A Heliport is by definition an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, and includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is an airport suitable for use by helicopters. Designated heliports typically contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area, in some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, other terms used to refer to a heliport are, Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop, the only reference of this term in the U. S. Helideck - Used to describe the area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land. The airspace immediately surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface and this area coincides in shape and size with the designated take-off and landing area.
This surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation, the Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions. These are, the Touchdown and Liftoff area, the Final Approach and Takeoff area, the TLOF is a load-bearing, generally paved area, normally centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off. The FATO is an area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF, the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO. In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Generally heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft, the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or even to the citys main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving.
Some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the needs of executives or clients. Many of these sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example, police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, and larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport. Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into, some large trauma centers have multiple heliports while most small hospitals have just one. The National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers, while heliports can be oriented in a any direction they will have generally have very definitive approach and departure paths
A relief airport is an airport that is built or designated to provide relief or additional capacity to an area when the primary commercial airport reach capacity. In some cases a relief airport is a one that is designated to handle a specific class of aircraft such as general aviation. The advantages of an airport are clear. Less obvious are the capacity gains from moving general aviation from an airport to a different facility. This spreads out the aircraft over an area generally improving air traffic in the entire community
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association is a Frederick, Maryland-based American non-profit political organization that advocates for general aviation. The organization started at Wings Field in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, on 24 April 1932, The Philadelphia Aviation Country Club was founded at Wings Field. The country club was the location of meetings of members that founded AOPA, AOPA incorporated on May 15,1939, with C. Towsend Ludington serving as the first president, AOPAs membership consists mainly of general aviation pilots in the United States. AOPA exists to serve the interests of its members as aircraft owners and pilots, and to promote the economy, utility, in 1971 the organization purchased Airport World Magazine, moving its operations to Bethesda, Maryland. With 384,915 members in 2012, AOPA is the largest aviation association in the world, although since 2010 it has decreased in membership from 414,224, a loss of 7% in two years. AOPA is affiliated with similar organizations in other countries though membership in the International Council of Aircraft Owner.
AOPA Foundation, is AOPA’s 501 charitable organization, the foundations four goals are to improve general aviation safety, grow pilot population and improve community airports, and provide a positive image of general aviation. AOPA Political Action Committee, is just for AOPA members, through lobbying, it represents the interests of general aviation to Congress, the Executive Branch, and state and local governments. The AOPA PAC campaigns in favor of federal and local candidates that support their policies and oppose those who do not through advertising, GA Serves America, was created to promote general aviation to the public. Legal Services Plan/Pilot Protection Services, provides AOPA members with legal defense against alleged FAA enforcement charges as well as obtaining an FAA flight medical. Enrollment in Pilot Protection Services is only open to AOPA members, the Legal Services Plan was combined with the former medical program in May 2012 under the name Pilot Protection Services. The Legal Services Plan was created in June 1983, AOPA sponsors its own Fly-In and open house in Frederick Maryland.
The yearly event started in 1991 with 125 aircraft, by 2001, the attendance grew to 760 aircraft. The event was cancelled for five years after the September 11th attacks, and airspace changes, canadian Owners and Pilots Association – similar organization established in Canada in 1952
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body, Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, the largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the worlds first airline and it was founded on November 16,1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. The first fixed wing scheduled air service was started on January 1,1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, the four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands KLM, Colombias Avianca, Australias Qantas, and the Czech Republics Czech Airlines.
The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, using a fleet of former military Airco DH. 4A biplanes that had been modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris - Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH. 16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather and began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract, six Royal Air Force Airco DH. 9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force, the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère, known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919, in its first year, the D. L. R. Operated regularly scheduled flights on routes with a length of nearly 1000 miles. Network was more than 3000 km long, and included destinations in the Netherlands, another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921. It was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, and is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a Royal predicate from Queen Wilhelmina. Its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, in 1921, KLM started scheduled services
General aviation is the term for all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to corporate business jet flights, the majority of the worlds air traffic falls into this category, and most of the worlds airports serve general aviation exclusively. General aviation covers a range of activities, both commercial and non-commercial, including flying clubs, flight training, agricultural aviation, light aircraft manufacturing. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK,96 per cent are engaged in GA operations, there are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, and 10,000 certified glider pilots. Some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities, GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency.
The main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, general aviation is particularly popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft. In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S, aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, Aviation accident rate statistics are necessarily estimates. In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours
As social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000.
To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million people