Rye, East Sussex
Rye is a small town and civil parish in the Rother district, in East Sussex, two miles from the sea at the confluence of three rivers: the Rother, the Tillingham and the Brede. In medieval times, as an important member of the Cinque Ports confederation, it was at the head of an embayment of the English Channel, entirely surrounded by the sea. At the 2011 census, Rye had a population of 4,773, its historical association with the sea has included providing ships for the service of the King in time of war, being involved in smuggling. The notorious Hawkhurst Gang used its ancient inns The Mermaid Inn and The Olde Bell Inn, which are said to be connected to each other by a secret passageway; those historic roots and its charm make it a tourist destination, with hotels, guest houses, B&Bs, tea rooms, restaurants. It has a small fishing fleet, Rye Harbour has facilities for yachts and other vessels; the name of Rye is believed to come from rie. Medieval maps show that Rye was located on a huge embayment of the English Channel called the Rye Camber, which provided a safe anchorage and harbour.
As early as Roman times, Rye was important as a place of shipment and storage of iron from the Wealden iron industry. The Mermaid Inn dates to 1156. Rye, as part of the Saxon Manor of Rameslie, was given to the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp in Normandy by King Æthelred; as one of the two "Antient Townes", Rye was to become a limb of the Cinque Ports Confederation by 1189, subsequently a full member. The protection of the town as one of the Cinque Ports was important, due to the commerce that trading brought. One of the oldest buildings in Rye is Ypres Tower, built in 1249 as "Baddings Tower", to defend the town from the French, was named after its owner, John de Ypres, it is now part of the Rye Museum. Rye received its charter from King Edward I in 1289, acquired privileges and tax exemptions in return for ship-service for the crown; the "Landgate" dates from 1329 in the early years of the reign of King Edward III. It is still the only vehicular route into the medieval centre of Rye and is suitable only for light vehicles.
In 2015, some 25 tonnes of pigeon excrement that had built up had to be removed from Landgate Arch for fear of damaging the ancient structure. The River Rother took an easterly course to flow into the sea near what is now New Romney. However, the violent storms in the 13th century cut the town off from the sea, destroyed Old Winchelsea, changed the course of the Rother; the sea and the river combined in about 1375 to destroy the eastern part of the town and ships began use the current area to unload their cargoes. Two years the town was sacked and burnt by the French, it was ordered that the town walls be completed, as a defence against foreign raiders. Rye was considered one of the finest of the Cinque Ports, though constant work had to be done to stop the gradual silting up of the river and the harbour. A conflict arose between the maritime interests and the landowners, who "inned" or reclaimed land from the sea on Romney and Walland Marsh, thus reduced the tidal flows that were supposed to keep the harbour free of silt.
Acts of Parliament had to be passed to enable the Rother to be kept navigable at all. With the coming of bigger ships and larger deepwater ports, Rye's economy began to decline, fishing and smuggling became more important. Imposition of taxes on goods had encouraged smuggling since 1301, but by the end of the 17th century, it became widespread throughout Kent and Sussex, with wool being the largest commodity; when luxury goods were added, smuggling became a criminal pursuit, groups – such as the Hawkhurst Gang who met in The Mermaid Inn in Rye – turned to murder and were subsequently hanged. Since 1803, lifeboats have been stationed at Rye although the lifeboat station is now at Rye Harbour about 2 miles downriver from the town; the worst disaster in RNLI history concerning a single vessel, indeed in the 20th century, occurred in 1928, when the Mary Stanford sank with all hands. The incident is recorded by a tablet at Winchelsea church, by the imposing memorial at Rye Harbour Church and by the folk song "The Mary Stanford of Rye".
A new Mary Stanford was commissioned by the RNLI two years and stationed at Ballycotton on the coast of Ireland. Since 2010, the RNLI has operated an Atlantic 85-class inshore lifeboat at Rye Harbour. Between 1696 and 1948, six ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Rye. During the 1803–1805 Napoleonic invasion threat, Rye and Chatham were regarded as the three most invasion ports, Rye became the western command centre for the Royal Military Canal; the canal was planned from Pett Level to Hythe, but was not completed until long after the threat had passed. From 1838–1889, Rye had its own borough police force, it was a small force with just two officers. Rye police had difficulties on Bonfire night and special constables were recruited to help deal with the problems bonfire gangs caused. After amalgamation with the County Force in 1889 a new police station was provided in Church Square. In 1892 the strength of the town police, now amalgamated, was three constables. In May 1940, during the darkest days of World War II, the Rye fishing fleet was invited to participate in Operation Dynamo, the seaborne rescue of the stranded British Expeditionary Force at Dunkirk, but refused to do so.
Paul Monod's book The Murder of Mr Grebell: Madness and
Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred II, known as the Unready, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death. His epithet does not derive from the modern word "unready", but rather from the Old English unræd meaning "poorly advised". Æthelred was the son of Queen Ælfthryth. He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr, his brother's murder was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. The chief problem of Æthelred's reign was conflict with the Danes. After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the 980s. Following the Battle of Maldon in 991, Æthelred paid Danegeld, to the Danish king. In 1002, Æthelred ordered. In 1013, King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark invaded England, as a result of which Æthelred fled to Normandy in 1013 and was replaced by Sweyn. However, he returned as king for two years after Sweyn's death in 1014.
Æthelred's 37-year reign was the longest of any Anglo-Saxon king of England, was only surpassed in the 13th century, by Henry III. Æthelred was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside, but he died after a few months and was replaced by Sweyn's son, Cnut. Another of his sons, Edward the Confessor, became king in 1042. Æthelred's first name, composed of the elements æðele, "noble", ræd, "counsel, advice", is typical of the compound names of those who belonged to the royal House of Wessex, it characteristically alliterates with the names of his ancestors, like Æthelwulf, Ælfred and Eadgar.Æthelred's notorious nickname, Old English Unræd, is translated into present-day English as "The Unready". The Anglo-Saxon noun unræd means "evil counsel", "bad plan", or "folly", it was most used in reference to decisions and deeds, but once in reference to the ill advised disobedience of Adam and Eve. The element ræd in unræd is the same element in Æthelred's name that means "counsel", thus Æþelræd Unræd is an oxymoron: "Noble counsel, No counsel".
The nickname has been translated as "ill-advised", "ill-prepared", thus "Æthelred the ill-advised". Because the nickname was first recorded in the 1180s, more than 150 years after Æthelred's death, it is doubtful that it carries any implications as to the reputation of the king in the eyes of his contemporaries or near contemporaries. Sir Frank Stenton remarked that "much that has brought condemnation of historians on King Æthelred may well be due in the last resort to the circumstances under which he became king." Æthelred's father, King Edgar, had died in July 975, leaving two young sons behind. The elder, was illegitimate, was "still a youth on the verge of manhood" in 975; the younger son was Æthelred, whose mother, Ælfthryth, Edgar had married in 964. Ælfthryth was the daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, widow of Æthelwold, Ealdorman of East Anglia. At the time of his father's death, Æthelred could have been no more than 10 years old; as the elder of Edgar's sons, Edward – a young man given to frequent violent outbursts – would have succeeded to the throne of England despite his young age, had not he "offended many important persons by his intolerable violence of speech and behaviour."
In any case, a number of English nobles took to opposing Edward's succession and to defending Æthelred's claim to the throne. Both boys, Æthelred were too young to have played any significant part in the political manoeuvring which followed Edgar's death, it was the brothers' supporters, not the brothers themselves, who were responsible for the turmoil which accompanied the choice of a successor to the throne. Æthelred's cause was led by his mother and included Ælfhere, Ealdorman of Mercia and Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, while Edward's claim was supported by Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Oswald, the Archbishop of York among other noblemen, notably Æthelwine, Ealdorman of East Anglia, Byrhtnoth, ealdorman of Essex. In the end, Edward's supporters proved the more powerful and persuasive, he was crowned king at Kingston upon Thames before the year was out. Edward reigned for only three years. Though little is known about Edward's short reign, it is known that it was marked by political turmoil.
Edgar had made extensive grants of land to monasteries which pursued the new monastic ideals of ecclesiastical reform, but these disrupted aristocratic families' traditional patronage. The end of his firm rule saw a reversal of this policy, with aristocrats recovering their lost properties or seizing new ones; this was opposed by Dunstan, but according to Cyril Hart, "The presence of supporters of church reform on both sides indicates that the conflict between them depended as much on issues of land ownership and local power as on ecclesiastical legitimacy. Adherents of both Edward and Æthelred can be seen appropriating, or recovering, monastic lands." Favour for Edward must have been strong among the monastic communities. When Edward was killed at Æthelred's estate at Corfe Castle in Dorset in March 978, the job of recording the event, as well as reactions to it, fell to monastic writers. Stenton offers
Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi
A liqueur is an alcoholic drink flavored variously by fruits, spices, nuts or cream combined with distilled spirits. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.
Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.
Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus
William of Volpiano
Saint William of Volpiano was an Italian monastic reformer and architect. He was born on the family citadel on the island of San Giulio, Lake Orta, Piedmont; the son of Count Robert of Volpiano, he was born during an assault on the citadel by the Emperor Otto. The assault being successful, Otto became the patron of Count Robert's son; the fourth son of Count Robert, in 969, at the age of seven, he began his education at the Benedictine abbey at Locadio, Vercelli. He became a monk at this abbey. In 987, he became a monk at the Abbey of Cluny under Saint Majolus. Zealous for reform, he reorganized Saint-Sernin abbey on the Rhône River. William was ordained in 990 and served as abbot of Saint Benignus' Abbey at Dijon, dedicated to Saint Benignus of Dijon. Under William's direction, his zeal for the Cluniac reform, St. Benignus' became a center of spirituality and culture, it became the mother house of some forty other monasteries in Burgundy, Lorraine and northern Italy. He was chosen as building contractor for Mont Saint-Michel in the 11th century.
He designed the Romanesque church of the abbey, daringly placing the transept crossing at the top of the mount. Many underground crypts and chapels had to be built to compensate for this weight; these formed the basis for the supportive upward structure. He rebuilt the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. In 1001, he was called to reform the Abbey of Fécamp by Richard II, where the Dukes of Normandy had their palace and had chosen to be buried. William died of natural causes at Fécamp. William of Volpiano's notated tonary for the use at the Abbey Saint-Bénigne of Dijon William of Volpiano at Structurae William of Volpiano in Normandy: current position William of Dijon The founders, the work of the first Dukes 933-1035
A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions; each half of a transept is known as a semitransept. The transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, choir, presbytery, or chancel; the transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a central tower or a crossing dome. Since the altar is located at the east end of a church, a transept extends to the north and south; the north and south end walls hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery. The basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts. More the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross.
This design is called a "Latin cross" ground plan, these extensions are known as the arms of the transept. A "Greek cross" ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, produces a central-plan structure; when churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is a historical disaster, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand. At St. Vitus Cathedral, only the choir and part of a southern transept were completed until a renewed building campaign in the 19th century; the word "transept" is extended to mean any subsidiary corridor crossing a larger main corridor, such as the cross-halls or "transepts" of The Crystal Palace, London, of glass and iron, built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. In a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a transept rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms, creating a less cramped feeling and making orientation easier.
Aisle Apse Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram Glossary of the Catholic Church Transom Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Transept". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 172