Flawn Academic Center
The Peter T. Flawn Academic Center is an undergraduate library and "technology and collaboration" facility located on the University of Texas at Austin campus; the center, named after former university president Peter T. Flawn in 1983, opened between 1963 and 1964. Upon its opening, the building featured the first open-stack library on campus for undergraduates along with much of the Humanities Research Center. Among the permanent displays in the Center's Leeds Gallery is a re-creation of Perry Mason creator Erle Stanley Gardner's study along with personal effects. Charles Umlauf's sculpture The Torchbearers is located at the front of the building; the undergraduate library was constructed at a cost of $4.7 million, not including the price of the 60,000 volumes it housed. In 2005 the library underwent a major change by removing 90,000 volumes to other libraries within the university system and replacing them with "250 desktop computers... 75 laptops available for checkout, wireless Internet access, computer labs, software suites, a multimedia studio, a computer help desk and repair shop, a café."
According to Fred Heath, vice provost for the general libraries, claimed that the University of Texas remains the nation's fifth-largest academic library with more than 8 million volumes. The fourth floor contains the Humanities Research Center's Leeds Gallery. Peter T. Flawn Academic Center: Hours
Firehall Arts Centre
The Firehall Arts Centre is an arts centre in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The building falls within the borders of Gastown. Firehall is a small building built as a fire station in 1906. Three theatre companies are based out of Firehall: Touchstone Theatre, Firehall Theatre Company, Axis Mime. Firehall is devoted to exhibiting dance, performance art, new plays. Firehall is Vancouver's foremost exhibitor of experimental theatre; the theatre has a 150-seat capacity. St. James Anglican Church is diagonally opposite the intersection from Firehall; every year, Firehall hosts a dance festival called "Dancing on the Edge" that lasts two weeks
The Floridsdorfer Athletics Sports Club is a football club from the 21st Viennese district of Floridsdorf. Floridsdorfer won the Austrian football championship in 1918 and are playing in the Austrian Football First League; the club colors are white. Austrian Championship: 1917–18 As of 3 October, 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 17 June 2016From 1930 onwards Marko Arnautović Robert Dienst Auguste Jordan Trifon Ivanov Ernst Ocwirk Peter Pacult Krzysztof Ratajczyk Official website
Faisalabad Arts Council
Faisalabad Arts Council is an arts center in Faisalabad, Pakistan. It was established in 1982 by the Government of Punjab, now working under the'Punjab Arts Council', it was designed by Nayyar Ali Dada and its current building was completed in 2006. Its chairman is the Commissioner of Faisalabad Division. Tariq Javaid is the resident director of arts council. Official website Faisalabad Arts Council on Facebook
Colombian Air Force
The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia. The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Military Forces of Colombia charged, according to the 1991 Constitution, with working to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's airspace and to defend its sovereignty, territorial integrity and constitutional order, it is one of the largest American air forces and has increased its activity due to important roles in the fight against narco-terrorism. The FAC has been used in observation and aerial combat missions since the Colombian-Peruvian war of 1932 and operated during the Second World War in the islands of San Andrés, it has never assisted in ousting an elected government by force, but the FAC helped quell many rebellions. Military aviation began in Colombia in 1919 with the creation of a military aviation school for the Colombian Army. By Law 15 of 1916 of September 7 two commissions were sent overseas to study new technological advancements in aviation, cavalry and trains.
Officers pertaining to the Colombian Army were sent to take a course on flight training on techniques and tactics. The school was created in Colombia along with the Colombian National Army Aviation as a fifth regiment by Law 126 of 1919 of December 31 authorized by President of Colombia, Marco Fidel Suárez; the unit was activated on February 15, 1921 in Flandes, Department of Tolima with the support of a French mission led by Lieutenant Colonel Rene Guichard. The Aviation School had 3 Caudron G.3 E-2, 3 Caudron G.4 A-2 and four Nieuport Delage 11 C-1. The school was closed due to financial hardships in 1922; the School of Military Aviation was reopened on November 8, 1924 in Madrid, Department of Cundinamarca with the support of a Swiss mission headed by Captain Henry Pillichody. The aircraft used for training were 4 Wild WT and 8 Wild X performing the first air review on August 7, 1927. On December 28, 1928 the first combat aircraft was shown in Colombia, the Curtiss Falcon O-1. On September 1, 1932, Peruvian civilians crossed into Colombian territory and invaded the town of Leticia in the Colombian Amazon claiming that the town was Peruvian territory.
The Colombian military aviation only had 11 instructors, four Curtiss-Wright CW-14R Osprey air combat support planes and one Curtiss Falcon O-1. The military aviation received full financial support from the Congress of Colombia. Colombia bought aircraft from Germany and the United States, while others were activated from the airline operating in Colombia SCADTA and their pilots, which included some German citizens, one of these was Major Herbert Boy; the imported aircraft were 4 Junkers F.13, 4 Junkers W 34 and 3 Junkers K 43, 6 Junkers Ju 52, 2 Dornier Merkur II, 4 Dornier Wal, 20 Curtiss Falcon F-8F and 30 Curtiss Hawk II F-11C. The contingent was sent to southern Colombia to fight Peruvian forces with the main mission of delivering supplies to the front lines, aerial reconnaissance and air to land attacks; the fleet was divided into three squadrons with Puerto Boy as the main camp site. Support bases were in Caucaya airstrip, El Encanto, Puerto Arica, La Pedrera and Tarapacá; the main combat operations started on February 14, 1933 in Tarapacá where the Peruvian garrison was bombed by seven Colombian aircraft and assaulted by land forces.
On March 26, in the village of Guepi eleven Colombian planes and two cannon boats bombarded Peruvian positions and took over the town. The last military actions of the conflict with Peru were on May 8, 1933 and in which there was an aerial engagement between the two forces. Peruvian planes were attacking the fluvial fleet of Colombia over the Algodón River and were surprised by the Colombian squadron. One of the Peruvian aircraft, a Douglas O-38P was taken to Colombian territory. On May 24, 1933 a cease fire was declared after an agreement was reached with the intervention of the League of Nations; the town of Leticia was returned to Colombia. The captured plane was returned to Peru; as a result of the war, four pilots died in four accidents during non-combat related actions. Among these was one of the German pilots. Four planes were lost in these accidents a Falcon O-1, an Osprey C-14, a Junker F-13 and a Curtiss F-11; the diplomatic breach between Colombia and the Axis countries was declared on December 18, 1941, when President Eduardo Santos took the decision following the Japanese attack on military bases, naval and U.
S. carriers at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Thereafter, the Colombian government introduced special measures to limit and counter the Axis military action in areas of national jurisdiction. On June 23, 1942 a German submarine attacked and sank the schooner Colombian "Resolute", 50 miles northwest of the island of San Andrés; the same schooner had rescued some Marine officers and 23 British Royal Navy survivors of a capsized ship, 200 miles north of Cartagena just five days before. Following these events, the government took the decision to patrol and monitor the Pacific Coast and the Colombian Caribbean coast; the Palanquero Air Base commanders decided to move one fighter squadron and a Combat Reconnaissance Squadron, consisting of F-8 Falcon aircraft, to Barranquilla. In 1943, the Falcons were replaced by the AT-6 Texan; this Squadron was active until 1945. In 1935 the first combat monoplanes made of aluminum were purchased by the Colombian Air Force. While the war was ongoing in southern Colombia, the Air Force built bases in th
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, metallic and is called the coordination centre, a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds those of transition metals, are coordination complexes. A coordination complex whose centre is a metal atom is called a metal complex. Coordination complexes are so pervasive that their structures and reactions are described in many ways, sometimes confusingly; the atom within a ligand, bonded to the central metal atom or ion is called the donor atom. In a typical complex, a metal ion is bonded to several donor atoms, which can be the same or different. A polydentate ligand is a molecule or ion that bonds to the central atom through several of the ligand's atoms; these complexes are called chelate complexes. The central atom or ion, together with all ligands, comprise the coordination sphere; the central atoms or ion and the donor atoms comprise the first coordination sphere.
Coordination refers to the "coordinate covalent bonds" between the central atom. A complex implied a reversible association of molecules, atoms, or ions through such weak chemical bonds; as applied to coordination chemistry, this meaning has evolved. Some metal complexes are formed irreversibly and many are bound together by bonds that are quite strong; the number of donor atoms attached to the central atom or ion is called the coordination number. The most common coordination numbers are 2, 4, 6. A hydrated ion is one kind of a complex ion, a species formed between a central metal ion and one or more surrounding ligands, molecules or ions that contain at least one lone pair of electrons. If all the ligands are monodentate the number of donor atoms equals the number of ligands. For example, the cobalt hexahydrate ion or the hexaaquacobalt ion 2+ is a hydrated-complex ion that consists of six water molecules attached to a metal ion Co; the oxidation state and the coordination number reflect the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in the complex ion.
However, the coordination number of Pt2+2 is 4 since it has two bidentate ligands, which contain four donor atoms in total. Any donor atom will give a pair of electrons. There are some donor groups which can offer more than one pair of electrons; such are called polydentate. In some cases an atom or a group offers a pair of electrons to two similar or different central metal atoms or acceptors—by division of the electron pair—into a three-center two-electron bond; these are called bridging ligands. Coordination complexes have been known since the beginning of modern chemistry. Early well-known coordination complexes include dyes such as Prussian blue, their properties were first well understood in the late 1800s, following the 1869 work of Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand. Blomstrand developed; the theory claimed that the reason coordination complexes form is because in solution, ions would be bound via ammonia chains. He compared this effect to the way. Following this theory, Danish scientist Sophus Mads Jørgensen made improvements to it.
In his version of the theory, Jørgensen claimed that when a molecule dissociates in a solution there were two possible outcomes: the ions would bind via the ammonia chains Blomstrand had described or the ions would bind directly to the metal. It was not until 1893 that the most accepted version of the theory today was published by Alfred Werner. Werner’s work included two important changes to the Blomstrand theory; the first was that Werner described the two different ion possibilities in terms of location in the coordination sphere. He claimed that if the ions were to form a chain this would occur outside of the coordination sphere while the ions that bound directly to the metal would do so within the coordination sphere. In one of Werner’s most important discoveries however he disproved the majority of the chain theory. Werner was able to discover the spatial arrangements of the ligands that were involved in the formation of the complex hexacoordinate cobalt, his theory allows one to understand the difference between a coordinated ligand and a charge balancing ion in a compound, for example the chloride ion in the cobaltammine chlorides and to explain many of the inexplicable isomers.
In 1914, Werner first resolved the coordination complex, called hexol, into optical isomers, overthrowing the theory that only carbon compounds could possess chirality. The ions or molecules surrounding the central atom are called ligands. Ligands are bound to the central atom by a coordinate covalent bond, are said to be coordinated to the atom. There are organic ligands such as alkenes whose pi bonds can coordinate to empty metal orbitals. An example is ethene in the complex known as Zeise's salt, K+−. In coordination chemistry, a structure is first described by its coordination number, the number of ligands attached to the metal. One can count the ligands attached, but sometimes the counting can become ambiguous. Coordination numbers are between two and nine, but large numbers of ligands are not uncommon for the lanthanides and actinides; the number of bonds
The FA Cup known as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world, it is named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2019 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the FA Women's Cup; the competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system – all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League and the English Football League, several hundred "non-league" teams in Steps 1 to 6 of the National League System. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12; the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the final. Entrants are not seeded, although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds – the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.
The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper. In the modern era, only one non-league team has reached the quarter-finals, teams below Level 2 have never reached the final; as a result, significant focus is given to those "minnows" who progress furthest if they achieve an unlikely "giant-killing" victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been five actual cups. Winners qualify for the Europa League and a place in the FA Community Shield match. Chelsea are the current holders. Arsenal are the most successful club with 13 titles. Arsène Wenger is the most successful manager in the history of the competition, having won seven finals as manager of Arsenal. In 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.
On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the FA Secretary C. W. Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March 1872. Wanderers retained the trophy the following year; the modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced. Following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, did not resume until 1919–20; the 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until 1980–81.
Having featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the 2001–2006 finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff; the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria. All clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the next six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season. All clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium, it is rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.
Manchester United did not defend their title in 1999–2000, as they were in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles; the club claimed. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the 1999–2000 league title by an 18-point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship; the withdrawal from the FA Cup, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation. Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only six clubs remaining: Cardiff City, Swansea City, Newport County, Merthyr Town and Colwyn Bay. In the early years other teams from Wales, Ireland a