A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition. Exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time; some Marian apparitions and their respective icons have received a Canonical coronation from the Pope, most notably Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of Manaoag, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of Walsingham, many others. Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz describes an "apparition" as "a specific kind of vision in which a person or being not within the visionary's perceptual range appears to that person, not in a world apart as in a dream...but as part of the environment, without apparent connection to verifiable visual stimuli."
According to Zimdars-Swartz, since the increase in Western Christianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries of devotion to the Mother of God, the figure most seen has been the Virgin Mary. Robert Orsi states that an apparition is a conjunction of transcendence and temporality where the transcendent breaks into time. A public, serial apparition is one in which a seer not only says that they have experienced a vision, but that they expect it will reoccur, people gather to observe. Zimdars-Swatrz notes that this appears to be a recent phenomenon. Up until about the seventeenth century, most reported apparitions happened when the individual was alone, or at least no one else was aware of its occurrence. In some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which many people reported a bright image atop a building. Photographs at times suggest the silhouette of a statue of the Virgin Mary but the images are subject to varying interpretations, critics suggest that they may just be due to various visual effects.
However, such image-like appearances are hardly reported for visions of Jesus and Mary. In most cases these involve some form of reported communication, and apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed. Interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are not classified as apparitions. Physical contact is hardly reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases, a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, reported to have been miraculously imprinted on the cloak of Saint Juan Diego. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. A Marian apparition, if deemed genuine by Church authority, is treated as private revelation that may emphasize some facet of the received public revelation for a specific purpose, but it can never add anything new to the deposit of faith; the Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, but belief is never required by divine faith.
The Holy See has confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Marianum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 had been approved as of May 2008. Other apparitions continue to be approved at the local level, e.g. the December, 2010 local approval of the 19th-century apparitions of Our Lady of Good Help, the first recognized apparition in the United States. An authentic apparition is not believed to be a subjective experience, but a real and objective intervention of divine power; the purpose of such apparitions is to emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other miraculous events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions, but exist to validate and draw attention to the message. Apparitions of Mary are held as evidence of her continuing active presence in the life of the Church, through which she "cares for the brethren of her son who still journey on earth."Possibly the best-known apparition sites are Lourdes and Fátima Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures.
Although an independent study of cures reported in the twentieth century noted that the number of reported cures had declined over the years due to advances in medical science as well as criteria that excluded some cures during a period of time, the results of the study published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive effective, awaiting a scientific explanation." The Roman Catholic Church has instituted processes for formal investigation and recognition of apparitions. In 1978 the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "Norms of the Congregation for Proceeding in Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" containing the following provisions: The diocesan bishop can initiate a process on his own initiative or at the request of the faithful to investigate the facts of an
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Administrative divisions of Portugal
Administratively, Portugal is de jure unitary and decentralized state. Nonetheless, operationally, it is centralized system with administrative divisions organized into three tiers; the State is organized under the principles of subsidiarity, local government autonomy, democratic decentralization of the public service. The government structure is based on the 1976 Constitution, adopted after the 1974 Carnation Revolution. In addition to defining the status of the autonomous regions Azores and Madeira, the Constitution identifies the three tiers of government: civil parishes and administrative regions. In addition, the Portuguese territory was redefined during European integration, under a system of statistical regions and subregions known as Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics; these NUTS definitions, used for collecting statistical information, follow many of the country's border definitions. Although utilized by the Portuguese government, they do not have a legal status in law.
The current administrative divisions of Portugal, are the 2 Autonomous Regions. There are 18 districts in mainland Portugal: The distribution of Portuguese districts is nominally homogeneous, although there are outliers, but these divisions bely the inadequacies and disparities that exist within the country: the distribution of population and gross domestic product between territorial units are markedly different. The district of Beja, for example, represents 11.5% of the area of Portugal, while Viana do Castelo is less than 2.5%. But, in comparison, Beja represents only 1.6% of the population of Portugal. Portugal is a seafaring nation, traditionally human settlement has congregated along the coastline, so much so that the coastal districts, while being small, were disproportionately larger by population; the six largest districts are the six districts with the smallest populations and common character: a frontier with Spain. Of these interior districts, which represent 63.8% of the nation and have a population, less than two million residents, is only marginally less than the population of the district of Lisbon.
The district system dates back to 25 April 1835, a creation of the Liberal government, inspired by the French départements, with the objective to facilitate the action of government and permit access to the authorities. The district is the most relevant and significant subdivision of the nation's territory. In 1976, Portugal was divided into 18 districts and two autonomous regions, consisting of 308 municipalities, which in turn were divided into 4257 local government authorities. Article 291 of the 1976 Constitution defined the districts as a transitional level of administration, awaiting the formation of the administrative regions. In the period between 2003 and 2013 the whole continental territory of Portugal was subdivided into metropolitan areas and intermunicipal communities, which rendered the districts obsolete; as a consequence of these constitutional revisions the "district" has been removed from the legal framework, but remains an important and relevant division for other entities.
It is still recognized by the general public. Since 1976, Portugal conceded political autonomy to its North Atlantic archipelagos due to their distance, geographical context and socio-economic circumstances; the regional autonomies have their own organic laws, regional governments and administration, overseen by a Regional Government, that constitutes a Regional Cabinet, comprising a President and several Regional Secretaries. The Azores is an archipelago of nine islands and several islets that were discovered and settled by the Portuguese in the late 15th century; the Azores lies a third of the distance between Europe and North America, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The government and administration of the archipelago is distributed between the three capitals of the former districts of the Azores: the regional parliament is located in the city of Horta. Madeira is an archipelago that includes two principal islands and Porto Santo, plus two uninhabited natural group of islands, the Desertas and Savage Islands.
The archipelago is located closer to Africa than Europe, is commercial and urbanized. The division of the Portuguese territory is established in title eight of the Portuguese constitution: granting local authority to territorial collectivities with representative organs to affect the interests of the local populations; these collectivities are defined as autonomous regions, administrative regions and civil parishes, but reserves the right of urban areas and islands to establish other forms of local authority. In defining the rights and privileges of these entities, the constitution defines sou
Cova da Iria
Cova da Iria is a quarter in the city and civil parish of Fátima, in the municipality of Ourém, Santarém District, province of Beira Litoral, in the Central Region and Middle Tagus Subregion of Portugal. It was where occurred the apparitions of Our Lady of Fátima to the three little shepherds in 1917; this world-famous neighborhood is considered the wealthy area of the city of Fátima where there are numerous convents and luxury condominiums. It is located near the places of Valinhos. Cova da Iria was a field belonging to the family of Sister Lúcia in Fátima, Portugal. Lúcia was one of the three visionary children who, according to the Roman Catholic Church, received several apparitions and heavenly messages by the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God; the children pastured their families' sheep on this land, were responsible for caring for them. In the water well of Lúcia's house they received an apparition of an angel who presented himself as the Guardian Angel of Portugal. On May 13, 1917, around noon, the three little shepherds saw an apparition of a beautiful lady "made of light, holding a rosary in her hand".
It is told that there was lightning, the children, Lúcia Santos and Francisco and Jacinta Marto began to run for shelter. Just above an oak tree, they saw again the vision of the woman known as Our Lady of the Rosary of Fátima, who told them not to be afraid, she said: "I come from Heaven". They saw the lady a total of six more times, the last in October 13, 1917, she told them to pray the rosary to obtain the end of the Great War. A small chapel was built at this site in the 1920s, when people were making devotional pilgrimages there. In October 1930, the Bishop of Leiria, Dom José Alves Correia da Silva, gave his seal of approval to the reported apparitions of Our Lady of Fátima, writing in a pastoral letter: "The visions of the children in the Cova da Iria are worthy of belief". Since the Holy See approved Fátima Marian apparitions and the messages given to the three shepherd children, the place has become an important center of pilgrimage. People from all over the world travel to it in a spirit of penance.
The chapel has been expanded and is now much larger, enclosed within two minor basilicas in the Sanctuary of Fátima complex. On the grounds are luxurious hotels, a lot of convents and some medical facilities. Cova da Iria, in Fátima, has become in one of the most important international destinations of religious tourism, receiving between 6 and 8 million pilgrims by year. Fátima, Portugal Our Lady of Fátima Chapel of the Apparitions Sanctuary of Fátima City Hall of Fátima – Official website Sanctuary of Fátima – Online transmissions Pilgrims of Fátima – Official website Free online version of the book: "Fátima in Sister Lúcia's own words" Video documentary: Portugal in 150 seconds: Fátima
A minor basilica is a Catholic church building, granted the title of basilica by the Holy See or immemorial custom. Presently, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In relation to churches, writers on architecture use the term "basilica" to describe a church built in a particular style; the early Christian purpose-built cathedral basilica of the bishop was in this style, constructed on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, under way in the 5th century. In the 18th century, the term took on a canonical sense, unrelated to this architectural style. Basilicas in this canonical sense are divided into minor basilicas. Today all in Rome, are classified as major basilicas. Privileges attached to the status of basilica included a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum and the bell, which were carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, the wearing of a cappa magna by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office.
In the case of major basilicas these umbraculae were made of cloth of gold and red velvet, while those of minor basilicas were of yellow and red silk—the colours traditionally associated with both the Papal See and the city of Rome. These external signs, except that of the cappa magna, are sometimes still seen in basilicas, but the latest regulations of the Holy See on the matter, issued in 1989, make no mention of them; the status of being a basilica now confers only two material privileges: the right to include the papal symbol of the crossed keys on a basilica's banners and seal, the right of the rector of the basilica to wear a distinctive mozzetta over his surplice. The other privileges now granted concern the liturgy of the celebration of the concession of the title of basilica, the granting of a plenary indulgence on certain days to those who pray in the basilica; the document imposes on basilicas the obligation to celebrate the liturgy with special care, requires that a church for which a grant of the title is requested should have been liturgically dedicated to God and be outstanding as a center of active and pastoral liturgy, setting an example for others.
It should be sufficiently large and with an ample sanctuary. It should be renowned for history, relics or sacred images, should be served by a sufficient number of priests and other ministers and by an adequate choir. Many basilicas are notable churches, receive significant pilgrimages. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico set a record with 6.1 million pilgrims in two days for the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe. As of November 15, 2017, there were 1,757 minor basilicas in the world. Of these 1,757 minor basilicas, three have the title of papal minor basilica and four the title of pontifical minor basilica; the three papal minor basilicas are Saint Lawrence outside the Walls and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi and the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, both in Assisi. The four pontifical minor basilicas are the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, the Basilica of the Holy House in Loreto, the Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua, the Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei.
All but the Paduan basilica were for some years jointly under the care of a Cardinalatial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Bari, suppressed in 1996 to establish the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii and the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of the Holy House of Loreto. All four pontifical minor basilicas now have individual pontifical delegates. For the Bari basilica, a dependency of the Secretariat of State, the pontifical delegate is the local metropolitan archbishop. For the basilicas of Loreto and Pompei, which are within their own territorial prelatures, the pontifical delegate is the local territorial prelate. Only for the Paduan basilica is the pontifical delegate distinct from the local bishop; the remaining 1,750 minor basilicas are all classified as such. In Torre del Greco is the Pontifical Basilica of the Holy Cross, called by that name not only on its own site, which recalls the visits to it of Pope Pius IX in 1849 and Pope John Paul II in 1990, but in the list of the world's minor basilicas, however, calls it a minor basilica.
Another such Italian church, recognized as a minor basilica, but not as a pontifical minor basilica, is the Pontificia Reale Basilica di S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Naples; this name, qualifying it as both royal, is confirmed by several other sources. One pontifical basilica in Spain listed not as a pontifical minor basilica, but as a minor basilica, is the Pontifical Basilica of St. Michael, the ownership of, since 1892 vested in the Apostolic Nunciature to the Kingdom of Spain; the description "pontifical basilica" is sometimes given without canonical justification to some churches that, whether pontifical or not, are not in the list of those with a right to the title of basilica. One in the town of Grumo Nevano in the province of Naples is called on the Italian Wikipedia the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Tammaro the Bishop, a designation confirmed by the inscription "Basilica Pontifica" o
Francisco and Jacinta Marto
Saint Francisco de Jesus Marto, his sister Saint Jacinta de Jesus Marto and their cousin Lúcia dos Santos were children from Aljustrel, a small hamlet near Fátima, who witnessed three apparitions of the Angel of Peace in 1916 and several apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Cova da Iria in 1917. The title Our Lady of Fátima was given to the Virgin Mary as a result, the Sanctuary of Fátima became a major centre of world Christian pilgrimage; the two were solemnly canonized by Pope Francis at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima, in Portugal on 13 May 2017, the first centennial of the first Apparition of Our Lady of Fátima. The youngest children of Manuel and Olimpia Marto and Jacinta were typical of Portuguese village children of that time, they were illiterateAccording to the memoirs of their cousin Sister Lúcia, Francisco had a placid disposition, was somewhat musically inclined, liked to be by himself to think. Jacinta was affectionate with a gift for dancing. Following their experiences, their fundamental personalities remained the same.
Francisco preferred to pray alone, saying that this would "console Jesus for the sins of the world". Jacinta said she was affected by a terrifying vision of Hell shown to the children at the third apparition, convinced of the need to save sinners through penance and sacrifice as the Virgin had told the children to do. All three children, but Francisco and Jacinta, practised stringent self-mortifications to this end; the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, in the report that confirmed Jacinta as beatified, observed that she seemed to have "an insatiable hunger for immolation." The brother and sister, who tended to their families’ sheep with their cousin Lúcia in the fields of Fátima, are said to have witnessed several apparitions of an angel in 1916. Lúcia recorded the words of several prayers she said they learned from this angel. Sister Lúcia wrote in her memoirs that she and her cousins saw the first apparition of Mary on 13 May 1917. At the time of the apparition, Francisco was 8 years old, Jacinta was 7.
During the first apparition, Mary is said to have asked the three children to say the Rosary and to make sacrifices, offering them for the conversion of sinners. She asked them to return to that spot on the thirteenth of each month for the next six months; the siblings were victims of the great 1918 influenza epidemic. In October 1918, Jacinta told Lucia that Mary had appeared to her and promised to take them to heaven soon. Both lingered for many months, insisting on walking to church to make Eucharistic devotions and prostrating themselves to pray for hours, kneeling with their heads on the ground as they said the angel had instructed them to do. Francisco declined hospital treatment on 3 April 1919, died at home the next day. Jacinta was moved from one hospital to another in an attempt to save her life, which she insisted was futile, she endured an operation in which two of her ribs were removed. Because of the condition of her heart, she could not be anesthetized, suffered terrible pain, which she said would help to convert many sinners.
On 19 February 1920, Jacinta asked the hospital chaplain who heard her confession to bring her Holy Communion and administer Extreme Unction because she was going to die "the next night". He told her that he would return the next day; the next day Jacinta was dead. In 1920, shortly before her death at age nine, Jacinta Marto discussed the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary with a 12-year-old Lúcia dos Santos and said: When you are to say this, don't go and hide. Tell everybody that God grants us graces through the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Tell them to pray to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for peace, since God entrusted it to her. Jacinta and Francisco are both buried at the Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary of Fátima; the cause for the siblings' canonization began in 1946. Exhumed in 1935, Jacinta's face was found incorrupt. By 1951, when she was again exhumed for her reburial in the Basilica, Jacinta had begun to decompose also. In 1937 Pope Pius XI decided that causes for minors should not be accepted as they could not understand heroic virtue or practice it both of which are essential for canonization.
For the next four decades, no sainthood processes. In 1979 the bishop of Leiria-Fátima asked all the world's bishops to write to the Pope, petitioning him to make an exception for Francisco, who had died at age 10, Jacinta, who had died at age 9. More than 300 bishops sent letters to the Pope, writing that “the children were known and attracted people to the way of sanctity. Favors were received through their intercession.” The bishops said that the children's canonization was a pastoral necessity for the children and teenagers of the day. In 1979 the Congregation for the Causes of Saints convened a general assembly. Cardinals, bishops and other experts debated whether it was possible for children to display heroic virtue, they decided that, like the few children who have a genius for music or mathematics, "in some supernatural way, some children could be spiritual prodigies." They were declared venerable by Pope John Paul II in 1989. On 13 May 2000, they were declared "blessed" in a decree from the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.
Jacinta is the youngest non-martyred
Valinhos is a religious countryside place on the outskirts of Fátima, Portugal. This place became famous for the 19th August 1917 apparition of Our Lady of Fátima and by the 1st and 3rd apparitions of the Guardian Angel of Portugal. Fátima, Portugal Our Lady of Fátima Chapel of the Apparitions Sanctuary of Fátima City Hall of Fátima – Official website Sanctuary of Fátima – Online transmissions Pilgrims of Fátima – Official website Free online version of the book: "Fátima in Sister Lúcia’s own words" Video documentary: Portugal in 150 seconds: Fátima