Nigerian Fencing Federation
The Nigerian Fencing Federation is the governing body that regulates and oversee the Olympic sport of fencing in Nigeria. Affiliated to the Nigeria Olympic Committee, the body is responsible for organizing fencing competitions locally and selecting fencers for international competitions. Official website
Fédération Internationale d'Escrime
The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime known by the acronym FIE, is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. Today, its head office is at the Maison du Sport International in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 153 national federations, each of, recognized by its country's Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country. Since its inception in 1913, there have been fourteen different presidents; the current president of the federation is Alisher Usmanov. The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime is the heir of the Société d'encouragement de l'escrime founded in France in 1882, which took part in the global movement of structuring sport; the first international fencing congress was held in Brussels, Belgium in 1897 at the instigation of the Fédération belge des cercles d'escrime, followed by another one in Paris in 1900. At this occasion the Société organised one of the first international fencing events. Dissensions arose between epeists and foilists, which held the majority at the Société.
The third congress held in Brussels in 1905 voted the creation of an international fencing committee whose mission would be of fostering friendship amongst all fencers, establishing national rules, supporting the organization of fencing competitions. The 3rd congress adopted the French rules as the basis for upcoming international competitions. New tensions appeared, this time about the regulatory weapon grip, they led to the boycott by France of the fencing events of the 1912 Olympic Games. A new international congress was called together in Ghent, Belgium, in July 1913; the main matter was the adoption of international regulations for each of the three weapons. The French rules were adopted in foil. Frenchman René Lacroix campaigned for the creation of an international fencing federation; the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime was founded on November 29, 1913, in the conference rooms of the Automobile Club de France in Paris. The nine founding nations were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway.
Albert Feyerick, president of the Federation of fencing clubs of Belgium, was elected as the first president. The FIE held its first congress on June 23, 1914 and accepted the adhesion of seven new countries: Austria, Monaco, Russia and the United States. Competitions organized by the FIE include the senior World Championships and World Cup, the Junior World Championships and Junior World Cup, the Cadets World Championships and the Veterans World Championships; the FIE delegates to regional confederations the organization of the zone championships. The FIE assists the International Olympic Committee in the organization of fencing events at the Summer Olympics; the number of events is a matter of contention between the FIE and the CIO since the introduction of women's sabre at the 1999 World Championships: since the World Championships feature twelve events–an individual and a team weapon for each of the three weapons, for men and for women. However, the CIO refuses to increase the number of Olympic medals allocated to fencing.
After much dithering the FIE decided to organize all six individual events, but only four team events decided on a rotational basis. The two team events excluded from the Olympic programme, one for men and one for women, compete instead in World championships. A list of FIE presidents from 1913 to the present: As of 2012, the FIE recognizes 145 affiliated national federations. Note: As of 7 July 2012, the Netherlands Antilles is still listed as an FIE Member nation and 146 member nations are listed on the FIE's membership page. However, after the country was dissolved, it lost its National Olympic Committee status in 2011. At the 2012 Olympics, athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles were eligible to participate as independent athletes under the Olympic flag. Ottogalli, Cécile. L'Histoire de l'escrime. 1913–2013, un siècle de Fédération internationale d'escrime. Biarritz: Atlantica. ISBN 978-2-7588-0485-7. FIE100. Official website Olympics, FIE records History of fencing FIE calendar Results of FIE competitions FIE rules FIE Magazines FIE press releases
Pierre Ferri was a French stockbroker and conservative politician, Minister of Posts and Telephones in 1953–54. Pierre Ferri was born in Paris on 3 September 1904, his father was a stockbroker. Pierre Ferri obtained a degree in Law, graduated from the Ecole libre des sciences politiques, he became a stockbroker. He was participated in the fighting in France, he fought again in 1944 and 1945. He was made a Knight of the Legion of Honor. Pierre Ferri was a Gaullist. In the elections for the first Constituent Assembly on 21 October 1945 he ran for the 2nd district of the Seine on the platform of the Union républicaine nationale démocratique but was not elected, he ran against in the 2 June 1946 elections for the second Constituent Assembly for the Parti républicain de la liberté but was not elected. In the parliamentary elections of 10 November 1946 Ferri again failed to win a seat. Ferri was a member of the national council of the Rassemblement du peuple français, a coalition that included the PRL. In November 1947 Ferri was elected municipal councilor of Paris and general counsel of the Seine on the PRL platform.
He was one of nine PRL councilors. From 1947 he was chairman of the Budget Committee of the city of Paris, from 1950 was deputy chairman of the city council. In 1950 Ferri was a committee member of Les Bibliophiles de France. Ferri ran for election to the legislature for the 2nd district of the Seine on 17 June 1951 on the RPF platform. In 1951 Ferri supported Henri Ulver and several other Gaullist deputes in proposing a law to restore various powers to the Paris municipal council, removed, to make some changes to the way its assemblies functioned. In 1953 there were just 27 RPF members on the council including Ferri. Ferri was reelected in the Paris municipal elections of the Spring of 1953, one of a number of deputies to sit on the council, but resigned soon after. In the legislature Ferri sat on the Finance Committee and on the subcommittee that monitored spending on national defense, he submitted many amendments related to financial issues. On 28 June 1953 he joined the cabinet of Joseph Laniel as Minister of PTT.
The cabinet fell on 12 June 1954 and Ferri again sat on the Finance committee. In the elections of 2 January 1956 Ferri was not reelected, he was again elected to the legislature in November 1958 as member for the 22nd district of the Seine. Ferri was elected deputy for the Plaine Monceaux in the 17th arrondissement, running against a Gaullist Union for the New Republic candidate, he held his seat until 1962. In 1966 Ferri was president of the Paris regional federation of the Independent Republicans led by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Jacques Feron, another former deputy, was secretary-general. Pierre Ferri died in Paris on 23 November 1993 aged 89
André Maginot was a French civil servant and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his advocacy of the string of forts known as the Maginot Line. Maginot was born in Paris, but spent part of his youth in Alsace-Lorraine, a region where the Maginot Line would be constructed. After taking the civil service exam in 1897, Maginot began a career in the French bureaucracy that would last the rest of his life, he worked as the assistant of the Governor-General in Algeria until 1910, when he resigned and began his political career. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies that year and served as Under-Secretary of State for War prior to the outbreak of World War I in 1914; when the war began, Maginot was posted along the Lorraine front. In November 1914, Maginot was wounded in the leg near Verdun. For extreme valor, he was awarded the Médaille militaire, he was a fencer. After World War I, Maginot returned to the Chamber of Deputies and served in a number of government posts, including Minister of Overseas France, Minister of Pensions starting in 1920 and Minister of War.
He believed. He pushed for more funds for defense and grew more distrustful of Germany during a period when few in France wanted to think about the possibility of another war. Maginot came to advocate building a series of defensive fortifications along France's border with Germany that would include a combination of field positions and permanent concrete forts, he was influenced in this decision by his observations of successful fortifications employed at Verdun in World War I. He was probably influenced by the destruction of his home in Revigny-sur-Ornain, which made him determined to prevent Lorraine from being invaded again. In 1926 Maginot was successful in getting the government to allocate money to build several experimental sections of the defensive line. During a debate concerning the budget in 1926, André Maginot lobbied for the money needed to construct the enormous line of fortifications, he was able to persuade Parliament to allocate 3.3 billion francs for the project. Work on the project progressed rapidly.
Maginot expressed satisfaction with the work. He was pleased with the work in Lorraine, site of the home and where he spent his childhood, fought for more funding for construction in that area. Though Maginot was the main proponent for the project, most of the actual designs for the Maginot line were the work of Paul Painlevé, Maginot's successor as Minister of War. André Maginot never saw, he was mourned throughout France and it was only after his death that the line of defenses which he advocated came to bear his name. However, in the end the line was ineffectual for its intended purpose. In World War II, Germany was able to circumvent the line by passing its Panzers through hills and marshlands, impenetrable to tanks when Maginot made his recommendations. A monument in memory of André Maginot was dedicated near Verdun in September 1966. We could hardly dream of building a kind of Great Wall of France, which would in any case be far too costly. Instead we have foreseen powerful but flexible means of organizing defense, based on the dual principle of taking full advantage of the terrain and establishing a continuous line of fire everywhere.
–10 December 1929 French Third Republic A biography of Maginot Newspaper clippings about André Maginot in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
President (corporate title)
The President is a leader of an organization, community, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position is loosely defined; the powers of the president vary across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order. The term "president" was used to designate someone who presided over a meeting, was used in the same way that "foreman" or "overseer" is used now, it has now come to mean "chief officer" in terms of administrative or executive duties. In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings; such duties at meetings include: calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions to a vote adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the president should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.
In committees or small boards, the president votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the president should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the president only has one vote; the powers of the president vary across organizations. In some organizations the president has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the president only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the president has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the president depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures; such procedures may include suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.
Whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer. Some organizations may have a position of President-Elect in addition to the position of President; the membership of the organization elects a President-Elect and when the term of the President-Elect is complete, that person automatically becomes President. Some organizations may have a position of Immediate Past President in addition to the position of President. In those organizations, when the term of the President is complete, that person automatically fills the position of Immediate Past President; the organization can have such a position. The duties of such a position would have to be provided in the bylaws. Bennett, Nathan. Riding Shotgun: The Role of the COO. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5166-8. National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee. Spotlight on You the President. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-15-3
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i
A sabre or saber is a type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the early modern and Napoleonic periods. Associated with Central-Eastern European cavalry such as the hussars, the sabre became widespread in Western Europe in the Thirty Years' War. Lighter sabres became popular with infantry of the late 17th century. In the 19th century, models with less curving blades became common and were used by heavy cavalry; the last sabre issued to US cavalry was the Patton saber of 1913. Szabla wz. 34 was the last sabre issued to the Polish cavalry, in 1934. The military sabre was used as a duelling weapon in academic fencing in the 19th century, giving rise to a discipline of modern sabre fencing loosely based on the characteristics of the historical weapon in that it allows for cuts as well as thrusts. English sabre is recorded from the 1670s, as a direct loan from French, where the sabre is an alteration of sable, in turn loaned from German Säbel, Sabel in the 1630s; the German word is on record from the 15th century, loaned from Polish szabla, itself adopted from Hungarian szabla.
The spread of the Hungarian word to neighboring European languages took place in the context of the Ottoman wars in Europe of the 15th to 17th centuries. The spelling saber became common in American English in the second half of the 19th century; the origin of the Hungarian word is unclear. It may itself be a loan from South Slavic, from a Common Slavic *sablja, which would derives from a Turkic source. In a more recent suggestion, the Hungarian word may derive from a Tungusic source, via Kipchak Turkic selebe, with metathesis and apocope changed to *seble, which would have changed its vocalisation in Hungarian to the recorded sabla (perhaps under the influence of the Hungarian word szab- "to crop. Though single-edged cutting swords existed in Ancient and early Medieval Europe, such as the Greek makhaira and the Germanic seax, the direct predecessor of the sabre appears in the context of the Eurasian steppes in the medieval period, connected to the Magyars and the Turkic expansion; these oldest sabres had a slight curve, down-turned quillons, the grip facing the opposite direction to the blade and a sharp point with the top third of the reverse edge sharpened.
The introduction of the sabre proper in Western Europe, along with the term sabre itself, dates to the 17th century, via the influence of the Eastern European szabla type derived from these medieval backswords. The adoption of the term is connected to the employment of Hungarian hussar cavalry by Western armies at the time. Hungarian hussars were employed as light cavalry, with the role of harassing enemy skirmishers, overrunning artillery positions, pursuing fleeing troops. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, many Hungarian hussars fled to other Central and Western European countries and became the core of light cavalry formations created there; the Hungarian term szablya is traced to the northwestern Turkic selebe, with contamination from the Hungarian verb szab "to cut". The original type of sabre, or Polish szabla, was used as a cavalry weapon inspired by Hungarian or wider Turco-Mongol warfare; the karabela was a type of szabla popular in the late 17th century, worn by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobility class, the szlachta.
While designed as a cavalry weapon, it came to replace various types of straight-bladed swords used by infantry. The Swiss sabre originated as a regular sword with a single-edged blade in the early 16th century, but by the 17th century began to exhibit specialized hilt types. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth a specific type of sabre-like melee weapon, the szabla, was used. Richly decorated sabres were popular among the Polish nobility, who considered it to be one of the most important pieces of men's traditional attire. With time, the design of the sabre evolved in the commonwealth and gave birth to a variety of sabre-like weapons, intended for many tasks. In the following centuries, the ideology of Sarmatism as well as the Polish fascination with Eastern cultures, customs and warfare resulted in the szabla becoming an indispensable part of traditional Polish culture; the sabre saw extensive military use in the early 19th century in the Napoleonic Wars, during which Napoleon used heavy cavalry charges to great effect against his enemies.
Shorter versions of the sabre were used as sidearms by dismounted units, although these were replaced by fascine knives and sword bayonets as the century went on. Although there was extensive debate over the effectiveness of weapons such as the sabre and lance, the sabre remained the standard weapon of cavalry for mounted action in most armies until World War I. Thereafter it was relegated to the status of a ceremonial weapon, most horse cavalry was replaced by armoured cavalry from 1930 on. Where horse mounted cavalry survived into World War II it was as mounted infantry without sabres; however the sabre was still carried by German cavalry until after the Polish campaign of 1939, after which this historic weapon was put into store. Romanian cavalry continued to carry their straight "thrusting" sabres on active service until at least 1941. Sabres were used by the British in the Napoleonic era for light cavalry and infantry officers, as well as others; the elegant but effective 1803 pattern sword that the British Government authorized for use by infantry officers during the wars against Napoleon featured a curved sabre blade, blued and engraved by the