007, after extensive renovations. In 2011, Rancic sold a condo on the 50th floor of the Park Tower building, on the Magnificent Mile in Chicago, less than 20 months after purchasing the unit. Rancic had owned a home in Illinois which prominently featured on his reality show, he sold it in February 2011 after extensive renovations. In 2013, Rancic and his wife purchased a 19th-century house on Bellevue Place, which they rehabbed and sold in 2019. In August 2011, Rancic and his wife entered into a partnership with Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises to open an Italian restaurant in Chicago; the restaurant was named RPM Italian, it opened in February 2012 in Chicago's River North District. They opened several more restaurants, including RPM Steak in Chicago, another RPM Italian in Washington, D. C. and a planned RPM On the Water opening in 2019 in Chicago. The restaurants have been popular with celebrities, including President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama.
In December 2006, he became engaged to Giuliana DePandi, the couple wed in September 2007 in Chiesa di Santa Sofia, Capri. On April 23, 2012, Giuliana and Rancic announced on The Today Show that they were expecting their first child via gestational carrier. In August 2012, the couple had a son in Colorado. Rancic, Bill. You're Hired: How to Succeed in Life from the Winner of The Apprentice. HarperBusiness. ISBN 978-0060765415. Rancic, Bill. Beyond the Lemonade Stand. Razorbill. ISBN 1595141030. Rancic, Giuliana. I Do, Now What?: Secrets and Advice from a Madly-in-Love Couple. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0345524997. Rancic, Bill. First Light. Putnam. ISBN 978-1101982273. Official Site Bill Rancic on IMDb The Apprentice Rules Bill Rancic Bio Giuliana and Bill IVillage Official Website SupportSquad Ultra Fast Video
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals; the honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries. A college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early; each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement.
Some institutions may grant equivalent non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing; these honors, when they are used, are always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, with the exception of law school graduates, much more to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. D. in which case they are based upon class rank or grade point average. In North America, Latin honors are awarded by colleges and universities for undergraduates degrees, such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, by law schools for the Juris Doctor degree. Latin honors are not used with other graduate degrees, such as M. D. or Ph. D. degrees. Most institutions use two or three levels of Latin honors, listed below in ascending order: cum laude, meaning "with praise".
This honor is awarded to graduates in the top 20%, top 25%, or top 30% of their class, depending on the institution. Magna cum laude, meaning "with great praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 10% or top 15% of their class, depending on the institution. Summa cum laude, meaning "with greatest praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 1%, top 2%, or top 5% of their class, depending on the institution. Not all institutions award the summa cum laude distinction; some institutions have additional distinctions. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude, meaning "with great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors, it is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records. A further used distinction is that of egregia cum laude which means "with outstanding praise," and if used may be for either students achieving summa cum laude honors in a difficult subject area or recipients of a non-standard Bachelor's degree.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Canada. Most countries use a different scheme, such as the British undergraduate degree classification, more used with varying criteria and nomenclature depending on country, including Australia, Barbados, Colombia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Tobago, the United Kingdom and many other countries. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria, the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae for doctoral degrees. Candidates must have excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2,500 doctoral graduates per year achieve a sub auspiciis degree. In Belgium, the university degree awarded is limited to: Satisfaction cum laude magna cum laude summa cum laude In Brazil, the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica awards the cum laude honor for graduates with every individual grade above 8.5, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 8.5 and more than 50% of individual grades above 9.5, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 9.5.
As of 2009, only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8.0 to 8.9, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.0 to 9.4, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.5 to 10.0. The Federal University of Ceará awards the magna cum laude honor for undergraduates who have never failed a course, achieved an average grade from 8.5 and have received a fellowship of both Academic Extension and Teaching Initiation. In Estonia, up until 2010 both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for exceptional work. Since 1 September 2010, only cum laude is used. It
Lost in Yonkers
Lost in Yonkers is a play by Neil Simon. The play won the 1991 Pulitzer Prize for Drama; the play premiered at The Center for the Performing Arts in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, on December 31, 1990, before moving to Broadway at the Richard Rodgers Theatre on February 21, 1991, where it ran for 780 performances and eleven previews. Produced by Emanuel Azenberg and directed by Gene Saks, the cast included Jamie Marsh as Jay, Irene Worth as Grandma, Mercedes Ruehl as Bella, Kevin Spacey as Louie, Lauren Klein as Gert, Danny Gerard as Arty, Mark Blum as Eddie. Brooklyn, 1942, Evelyn Kurnitz has just died following a lengthy illness, her husband, Eddie Kurnitz, needs to take a job as a traveling salesman to pay off the medical bills incurred, decides to ask his stern and straight talking mother, from whom he is estranged, if his two early-teen sons and Arty, can live with her and their Aunt Bella Kurnitz in Yonkers. She refuses. After a threat by Bella, she lets them stay without saying they could stay.
Despite their Grandma owning and operating a candy store and Arty don't like their new living situation as they're afraid of their Grandma, find it difficult to relate to their crazy Aunt Bella, whose slow mental state is manifested by perpetual excitability and a short attention span, which outwardly comes across as a childlike demeanor. Into their collective lives returns one of Eddie and Bella's other siblings, Louie Kurnitz, a henchman for some gangsters, he is hiding out from Hollywood Harry, who wants what Louie stole and is hiding in his small black bag. Jay and Arty's mission becomes how to make money fast so that they can help their father and move back in together, which may entail stealing the $15,000 their Grandma has hidden somewhere. Bella's mission is to find a way to tell the family that she wants to get married to Johnny, her slow movie theater usher boyfriend, and Louie's mission is to survive the next couple of days. Jay: He is fifteen "and a half" years old, he insists on the "and a half".
The death of his mother forces him to be more mature than he is ready to be when his father leaves him and his younger brother with his family so he can sell scrap iron during World War Two. The play tells his coming-of-age story. Played on Broadway by Jamie Marsh. Arty: Jay's younger brother, he is 13 "and a half" years old. More of an observer than the rest of his family, he goes with the flow of things, but can be a little childish. Played on Broadway by Danny Gerard. Bella: Jay's thirty-five-year-old aunt, she is sometimes a bit off-center and is mentally challenged, but despite this she is loving and protective of her nephews. Much of the second half of the play focuses on her attempts at independence from her stern mother. Played on Broadway by Mercedes Ruehl. Louie: Jay's flamboyant, jovial uncle, in his late 30s, who comes to live with the family when he is hiding from the local mob, he is considered by Grandma Kurnitz to be the "survivor" of the family. He has a strong, mercurial nature, a certain underlying dark side, which the kids uncover in the second act of the play.
He works as a "bag-man" for the mob. Played on Broadway by Kevin Spacey. Grandma Kurnitz: Jay's grandmother. A old and stern woman, an immigrant from Germany. Owing to her harsh childhood, she has always been intolerant of what in others she calls "weaknesses", she is blunt, sometimes in a funny way, always knows what is going on with the people around her. Played on Broadway by Irene Worth. Eddie: Jay's middle-aged father. After the death of his wife, he is forced to send his two sons to live with their grandmother, while he repays his large financial debts, he is shown to be, much like a nervous wreck around Grandma. Played on Broadway by Mark Blum. Gert: Jay's aunt, Grandma's daughter, she is a interesting addition to the family. Her most noticeable issue is that when she breathes she has a tendency to suck in while still speaking, as a result of trauma instilled in her by Grandma from a young age. Played on Broadway by Lauren Klein. Simon adapted his play for a 1993 feature film directed by Martha Coolidge, starring Brad Stoll as Jay.
Worth and Ruehl reprised their stage roles, Richard Dreyfuss was cast as Louie. Bella's beau Johnny, an unseen character in the play, was portrayed by David Strathairn. Source: Playbill Vault AwardsDrama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Play Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Play Pulitzer Prize for Drama Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play Tony Award for Best PlayNominationsTony Award for Best Direction of a Play Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Costume Design Lost in Yonkers at the Internet Broadway Database Lost in Yonkers on IMDb
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the