Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, butane, ethylene, or natural gas. The light is produced either directly by the flame by using special mixes of illuminating gas to increase brightness, or indirectly with other components such as the gas mantle or the limelight, with the gas functioning as a fuel source. Before electricity became sufficiently widespread and economical to allow for general public use, gas was the most popular method of outdoor and indoor lighting in cities and suburbs. Early gas lights were ignited manually, but many designs are self-igniting. Gas lighting today is used for camping, where the high energy density of a hydrocarbon fuel, combined with the modular nature of canisters allows bright and long lasting light to be produced cheaply and without complex equipment. In addition, some urban historical districts retain gas street lighting, gas lighting is used indoors or outdoors to create or preserve a nostalgic effect.
Early lighting fuels consisted of olive oil, fish oil, whale oil, sesame oil, nut oil, similar substances. These were the most used fuels until the late 18th century. Chinese records dating back 1,700 years note the use of natural gas in the home for light and heat via bamboo pipes to the dwellings; the ancient Chinese of the Spring and Autumn period made the first practical use of natural gas for lighting purposes around 500 B. C. where they used bamboo pipelines to transport and carry both brine and natural gas for many miles. Public illumination preceded the adoption of gaslight by centuries. In 1417, Sir Henry Barton, Lord Mayor of London, ordained "lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings between Hallowtide and Candlemasse." Paris was first lit by an order issued in 1524, and, in the beginning of the 16th century, the inhabitants were ordered to keep lights burning in the windows of all houses that faced the streets. In 1668, when some regulations were made for improving the streets of London, the residents were reminded to hang out their lanterns at the usual time, and, in 1690, an order was issued to hang out a light, or lamp, every night as soon as it was dark, from Michaelmas to Christmas.
By an Act of the Common Council in 1716, all housekeepers, whose houses faced any street, lane, or passage, were required to hang out, every dark night, one or more lights, to burn from six to eleven o'clock, under the penalty of one shilling as a fine for failing to do so. In coal mining and escaping gases were known for their adverse effects rather than their useful qualities. Coal miners described two types of gases, one called the choke damp and the other fire damp. In 1667, a paper detailing the effects of these gases was entitled, "A Description of a Well and Earth in Lancashire taking Fire, by a Candle approaching to it. Imparted by Thomas Shirley, Esq an eye-witness." Stephen Hales was the first person who procured a flammable fluid from the actual distillation of coal. His experiments with this object are related in the first volume of his Vegetable Statics, published in 1726. From the distillation of "one hundred and fifty-eight grains of Newcastle coal, he states that he obtained one hundred and eighty cubic inches of air, which weighed fifty-one grains, being nearly one third of the whole."
These results seemed to have passed without notice for several years. In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1733, some properties of coal-gas are detailed in a paper called, "An Account of the Damp Air in a Coal-pit of Sir James Lowther, sunk within Twenty Yards of the Sea." This paper contained some striking facts relating to the flammability and other properties of coal-gas. The principal properties of coal-gas were demonstrated to different members of the Royal Society, showed that after keeping the gas some time, it still retained its flammability; the scientists of the time still saw no useful purpose for it. John Clayton, in an extract from a letter in the Philosophical Transactions for 1735, calls gas the "spirit" of coal and discovered its flammability by an accident; this "spirit" happened to catch fire, by coming in contact with a candle as it escaped from a fracture in one of his distillatory vessels. By preserving the gas in bladders, he entertained his friends, by exhibiting its flammability.
It took many years of development and testing before gas lighting for the stage was commercially available. Gas technology was installed in just about every major theatre in the world, but gas lighting was short-lived. It took nearly 200 years for gas to become accessible for commercial use. A Flemish alchemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont, was the first person to formally recognize gas as a state of matter, he would go on to identify several types including carbon dioxide. Over one hundred years in 1733, Sir James Lowther had some of his miners working on a water pit for his mine. While digging the pit they hit a pocket of gas. Lowther took it home to do some experiments, he noted, "The said air being put into a bladder … and tied close, may be carried away, kept some days, being afterwards pressed through a small pipe into the flame of a candle, will take fire, burn at the end of the pipe as long as the bladder is pressed to feed the flame, when taken from the candle after it is so lighted, it will continue burning till there is no more air left in the bladder to supply the flame."
Lowther had discovered the principle behind gas lighting. In the 18th century William Murdoch stated: "the gas obtained by distillation fro
John Sullivan (general)
John Sullivan was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge. Sullivan, the third son of American settlers, served as a major general in the Continental Army and as Governor of New Hampshire, he commanded the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, a scorched earth campaign against the Iroquois towns that had taken up arms against the American revolutionaries. As a member of Congress, Sullivan worked with the French Ambassador to the US, the Chevalier de la Luzerne. Born in Somersworth in the Province of New Hampshire, Sullivan was the third son of Irish settlers from the Beara Peninsula in County Cork. One of his brothers, James Sullivan, became Governor of Massachusetts. Another brother, who served in the Royal Navy died before the American Revolution. A landing party from HMS Allegiance on February 14, 1781 kidnapped another brother, Captain David Sullivan, who died of disease; the father, John Owen O'Sullivan was the son of Philip O'Sullivan of Beare of Ardea, minor gentry in Penal Ireland and a scion of the O'Sullivan Beare Clan, Ardea Castle line.
The Penal Laws reduced them to the status of peasants. After emigrating to York, Maine, in 1723, the elder John became a Protestant. In 1760, Sullivan married Lydia Remick Worster of Kittery, now in Maine. John and Lydia Sullivan had six children, who died in infancy, John, James and another Margery, who lived only two years. Sullivan read law with Samuel Livermore of Portsmouth, New Hampshire between 1758 and 1760, he began the practice of law in 1763 at Berwick, now in Maine, continued in the practice when he moved to Durham, New Hampshire in 1764. He annoyed many neighbors in his early career, when he was the only lawyer in town, with numerous suits over foreclosures and was threatened with violence at least twice in 1766, but by 1772, he was established and began work to improve his relations with the community. He expanded his interests into milling from which he made a substantial income. In 1773 Alexander Scammell joined John Sullivan's law practice. Sullivan built a friendship with the royal governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, who had assumed the office in 1767.
In November 1772, Wentworth appointed Sullivan a major in the militia. As the American Revolution grew nearer, Sullivan turned away from Wentworth and began to side more with the radicals. On May 28, 1773, at the urging of the Virginia House of Burgesses, the New Hampshire Assembly established a Committee of Correspondence. Hoping to thwart the committee, Wentworth adjourned the Assembly the next day. On December 16, 1773, colonists in Massachusetts destroyed tea worth 15,000 pounds at the Boston Tea Party to protest taxes under the Tea Act; the British Parliament responded with the Boston Port Act, effective March 21, 1774, which closed the Port of Boston until restitution for the destroyed tea was made to the East India Company. Parliament went on to pass the Massachusetts Government Act, which removed many functions of government from local control, the Quartering Act, which permitted quartering of troops in towns where there was disorder, the Quebec Act, which established the Catholic religion and French civil law in that province.
Wentworth called a new Assembly, which began meeting on April 7, 1774. On May 13, news of the Boston Port Act reached the Assembly. On May 27, the Assembly provided for only five men and an officer to guard Fort William and Mary at Portsmouth harbor. A new committee of correspondence was selected the next day. By the time Wentworth dissolved the Assembly on June 8, 1774 in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Assembly from sending delegates to a continental congress, Sullivan was in favor of supporting the Massachusetts radicals. In response to Wentworth's action dismissing the Assembly and the call for a continental congress to support Boston after the British sanctions against it, on July 21, 1774 the first Provincial Congress of New Hampshire met at Exeter, New Hampshire, with John Sullivan as Durham's delegate; that assembly sent Nathaniel Folsom as delegates to the First Continental Congress. The assembly adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances on October 14, 1774. By November 8, Sullivan and Folsom were back in New Hampshire to work for acceptance of the Declaration and the Association of the colonies to support economic measures to achieve their objectives.
On October 19, 1774, a royal order in council prohibited the export of powder and arms to America and Lord Dartmouth secretly wrote to the colonial governors to secure gunpowder and ammunition in the provinces. After Paul Revere was sent by the Massachusetts committee to warn the Portsmouth militia of a rumored British movement toward Fort William and Mary, that militia raided the fort and seized gunpowder on December 14, 1774. Sullivan, not present on this first raid, was one of the leaders of the militia force who made the second raid on the fort for its cannon and munitions on December 15. Sullivan and his men took 16 cannons, about 60 muskets and other stores but were prevented from returning for other cannon and supplies by the arrival of the man-of-war Canceaux, followed two days by the frigate Scarborough. Wentworth refrained from seeking to arrest Sullivan and others because he thought he had little popular support and the militia would not act. In January 1775, a second Provincial Congress at Exeter voted to send Sullivan and John Langdon to the Second Continental Congress.
Sullivan, supported by Folsom and Langdon, persuaded the assembly to petition Wentworth to call a New Hampshire Assembly that he would not dissolve. Wentworth responded by dis
Amoskeag Manufacturing Company
The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company was a textile manufacturer which founded Manchester, New Hampshire. From modest beginnings in near wilderness, it grew throughout the 19th century into the largest cotton textile plant in the world. At its peak, Amoskeag was unrivaled both for the quantity of its products, but with great size came an inability to adapt. In the early 20th century, the business failed to adapt to changing social conditions. In May 1807, Samuel Blodgett completed a canal and lock system beside the Merrimack River at Derryfield, his enterprise allowed boats traveling between Concord and Nashua to bypass Amoskeag Falls, opening the region to development and connecting it to a network linking it to Boston. Blodget envisioned a "Manchester of America" arising, a water-powered textile center comparable to Manchester, which he had visited at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. At his apparent suggestion the name Derryfield was changed to Manchester in 1810; that same year, Benjamin Prichard and others incorporated the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company.
He and three brothers—Ephraim and Robert Stevens—had purchased land and water power rights the year before on the west bank of the Merrimack near Amoskeag Bridge, where they built a mill. From Samuel Slater they bought second-hand mill machinery. In 1811, new machinery was built to spin cotton into yarn, the currency with which factory wages and dividends were paid. Weaving became a cottage industry for local women, who earned between 2 and 7 cents per yard, depending on the type of fabric. A good weaver could average 10 to 12 yards per day, but the mill was unprofitable. Indeed, after September 1815, "little or nothing was done in it." In 1822, Olney Robinson of Rhode Island purchased the company, using money and equipment borrowed from Samuel Slater and Larned Pitcher. Robinson proved incompetent and the business passed to his creditors. Slater and Pitcher sold three-fifths of the company in 1825 to Dr. Oliver Dean, Lyman Tiffany and Willard Sayles of Massachusetts. In April 1826, Dr. Dean moved to the site and oversaw construction of the new Bell Mill, named for the bell on its roof to summon workers.
Erected was the Island Mill, located on an island in the Merrimack. Boarding houses and stores were built; the three-mill complex prospered, becoming known for its excellent "sheetings and tickings," the latter. Success attracted investors. With capital of 1 million dollars, the business was incorporated on July 1, 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Offices were established in Boston, where the treasurer de facto ran the firm, with an agent in Manchester to oversee personnel and operation of the mills. Engineers determined that the east bank of the Merrimack River was best for the extensive mills, tiered canals and mill town the company planned. Most of the land on the east side was purchased in 1835, where property holdings would encompass 15,000 acres, it would purchase all nearby water power rights to prevent competition. A foundry and machine shop were established to maintain mill machinery. In 1838, Manchester was founded. In 1839, Stark Mill No. 1, an Amoskeag affiliate with 8,000 spindles, was completed, together with six blocks of boarding houses for employees.
Throughout the company's history, its engineering department designed and built all mill facilities, whether for use by Amoskeag or others, giving the complex a unity of design. It had unity of color as well, the warm red brick made at the firm's brickyard upriver in Hooksett. Towers containing bells and stairwells added decorative flourishes to utilitarian factories. To take advantage of natural light, workshops were narrow, pierced with rows of windows; the Concord Railroad entered Manchester in 1842. Freight cars ran on spurs beside the mills to supply raw materials cotton from southern states carried away finished fabrics to markets around the country. One customer would be Levi Strauss, whose riveted blue jeans were made with cloth from the Amoskeag Mills. Incorporated in 1846, Manchester was intended to be a model of utopian factory-city planning, as Lowell, had been. William Amory, the cultured company treasurer, together with Ezekiel A. Straw, the first Amoskeag agent, influenced the style of Manchester's urban design.
It had broad avenues and squares graced by fine schools, hospitals, fire stations and a library. Row houses were rented to workers with families after years on a waiting list. Italianate, Second Empire and Queen Anne style mansions accommodated the company elite. Parks provided employees with fresh air and rest. Twenty acres were donated by Amoskeag Mills to create Valley Cemetery; the city's main thoroughfare, Elm Street, ran atop a ridge parallel to the mills below, but at a remove to lessen their clamor. Bostonian T. Jefferson Coolidge was the financial manager 1876 to 1898 who made it profitable. Everything in the company town seemed influenced by the benevolent paternalistic management—including the moral and physical habits of the help. Women in particular were monitored both at home in accordance with the Lowell System. At first many came to Manchester from surrounding farms, but as the need for labor increased, immigration was promoted from Canada Quebec, where many were desperate after unscientific farming exhausted the soil.
Other workers arrived from Greece, Germany and Poland, with each nationality claiming a neighborhood in the city. The company, w
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Salisbury, New Hampshire
Salisbury is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,382 at the 2010 census. While still part of Massachusetts, the town was granted as Baker's Town after Captain Thomas Baker in 1736. After the border between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed, the town was on the New Hampshire side of the border, it was re-granted by the Masonian proprietors in 1749 with the name Stevenstown, settled as early as 1750. Additionally known as Gerrishtown and New Salisbury, the name Salisbury was taken when the town incorporated in 1768. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.2 square miles, of which 40.0 sq mi is land and 0.3 sq mi is water, comprising 0.65% of the town. The highest point in Salisbury is along its western boundary, where the eastern slopes of Mount Kearsarge climb to 1,910 feet above sea level; the Blackwater River, part of the Merrimack River watershed, runs through Salisbury. A popular fishing and recreation spot is a natural lake-like section of the river.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,137 people, 435 households, 324 families residing in the town. The population density was 28.5 people per square mile. There were 514 housing units at an average density of 12.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.80% White, 0.70% African American, 0.26% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population. There were 435 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.0% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 31.1% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $55,000, the median income for a family was $62,321. Males had a median income of $36,991 versus $28,462 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,112. About 0.6% of families and 1.9% of the population were below the poverty threshold, including 0.7% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over. Ichabod Bartlett, US congressman Samuel E. Pingree, Union Army officer, Medal of Honor recipient, the 40th governor of Vermont Ezekiel A. Straw, businessman, 34th governor of New Hampshire Daniel Webster, US congressman and senator from Massachusetts.