Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Division 2 (Swedish football)
Division 2 is the fourth level in the league system of Swedish football and comprises 84 Swedish football teams. Division 2 had status as the official second level from 1928 to 1986, but was replaced by Division 1 in 1987, it had status as the official third level until 2005, but was replaced once again by the recreated Division 1 in 2006. There are 84 clubs in Division 2, divided in six groups of 14 teams each representing a geographical area. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 26 games. At the end of each season the two lowest placed teams of each group are relegated to Division 3 and the twelve winning teams from the twelve Division 3 leagues are promoted in their place while the third lowest placed teams in the Division 2 leagues plays promotion/relegation play-offs against the twelve second placed teams in Division 3; the top team in each Division 2 group is promoted to Division 1 and the three lowest placed teams from each Division 1 league are relegated in their place.
The Swedish Football Association is responsible for the administration of Division 2. Division 2 is the fourth-highest division in Swedish Football, it comprises six regional leagues which may show some small changes to their titles year on year reflecting the changing geographical distribution of clubs. The six sections for the 2014 season cover Norrland, Norra Svealand, Södra Svealand, Norra Götaland, Västra Götaland and Östra Götaland; the name of Division 2 has been around since 1924/25 season when there were 5 sections titled Uppsvenskan, Mellansvenskan, Östsvenskan, Västsvenskan and Sydsvenskan which were run on an unofficial basis. Division 2 became official in 1928/29 as the second tier of Swedish football with 2 sections being created - Norra and Södra - with a total of 20 teams. In 1932/33 Division 2 was expanded into 4 sections covering Östra, Västra and Södra; this format continued until the end of the 1946/47 season. For the 1947/48 season a 2 section structure was restored comprising the Nordöstra and Sydvästra sections.
In 1953/54 a section representing the northern clubs in Sweden was introduced for the first time known as Norrland. The other two sections were titled Götaland. In 1955/56 it was decided; this provided Division 2 with 4 sections covering Norrland, Svealand, Östra Götaland and Västra Götaland. In 1972 the structure reverted to 3 sections titled Mellersta and Södra; this was short-lived and in 1974 two sections covering Södra were consolidated. This system continued until the end of the 1986 season when the competition became Division 1. From 1987 onwards Division 2 became the third highest league in Swedish football and this continued until 2005; the new division had 4 sections titled Norra, Mellersta, Östra and Västra. In 1993 it was divided into 6 sections titled Norrland, Östra Svealand, Västra Svealand, Östra Götaland, Västra Götaland and Södra Götaland. In 2006 Division 2 became Sweden's fourth highest division with the introduction of Division 1 below the Superettan. 2019 season. Anundsjö IF Friska Viljor FC Gottne IF IFK Luleå IFK Timrå IFK Umeå IFK Östersund Kramfors-Alliansen Piteå IF Sandviks IK Skellefteå FF Strömsbergs IF Umeå FC Akademi Ytterhogdals IK Enköpings SK FC Gute Gamla Upsala SK Hudiksvalls FF IFK Lidingö FK IFK Mora IFK Stocksund Karlbergs BK Kvarnsvedens IK Kungsängens IF Skiljebo SK Sundbybergs IK Täby FK Valbo FF AFK Linköping Arameiska-Syrianska KIF Assyriska FF Assyriska IF Enskede IK FC Stockholm Internazionale Huddinge IF IF Sylvia IFK Aspudden-Tellus IFK Haninge Motala AIF Newroz FC Södertälje FK Tyresö FF Värmbols FC Grebbestads IF IFK Tidaholm IFK Uddevalla IFK Åmål IK Gauthiod Lidköpings FK Nordvärmland FF Sävedalens IF Stenungsunds IF Torslanda IK Vänersborgs IF Vänersborgs FK Vårgårda IK Örebro Syrianska IF Asarums IF Dalstorps IF FK Karlskrona FK Älmeboda/Linneryd Hässleholms IF Husqvarna FF IFK Berga IFK Hässleholm Ifö Bromölla IF Nässjö FF Nosaby IF Räppe GOIF Råslätts SK Österlens FF Assyriska BK BK Olympic Eslövs BK FC Rosengård 1917 Hittarps IK IFK Malmö IS Halmia KSF Prespa Birlik Onsala BK Qviding FIF Stafsinge IF Ullareds IK Vinbergs IF Ängelholms FF Ever since 2003 the online bookmaker Unibet have given out awards at the end of the season to the best players in Division 2.
The recipients are decided by a jury of sportsjournalists and football experts
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
Mölndal Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland in western Sweden, just south of Gothenburg. Its seat is located in Mölndal, which lies within the Gothenburg urban area, the whole municipality is part of Metropolitan Gothenburg. In 1911 a municipalsamhälle named. In 1922 Fässberg was made the City of Mölndal. In 1971 it was amalgamated with Lindome. At the same time it became a municipality of unitary type, like all others in the country; the municipality prefers, however, to style itself Mölndals stad as a semi-official name whenever possible. This usage has no effect on the status of the municipality; the municipality has four main parts: Kållered, Lindome and Hällesåker. Mölndal has 37,131 inhabitants Kållered has 7,257 inhabitants Lindome has 13,364 inhabitants Hällesåker has 900 inhabitantsNumbers from 2003. Lars Leksell and neurosurgeon Mölndal Municipality is twinned with the following towns: Albertslund Municipality, Denmark Borken, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Canterbury, England Whitstable, England Gunnebo House from the 18th century.
Fässberg Church from the 19th century Eklanda Mölndal Municipality – Official site Article Mölndal – From Nordisk Familjebok
Sweden national under-21 football team
The Sweden national under-21 football team is the football team representing Sweden in competitions for under-21 year old players and is controlled by the Swedish Football Association. The team is coached by Roland Nilsson; the Swedish U21 team came into existence, following the realignment of UEFA European Under-23 Championship, which changed to be an Under-21 competition in 1978. Sweden made their first European Under-21 Championship appearance in 1986. In 2015, Sweden became champions for the first time, they finished second in 1992 and they reached the semi-finals in 1990 and 2009. Oscar Hiljemark is the most capped player for the Swedish U21 team, having played 37 caps between 2011 and 2015. Ola Toivonen and Carlos Strandberg are the best goalscorers for the Swedish U21 team, having scored 13 goals each. *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. ** Gold background color indicates. *** Red border color indicates. The following 20 players was called up for friendly matches against Russia on 22 March 2019 and against Scotland on 25 March 2019.
Caps and goals updated as of 25 March 2019. The following five players still eligible for the U21 team have been called up to the Sweden U21 squad during the last twelve months. 1998 UEFA European Under-21 Championship squad 2004 UEFA European Under-21 Championship squad 2009 UEFA European Under-21 Championship squad 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Championship squad 2017 UEFA European Under-21 Championship squad Updated as of 7 June 2018. Players in bold text are still available to play for the Swedish U21 team. Sweden national football team Sweden national under-23 football team Sweden national under-20 football team Sweden national under-19 football team Sweden national under-18 football team Sweden national under-17 football team Sweden national under-16 football team Sweden national football B team UEFA European Under-21 Championship Official website
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
Mölndal is a part of the Gothenburg urban area on the west-coast of Sweden, constitutes the administrative centre of Mölndal Municipality. About 40,000 of the municipality's 60,000 inhabitants live in Mölndal proper. Mölndal is located on the western main line railway between Gothenburg and Malmö and the European highways E6/E20 run through the area from north to south. Mölndal is served by the Gothenburg tramway system; the name of the city derives from two words. Mölndal is the "Valley of mills"; the narrow but high and long waterfalls in Kvarnbyn gave the necessary power to all the watermills that together with the windmills on the hills gave birth to the early industrialisation of Mölndal. Mölndal is best known for its high concentration of companies in life sciences. AstraZeneca has one of its global research centres here with more than 3,100 employees. Several other companies in areas of research such as pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are located here; the proximity to the University of Gothenburg and to Chalmers University of Technology - with their technology parks - has supported development of other sectors, such as microwave technology and information technology.
Two national research institutes, IFP SICOMP AB and IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, are located in Mölndal. The following sports clubs are located in Mölndal: Fässbergs IF Balltorps FF IF Mölndal Hockey Jitex BK Dalen/Krokslätts FF Kvarnby BasketThe town is home to the Hills Golf Club. Mölndal is a member city of Eurotowns network Mats Levén, metal singer Annelie Pompe, world record holder in Variable weights freediving Anders Frisk, football referee Claes Malmberg and stand-up comedian Oscar Dronjak and founder of the Swedish heavy metal band HammerFall. Björn Goop, horse driver and trainer Erica Johansson, long jumper ERL