Căușeni is a town and the administrative center of Căușeni District, Moldova. Its population at the 2014 census was 15,939, of which 12,056 Moldovans, 1,119 Romanians, 747 Russians, 545 Ukrainians, 204 Bulgarians, 69 Gagauzians, 12 Gypsies, 1,187 other/undeclared; the 17th century Assumption of Our Lady Church is the oldest surviving building in the town. It is set more than 3 feet below ground level and preserves the only medieval fresco in the Republic of Moldova. Executed by Walachian painters in a late Byzantine-Romanian style, the interiors feature religious scenes and iconography in vibrant reds and blues. At one time it was a vibrant Jewish shtetl. In 1897, 45 percent of the population was Jewish. Anatol Petrencu, Moldovan politician Bianna Golodryga, American journalist born in Căușeni World Monuments Fund page on Assumption of Our Lady Church
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
Tiraspol is internationally recognised as the second largest city in Moldova, but is the capital and administrative centre of the unrecognised Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub such as furniture and electrical goods production; the modern city of Tiraspol was founded by the Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups. The city celebrates its anniversary every year on October 14; the toponym consists of two ancient Greek words: Τύρας, the Ancient name for the Dniester River, polis, i.e. a city. Tyras spelled Tiras, was a colony of the Greek city Miletus founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 kilometres from the mouth of the Tiras River. Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins, it was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC.
In 56 AD the Romans made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exist. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths, its government was in the hands of a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The images on its coins from this period suggest a trade in wheat and fish; the few inscriptions extant are concerned with trade. Such ancient archeological remains are scanty, as the city site was built over by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman. During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, inhabited by both ethnic groups; the Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester River, taking territory from the Ottoman Empire. In 1792 the Russian army built fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named Sucleia. Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov is considered the founder of modern Tiraspol; the city took its name from the Greek name of the Dniester River on which it stands.
In 1828 the Russian government established a customs house in Tiraspol to try to suppress smuggling. The customs house was subordinated to the chief of the Odessa customs region, it began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, oil, sugar and other goods. After the Russian Revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital; the republic had Romanian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940. In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forced Romania to cede Bessarabia, it integrated Tiraspol, until part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly formed Moldavian SSR. On August 7, 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken over by Romanian troops. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period all of its Jewish population died: they were slain in situ or deported to German Nazi death camps, where they were murdered.
In 1941 before the occupation, the newspaper Dnestrovskaya Pravda was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region. On April 12, 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of Moldavian SSR. On January 27, 1990, the citizens in Tiraspol passed a referendum declaring the city as an independent territory; the nearby city of Bendery declared its independence from Moldova. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, some local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government for nationalization. On September 2, 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; the new republic was not recognized by Soviet authorities. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester River declared independence as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with Tiraspol as its capital, it was not recognized by the international community.
On July 1, 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools has been the subject of negotiations with the government since 2000; the tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that used the Moldovan language in the Latin script. According to the official PMR view, this is considered as Romanian. Moldovan, written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR; some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester. Tensions have been expressed in terrorist incidents. On July 6, 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus. On August 13, 2006, a grenade explosion in a trolleybus injured ten. Tiraspol features a humid continental climate that borders an oceanic climate and has transitional features of the humid subtropical climate due to its warm summers.
Summers are mild, with average monthly temperatures at around 21 °C in July a
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Florești, is the capital city and industrial and commercial center of Floreşti District of Moldova. It is located on the river Răut; the name comes from the Romanian word floare. The old name of the settlement was Rădiul Florilor, a derivative from the Romanian word for "flower"; the city is located on the river Răut, a tributary of the Dniester. Florești is governed by the City Council and the City Mayor, both elected once every four years; the current mayor is Iurie Ţap. Saul Perlmutter Vitalie Ciobanu Nicolae Timofti
Soroca is a city and municipality in Moldova, situated on the Dniester river about 160 km north of Chișinău. It is the administrative center of the Soroca District; the city has its origin in the medieval Genoese trade post of Olchionia, or Alchona. It is known for its well-preserved stronghold, established by the Moldavian prince Stephen the Great in 1499; the origins of the name Soroca are not known. Its location is only a few kilometers from the Moldova-Ukrainian border; the original wooden fort, which defended a ford over the Dniester, was an important link in the chain of fortifications which comprised four forts on the Dniester, two forts on the Danube and three forts on the north border of medieval Moldova. Between 1543 and 1546 under the rule of Peter IV Rareș, the fort was rebuilt in stone as a perfect circle with five bastions situated at equal distances. During the Great Turkish War, John III Sobieski's forces defended the fort against the Ottomans, it was of vital military importance during the Pruth River Campaign of Peter the Great in 1711.
The stronghold was sacked by the Russians in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War. The Soroca Fort is an important attraction in Soroca, having preserved cultures and kept the old Soroca in the present day; the locality was extended in the 19th century, during a period of relative prosperity. Soroca became a regional center featuring large squares, modernized streets, grammar schools and conventionalized churches. In the Soviet period, the city became an important industrial center for northern Moldova. Soroca was known for producing grapes, wheat and tobacco in 1919; the climate in Soroca is a warm-summer subtype of the humid continental climate. The population was estimated at 35,000 in 1919, it consisted of Jews. Romanians and Russians lived in the city; the city once had a Jewish population of around 18,000 but they are only 100 today and 20 of them are considered Jewish according to the halakha. In 2012, Soroca had an estimated 37,500 inhabitants; the city has a sizable Romani minority and is popularly known as the "Romani capital of Moldova."
The Mayor of Soroca is head of the executive branch of Soroca City Council. Samuel Bronfman, a Canadian entrepreneur, former owner of Seagram Alexandru Cimbriciuc Arkady Gendler - Yiddish Singer Sofia Imber, a Venezuelan journalist, founder of the Contemporary Art Museum of Caracas Kira Muratova, a Soviet and Ukrainian film director and actress Nicolae Soltuz, a member of Sfatul Ţării Robert Steinberg, a Canadian mathematician Leonte Tismăneanu, a Romanian communist activist Eugen Ţapu, a protester in the post-election riots in Chișinău who died while in police custody Gheorghe Ursu, a Romanian construction engineer Observatorul de Nord, a newspaper from Soroca, founded in 1998 Vocea Basarabiei, 67,69 and 103.1 Soroca is twinned with: Flămânzi, Romania Suceava, Romania History of the Jews in Bessarabia Romani people in Romania Armenians in Moldova Soroki/Soroca at Miriam Weiner's Routes to Roots Foundation Soroca, Moldova at JewishGen
Hîncești is a city and municipality in Moldova. Hîncești is situated on 33 km southwest of the Moldovan capital, Chișinău. Since 2003 it has been the seat of Hîncești District. Hîncești was established in 1500 AD as Dobreni. Within the Russian Empire it was known under the Russified name Gincheshty, but in Romanian Hîncești. In 1940 the name was changed to Kotovskoe after Grigore Kotovski, born there, but from 1941 to 1944 it was again known as Hîncești. Before WWII, the Jewish community was rather large, in 1930, there were 1.523 Jews living there. In July 1941, an Einsatzgruppen of Romanian gendarmes murdered more than 100 Jews in a mass execution perpetred in a trench outside the town. From 1945 to 1965 it was called Kotovskoe. Since 1990 it is again called Hîncești. In 1890 Hîncești had 3,098 people. By 1970 the population was 14.3 thousand, by 1991, 19.3 thousand. At the 2006 census it had 19.5 thousand residents. There are four Lyceum in Hîncești: Mihai Viteazul Lyceum M. Lomonosov Lyceum Mihai Sadoveanu Lyceum M. Eminescu Lyceum Timotei Batrinu Scoala de Arte Leonid Abramovich Anulov, a Soviet intelligence officer, organizer of clandestine intelligence networks in Switzerland.
Grigory Ivanovich Kotowski, Soviet military leader and Communist activist. Yankl Yankelevich, Jewish poet who wrote in Yiddish Hîncești is twinned with: Ploiești, Romania Or Akiva, Israel